فهرست مطالب

Herbmed Pharmacology - Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hamidu Usman *, Muhammad Awwal Tijjani, Abudlkarim Hassan, Zainab Babagana Aji Pages 61-67
    Introduction
    The use of plants as medicine is as old as chemistry and common to all societies including the African, notably some parts of Northern Nigeria. Infectious diseases are among the causes of mortality and morbidity in rural areas endemic with hygienic problems in most developing countries including Nigeria. Two plant species with similar ethnomedical reports from different families were used in this study against some microorganisms. Their phytochemicals were also evaluated.
    Methods
    The leaf samples of Punica granatum and Waltheria indica were prepared and independently extracted with 80% methanol using maceration technique. The extracts were concentrated to dryness at reduced pressure and then subjected to phytochemical evaluation. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated using hole-in-plate disc diffusion technique.
    Results
    The phytochemical results of both extracts revealed the absence of anthraquinones. However, both extracts showed the presence of cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids; while alkaloids were found in W. indica. The antimicrobial susceptibility study showed dose-dependent pattern with the highest dose (80 mg/hole) showing inhibition zone of 23.67 ± 0.47 and 23.33 ± 0.47 mm, respectively by P. granatum and W. indica against Streptococcus pyogenes while at 20 mg/hole inhibition was noted as 8.67 ± 0.47 and 7.00 ± 0.00 mm against Escherichia coli for P. granatum and W. indica, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study scientifically support the use of P. granatum and W. indica in folklore medicine for the cure of infections by microbes.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Phytochemical evaluation, Herbal medicine, Medicinal plants, Punica granatum, Waltheria indica
  • Emmanuel Ayodeji Ayeni *, Ahmed Abubakar, Garba Ibrahim, Vallada Atinga, Zainab Muhammad Pages 68-73
    Introduction
    Carrot is a rich source of anthocyanins, carotenoids, vitamins A, B and C. The aerial parts are used as livestock feed in some parts of Northern Nigeria with little or no scientific evidence of its nutritional potential. This study established the phytochemical, nutritional and antioxidant potentials of carrot aerial parts.
    Methods
    The proximate and elemental analyses of the aerial parts were determined using Association of Official Analyst Chemist (AOAC) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for quantification of antioxidant properties in the crude extracts.
    Results
    The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of steroid/triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and saponins in ethylacetate and methanol crude extracts. The proximate analysis revealed crude protein (14.59%), lipid (10.37%), fibre (9.07%), carbohydrate (51.81%), moisture (10.23%) and the ash content (12.99%). The aerial parts were rich in P (11.00 mg/L), Na (5.38 mg/L), Fe (3.19 mg/L), K (2.25 mg/L), Ca (2.02 mg/L), Mn (1.15 mg/L), Mg (1.02 mg/L), As (0.83 mg/L), Se (0.40 mg/L), Zn (0.26 mg/L), Cu (0.13 mg/L), Cd (-0.02 mg/L), Cr (0.02 mg/L), Ni (0.17 mg/L) and Pb (0.04 mg/L). The antioxidant activity showed that ethylacetate and methanol extracts had EC50 of 86.89 ug/mL and 166.79 ug/mL, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Daucus carota aerial parts are rich in nutritional compositions and may be used as livestock feed supplements and also as vegetables for mankind. Its utilization could be incorporated in daily diets and boost food security in developing countries.
    Keywords: Daucus carota, Proximate, Antioxidant, Spectrophotometry, Carrot
  • Mohammad Rabbani, Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi, Masoumeh Karimi-Firozjai, Mostafa Ghannadian * Pages 74-78
    Introduction
    Stachys lavandulifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety. Our previous study showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of the plant had substantial anxiolytic action in mice. The present study was aimed to investigate the main constituent responsible for the observed effects.
    Methods
    Ethyl acetate extract was fractionated using column chromatography. Yielded fractions (FR1-4) at 50 mg/kg, and diazepam at 0.5 mg/kg were tested on the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Bioactive fraction was subjected to more purification on repeated chromatography columns. The isolated compound was identified based on 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-Mass spectra.
    Results
    In the time spent in open arm, Fr1, and Fr3 did not show any significant effect on mice behavior, Fr2 marginally decreased the percentage of spent time by -8.4%, and Fr4 significant increased in the time spent in the open arms by 15.7%. In the open arm entry number Fr1, and Fr2 did not show any significant effect on mice behavior, Fr3 marginally increased the percentage of open arm entries by 7.9 %, and Fr4 significantly increased the open arm entry by 18.2%. The bioactive fraction (Fr.4) was subjected to more purification. Phytochemical analysis of Fr4 lead to the identification of 4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavon (apigenin).
    Conclusion
    Semi-polar sub-fraction of S. lavandulifolia showed anxiolytic effects by increased time spent and the entry numbers in the open arms comparable to diazepam in the EPM model in mice. Bioactivity-guided isolation leads to the characterization of apigenin with flavone structure as its active constituent. Hence, it might be introduced as a new anxiolytic agent.
    Keywords: Anxiety, Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl., Plus, maze, Apigenin
  • Fahimeh Alizadeh, Alireza Khodavandi *, Samad Esfandyari, Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht Pages 79-87
    Introduction
    Usually, for treatment of fungal infections, antifungals such as azoles are used, but one of the biggest problems faced in clinical practice is the emergence of resistance for most of these drugs. Antifungal drugs derived from plants may alleviate this problem. The aims of this study were to analyse the ergosterol and gene expression profiles of ERG genes in Candida albicans treated with carvacrol.
    Methods
    We used carvacrol and conducted a series of follow-up studies to examine the inhibitors of Candida species isolated from immunocompromised patients. Antifungal susceptibility test, time-kill study, ergosterol binding assay and ergosterol content were investigated. Eventually, the expression of ERG3 and ERG11genes was carried out to investigate the inhibitory properties of antifungal activity against Candida albicans using quantitative real time RT-PCR.
    Results
    Carvacrol was able to inhibit Candida species and reduce time-kill kinetic in C. albicans. This phytoconstituent acted by binding to ergosterol in the fungal membrane and caused a reduction of 52% of the ergosterol content compared to the untreated growth control. Finally, carvacrol displayed significant down-regulation of ERG3 and ERG11genes in C. albicans.
    Conclusion
    These results provide proof of concept for the implementation of carvacrol inhibitors of Candida species. In addition, ERG3 and ERG11 genes could be probable target of carvacrol against C. albicans.
    Keywords: Carvacrol, ERG3, ERG11, Fluconazole
  • Sri Utami *, Qomariyah Romadhiyani Sachrowardi, Ndaru Andri Damayanti, Arroyan Wardhana, Irfan Syarif, Said Nafik, Betharie Cendera Arrahman, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Wahyu Widowati Pages 88-93
    Introduction

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical that belongs to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The excess amount of NO in body generates physical changing on skin as a consequence of alteration in connective tissue through formation of lipid peroxides, cell content, and enzymes. These free radicals induce damage to extracellular matrix (ECM) and are responsible in reducing skin elasticity. Antioxidants possess significant role in delaying aging process by scavenging free radicals and preventing collagenase and elastase enzymes activities. This study aimed to evaluate antioxidants, anticollagenase and antielastase potentials of ethanolic extract of ripe sesoot (Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq.) fruit (GpKar) as antiaging remedy.

    Methods

    Antioxidant activity was performed by NO scavenging activity assay, while anti-aging activity was performed through inhibitory effects of collagenase and elastase activities.

    Results

    In antioxidant activity, GpKar had lower NO scavenging activity (IC50=1530.34 μg/mL) compared to xanthone (IC50=85.40 μg/mL). In collagenase inhibitory activity, GpKar also had lower inhibition collagenase activity (IC50= 1169.31 μg/mL) compared to xanthone (IC50= 286.32 μg/mL). In elastase inhibitory activity, GpKar had lower inhibition elastase activity (IC50= 152.93 μg/mL) compared to xanthone (IC50= 21.26 μg/mL).

    Conclusion

    In summary, GpKar and its compounds possess antioxidant, anticollagenase, and antielastase activities for antiaging, and might be beneficial in these subjects.

    Keywords: GpKar, Anticollagenase, Antiaging, Antioxidant, Antielastase
  • Bahman Moradi-Podeh, Alireza Kheirollah, Fatame Ahmmadpour, Nasrin Lamuchi-Deli, Seyede-Arefe Payami, Ghorban Mohammadzadeh * Pages 94-99
    Introduction
    Zingiber officinale Roscoe, commonly known as ginger, is used as a cooking spice and therapeutically for its antioxidant and androgenic activities. We investigated the effects of Z. officinale hydro-alcoholic extract on HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase level in the testis of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
    Methods
    The current experimental study was performed on four groups of male Wistar rats one of them was kept as a healthy control, while the others were rendered diabetic via a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg kg-1). One group was considered as diabetic control; while the others were given orally hydro-alcoholic extract (200 and 400 mg kg-1) for 56 consecutive days. Body weight, blood glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated using standard methods. The HMG-COA reductase level was determined by western blot analysis.
    Results
    Treatment with the extract resulted in a significant reduction of serum glucose concentration and HMG-COA reductase level in the rat’s testis compared to diabetic controls (P
    Conclusion
    Ginger has a potential influence on the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis by modulating of HMG-COA reductase level. The results provide scientific evidence to confirm the traditional use of Z. officinale in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Streptozotocin, induced diabetes, HMG, COA reductase, Zingiber officinale, Medicinal plant
  • Hassan Sadraei *, Mostafa Ghanadian, Golamreza Asghari, Nastaran Sekhavati Pages 100-105
    Introduction
    Aerial parts of Dracocephalum kotschyi have been used as antispasmodic agents in Iranian traditional medicine. Recent pharmacological studies confirmed antispasmodic activity of D. kotschyi extract. The objective of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activities of apigenin and luteolin to find out if they are responsible for the spasmolytic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi.
    Methods
    Aerial parts of D. kotschyi were extracted with ethanol. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi, apigenin and luteolin were examined on KCl and/or acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions in rat isolated ileum.
    Results
    Hydroalcoholic extract of D. kotschyi concentrations-dependently inhibited KCl and ACh induced contractions with IC50 values of 41 ± 10 μg/mL and 133 ± 19 μg/mL, respectively. Apigenin concentrations-dependently inhibited KCl and ACh induced contractions with IC50 values of 57 ± 12 μM and 80 ± 18 μM, respectively. Luteolin concentrations-dependently inhibited KCl induced contractions with IC50 values of 68 ± 14 μM. Loperamide reduced both KCl and ACh induced contraction with IC50 values of 189 ± 44 nM and 82 ± 20 μM, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In this study apigenin and luteolin were identified as two active ingredients responsible for antispasmodic activities of D. kotschyi extract.
    Keywords: Dracocephalum kotschyi, Apigenin, Luteolin, Antispasmodic, Ileum, Medicinal plants
  • Hamidu Usman *, Abubakar Umar Kaigama, Olajide Olusola Ibisagba, Ali Fulata, Ibrahim Ahmed Pages 106-111
    Introduction
    Plant is a friend to man in survival as it gives him food, shelter and medicine beyond the ages of human civilization. This paper evaluates the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activities undertaken on Terminalia avicennioides and Ficus polita.
    Methods
    Phytochemical screening was conducted on the root extracts according to the standard procedures. The hole-in-plate disc diffusion technique was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of the crude saponins and crude flavonoids against the tested microorganisms used in this study.
    Results
    The results revealed the presence of alkaloids flavonoids, saponins, sterols, phlobatannins and terpenoids. The antimicrobial activities presented as diameter of inhibition zones showed high activity value of 34.70±0.57 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration of 100 mg/mL and by crude flavonoids portion of T. avicennioides while the least activity was shown by crude saponins portion of F. polita at a concentration of 25 mg/mL with value of 9.67±0.58 mm against Shigella dysenteriae. The crude flavonoids inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at all concentrations while resisitances were found towards the crude saponins portion of both plants. Hence, flavonoids extractives from the two plants appeared to be more effective than the saponins against the tested microorganisms.
    Conclusion
    These findings justify their potential use as drug-plant against bacterial-related infections in African traditional medical system and also suggest a possible insight for the isolation of bioactive chemotherapeutic agents from T. avicennioides.
    Keywords: Antimicrobial, Ficus polita, Terminalia avicennioides, Phytoconstituents, Medicinal plants
  • Ali Nikpay, Maryam Soltani * Pages 112-118
    Introduction
    Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of trichomoniasis in birds. Although metronidazole is now the drug of choice for treatment of this infection, several studies reported metronidazole-resistant strains of T. gallinae. So it is important to explore for effective alternative compounds such as herbal extracts for treatment of avian trichomoniasis. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extracts of Pulicaria dysenteric and Lycopus europaeus on the growth of T. gallinae trophozoites.
    Methods
    The methanolic extracts were obtained from aerial parts of plants. The anti-trichomonas activities of P. dysenterica at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/mL and L. europaeus at the concentrations of 227, 113.5, 56.75, 28.37, 14.1 and 7.09 mg/mL after 0, 1, 3, and 6 hours exposure time were evaluated.
    Results
    The results showed that both extracts decreased the viability of T. gallinae. The methanolic extract of P. dysenteric and L. europaeus showed 10% and 60% growth inhibition (GI %) at the highest concentration immediately after exposure. P. dysenteric methanolic extract at a concentration of 6.25 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of parasite after 6 hours which was the minimum inhibitory concentration, while the lowest concentration of L. europaeus extract that showed 100% GI was 28.37 mg/mL that affected trophozoites after 6 hours.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results, both extracts revealed significant growth inhibitory effect on T. gallinae, suggesting the potential use of these plants in preparation of new anti-trichomonas compounds.
    Keywords: Anti, trichomonas, Pulicaria dysenterica, Lycopus europaeus, Methanolic extract, Trichomonas gallinae, Metronidazole
  • Fatima S. Ibrahim, Zainab Mohammed, Aliyu Nuhu *, Salisu Shehu, Najma Ilyas Pages 119-123
    Introduction
    The leaves of Allophylus africanus are traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as arthritis, rheumatism, gout, hemorrhoids, dysentery, venereal diseases and malnutrition. This study was carried out to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro-methanol leaves extract of A. africanus on laboratory rats.
    Methods
    Allophylus africanus leaves were extracted with 80% methanol using cold maceration for 5 days. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis, acute toxicity study and anti-inflammatory evaluation using carrageenan induced paw edema in laboratory rats.
    Results
    The phytochemical screening of the aqueous methanol leaves extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, steroids/triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The extract was found to have median lethal dose (LD50) of 3807.89 mg/kg body weight orally and the aqueous methanol leaves extract at doses 250 and 1000 mg/kg produced significant anti-inflammatory effect at the 3rd, 4th and 5th hours with the effect being dose dependent at the 4th and 5th hours. There were remarkable reductions of paw edema in the rats.
    Conclusion
    Allophylus africanus leaves has anti-inflammatory activity which explains the basis of its use in traditional medicine in the management of inflammation and related inflammatory disorders.
    Keywords: Allophylus africanus, Anti, inflammatory, Acute toxicity, Carrageenan