فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Research Forum - Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:9 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • Alireza Talebi *, Manoochehr Alimehr, Mohammad Hossein Alavi, Gholamreza Najafi, Naeimeh Simaei Pages 1-6
    Fertility reduction due to sub-fertile males is a major concern in breeder flocks. Phenotypic traits of broiler breeder males and their relationships with fertility can be used as reliable indicators for identification and removal of sub-fertile males from the breeder flocks. This study was conducted to investigate semen traits (semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm count) and testes histomorphometric features including tubule differentiation index (TDI), spermiation index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI) and mitotic index (MI) of broiler breeder males with the same age but different phenotypic traits. According to phenotypic traits, 12 broiler breeder males (Ross-308 strain) were classified into three equal groups. Group 1: roosters with fertile phenotypic traits (fertile), group 2: roosters with the lowest fertile phenotypic traits (sub-fertile) and group 3: roosters with moderate fertile phenotypic traits (moderate). The results confirmed potential relationship between phenotypic traits and fertility in broiler breeder males. Semen traits and histomorphometric features of broiler breeder male's testis of the group 3 were more similar to those of the fertile roosters. Therefore, it can be concluded that exclusion of these roosters from the breeder flock may have undesirable effects on flock fertility.
    Keywords: Breeder male, Histomorphometry, Semen, Testis, Phenotype
  • Seyedeh Missagh Jalali *, Masood Ghorbanpour, Mohammad Razi Jalali, Aria Rasooli, Pegah Safaie, Farideh Norvej, Imaneh Delavari Pages 7-12
    The main objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence and potential causative factors of Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in native cattle and water buffaloes from southwest of Iran. Fifty-three anemic animals (37 cattle and 16 buffaloes) were studied. A full clinical history and physical examinations were undertaken for all animals. Four clinically healthy cattle and four healthy buffaloes were also used as control animals. Blood samples were subjected to a complete blood count, Coombs’ test, erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and serum biochemical analysis. IMHA was diagnosed in 12 (32.43%) cattle and 6 (37.50%) buffaloes based on the Coombs’ test. Underlying or concurrent diseases, including theileriosis, anaplasmosis, vaccination, and pneumonia were detected in 11 cattle and four buffaloes. Primary or idiopathic IMHA was identified in one cattle and two buffaloes that their Coombs’ test was positive. Hematologic and biochemical findings in the cattle with IMHA included a nonregenerative anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased osmotic fragility, hyperbilirubinemia and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. It can be concluded that IMHA occurs in a significant proportion of anemic cattle and river buffaloes in southwest of Iran. The occurrence of IMHA in both cattle and buffaloes is mostly secondary to infectious diseases especially theileriosis and anaplasmosis. Clarification of the mechanisms of primary or idiopathic and secondary IMHA in cattle and buffaloes require further studies.
    Keywords: Buffaloes, Cattle, Coomb's test, IMHA
  • Somayeh Sadeghi, Leili Aghebati-Maleki Orcid *, Samira Nozari, Jafar Majidi Pages 13-18
    Antibodies are a class of biomolecules that has an important role in the immune system and lots of applications in biotechnological methods and in pharmaceutics. Production and purification of antibodies in laboratory animals is one of the first ways to manufacture of these prominent tools. The obtained antibodies from these process could be used in various types of bioassay techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay, etc. Also, antibodies employed in diagnostics applications in humans and other animals in order to detect specific antigens.In this study, we aimed to produce and purify anti-dog IgG via immunizing rabbits with dog IgG in combination with Freund's adjuvant. Polyclonal IgG were purified by ion exchange chromatography and then the purified antibody was labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HPR). Direct ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer and cross-reactivity of HRP conjugated IgG. The purity of various IgG preparations and the optimum dilution of prepared HRP conjugated IgG, respectively, was about 95.00% and 1:8000. This study showed that efficiency ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG antibodies. This antibody could be a useful tool for future dog immune diagnosis tests. This product characterization shown here sets the foundations for future work on dog IgGs.
    Keywords: Anti, dog IgG, ? HRP, conjugation, ? Ion, exchange chromatography, ? Polyclonal antibody
  • Vahid Fathipour, Zohreh Khaki *, Seyyed Mehdi Nassiri Pages 19-26
    Recently, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), in particular the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, generally considered as tumor markers for clinical applications. A longitudinal 2-years follow-up survey was performed on dogs with cutaneous tumor. Serum samples were obtained from 22 dogs with different cutaneous tumors and 22 health dogs at the time of surgery and one month, three months and one year after surgery. Gelatin zymography, hematological and biochemical assessment were performed for all serum samples. The serum alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs with malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in dogs with benign tumors and control cases. Latent forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected in all of the tumor cases. Gelatin zymography showed active form of MMP-9 in 12 cases (three benign and nine malignant tumors) and active form of MMP-2 in one fibrosarcoma case. Serum activity of active-MMP-9 and total MMP-9 was significantly higher in dogs with cutaneous tumors than those in controls. Tumor cases had higher serum activity of active-MMP-9 rather than controls. MMPs and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum were decreased significantly after surgery. Only one case with perianal gland adenoma showed recurrence of tumor four months after surgery in which active form of MMP-9 had identified one month before recurrence. According to the findings, it will be useful to measure ALP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the serum of dogs with cutaneous tumor for determination of tumor behavior before surgical treatment.
    Keywords: Canine cutaneous tumours, Gelatin zymography, MMP, 2, MMP, 9
  • Akbar Anaeigoudari, Fatemeh Norouzi, Azam Abareshi, Farimah Beheshti, Azita Aaghaei, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mahmoud Hosseini * Pages 27-33
    In the present study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa)on synaptic plasticity impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats was investigated. Fifty-eight rats were grouped and treated as follows: 1) control (saline), 2) LPS, 3) LPS-N. sativa,and 4) N. sativa. In a Morris water maze test, the escape latency and traveled path to find the platform as well as time spent and the traveled distance in target quadrant (Q1) were measured. Long term potentiation (LTP) from CA1 area of hippocampus followed by high frequency stimulation to Schafer collateral was studied and slope, slope 10-90% and amplitude of field excitatory field potential (fEPSP) were calculated. The escape latency and traveled path in LPS group were significantly higher than those in the control group while, in LPS-N. sativa group these parameters were significantly lower than those in LPS group. The rats in LPS group spent less time and traveled shorter distance in Q1 than the rats in the control group while, in LPS-N. sativa group the rats spent more time and traveled longer distance than the rats in LPS group. LPS significantly decreased slope, slope 10-90% and amplitude of fEPSP while, in LPS-N. sativa group these parameters increased compared to LPS group. The results indicated that the hydro-alcohol extract of N. sativa protected against synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory impairment induced by LPS in rats.
    Keywords: Lipopolysaccharide, ? Long term potentiation, Nigella sativa L, Spatial memory, Synaptic plasticity
  • Mohammad Afkhami-Ardakani, Shapour Hasanzadeh *, Rasoul Shahrooz, Norouz Delirezh, Hassan Malekinejad Pages 35-41
    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is known to reduce fertility. The protective effects of Spirulina plantesis (SP) against CP-induced testicular toxicity were investigated. Male Wistar rats were categorized into eight groups (n = 7). Four groups of rats were administered CP at a dose of 5 mg in 5 mL distilled water kg-1 per day orally. Two of these groups were received SP (500 and 1000 mg kg-1 per day) orally after CP administration. One of these groups was also received vitamin E (100 mg kg-1 per day) intraperitoneally. A vehicle treated control group, two SP control groups (500 and 1000 mg kg-1 per day) and a vitamin E control group were also included. Body and testes weights, sperm count, serum levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), histological and histomorphometric alternations in testes were investigated after four weeks. The CP-treated group exhibited significant decreases in the body and testes weights and spermatogenic activities. Several histological alterations were observed in this group. The CP treatment caused a significant reduction in sperm count, in serum level of GPx, as well increased serum concentration of MDA. The SP co-administration caused an increase in GPx serum level, a decrease in MDA serum level and improvements in histological and histomorphometric alternations. Vitamin E co-treatment showed partial recovery in above-mentioned parameters. These results suggest that SP due to a reduction in oxidative stress has more effective protection against CP-induced reproductive damages in rat than vitamin E.
    Keywords: Cyclophosphamide, ? Male reproductive toxicity, ? Oxidative stress, ? Rat, ? Spirulina plantesis ?
  • Mohammad Amin Gholami, Masihollah Forouzmand, Mokhtar Khajavi, Shima Hossienifar, Reza Naghiha * Pages 43-48
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different corn processing methods on rumen microbial flora, histomorphometry and fermentation in fattening male lambs. Twenty male lambs (average age and weight of 90 days and 25.00 ± 1.10 kg, respectively) were used in a completely randomized design including four treatments and five replicates each over 80 days long period: 1) Lambs fed ground corn seeds; 2) Lambs fed steam-rolled corn; 3) Lambs fed soaked corn seeds (24 hr) and 4) Lambs fed soaked corn seeds (48 hr). At the end of the experiment, three lambs of each treatment were slaughtered and samples were collected for pH, volatile fatty acids, amylolytic, proteolytic, cellulytic and heterophilic bacteria and protozoa assessment. The number of proteolytic bacteria in soaked corn seeds was significantly increased in comparison with other treatments. The thickness of wall, papillae and muscular layers of rumen in the soaked corn seeds treatment was significantly increased. Overall, from a practical point of view, soaked corn processing could be generally used in lambs fattening system.
    Keywords: Bacteria, ? Corn processing, ? Fattening lambs, ? Histology, ? Rumen?
  • Mostafa Soufizadeh, Rasoul Pirmohammadi *, Yunes Alijoo, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar Pages 49-57
    Indigestible neutral detergent fibers (iNDF) accurately predict forage digestibility when measured in situ. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rumen incubation times on the estimated concentrations of iNDF for four forages (alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and orchard grass), four concentrates (barley grain, soybean meal, beet pulp and wheat bran) and two total mixed ration samples in dairy cows. The iNDF contents of the samples were evaluated in 10 feeds using three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in a completely randomized design. Five grams of the samples were incubated up to 240 hr. The iNDF fraction was significantly affected by incubation time for all of the tested samples, but the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF) was not affected for wheat straw, barley grain and wheat bran (32.32, 10.11 and 20.60 g per 100 g of dry matter, respectively). For most of concentrates feedstuffs, the iNDF fraction could be measured after 120 hr of incubation, while for forages ruminal incubation should be lasted up to 240 hr. Statistically significant differences (p
    Keywords: Cell wall, Fiber digestibility, Fragility, Rumen fiber pools
  • Neda Abedpour, Mojdeh Salehnia *, Nassim Ghorbanmehr Pages 59-66
    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) known as a serum-derived growth factor, is involved in several cell physiological functions in the female reproductive system including: oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and embryo implantation by its transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of LPA on in vitro follicular development of mouse ovarian tissue. Neonatal mouse ovarian tissues were cultured in five different concentrations of LPA (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM). The developmental competence and the function of cultured ovarian tissue were assessed by morphological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining and hormonal analysis. The expression of LPA receptor (LPAR 1-4) genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The proportion of preantral follicles and the level of E2 hormone were significantly higher in the 20 µM LPA-treated group than those in the other treatment groups. There was a significant difference in the expression of LPAR 1-4 genes in 20 µM LPA treated group in comparison with 0 µM LPA (control group) treated and non-cultured groups. In addition, the expression of LPAR1 gene was higher than other receptor genes in all studied groups. In conclusion supplementation of the media with 20 µM LPA, could improve the survival and developmental potential of follicles and it had positive effects on cell function and stimulation of E2 synthesis in mouse whole ovarian tissues.
    Keywords: In vitro culture, ? Lysophosphatidic acid, ? Lysophosphatidic acid receptor, ? Mouse, ? Ovary
  • Masoud Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri *, Mohammad Rashno, Pezhman Mahmoodi, Mahshid Ariya Pages 67-72
    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are invaluable molecules which have several advantages over polyclonal immunoglobulins (Igs) including consistency and higher specificity and hence can be used in biological researches, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The present study was conducted to produce monoclonal antibody against chicken IgG.TheIgG molecules were purified from chicken serum and used as antigens to immunize several mice. Thereafter, a well-immunized mouse was chosen and used for fusion process. After production of hybridoma cells, several rounds of cloning were carried out and produced MAbs were examined by various immunological assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western and dot blotting. Assessment of grown hybridomas indicated that only one clone (5B8) has produced desired MAb against chicken IgG. Meanwhile, using an indirect ELISA, it was shown that this MAb successfully recognizes chicken IgG molecules attached to influenza virus nucleoprotein. Evaluation of cross reactivity of MAb 5B8 with several avian serum samples revealed that this molecule specifically identifies chicken antibody molecules. However, it also recognized turkey antibodies with less affinity. In addition to research applications like isolation and purification of chicken and turkey IgG molecules, such a MAb can be applied to design and development of various immunoassays (e.g. ELISA) in these avian species.
    Keywords: Chicken, ELISA, Immunoglobulin ?G, Monoclonal antibody
  • Parviz Hassanzadeh, Mehran Moradi *, Nasim Vaezi, Mir-Hassan Moosavy, Razzagh Mahmoudi Pages 73-79
    In recent years, the use of edible coatings as a carrier of food additives and antimicrobial compounds in fishery products has been considered. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of 2% chitosan coating singly or combined with 0.1% grape seed extract (GSE) on microbial (mesophilic and psychrophilic count), chemical (TBA, pH and PV) and sensorial properties of rainbow trout fillet stored at 4 °C over a period of 15 days. The coating had a significant effect in reducing aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial counts. The TBA, PV, and pH of samples of chitosan coating alone or with GSE were lower than control ones which revealed a significant influence of coating on fillet shelf-life. Moreover, chitosan coating represented an equal sensorial quality with control. It was concluded that chitosan coating containing GSE can help to maintain the sensorial quality and increase the shelf-life of fillets at refrigerated conditions.
    Keywords: Active packaging, ? Antimicrobial, ? Chitosan, ? Fillet, ? Grape seed extract
  • Farnaz Malekifard *, Minoo Ahmadpour Pages 81-85
    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most prevalent intestinal protozoa infecting humans and domestic animals. The aim of this study was to identify subspecies of G. duodenalis by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method from fecal samples of naturally infected cattle in the Urmia, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Overall, 246 fecal specimens were collected from the cattle (diarrheic and healthy) and microscopically examined for G. duodenalis. The PCR-RFLP analysis of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus was used to identify the genotypes found in cattle. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified and then specific restriction NlaIV enzyme was used for subspecies detection. Totally, 23 (9.34%) specimens were microscopically positive for giardiacyst out of 246 examined samples. The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed that 19 samples (82.60%) have the genotype E and 4 samples (17.39%) belong to the subgroup AI. Our findings indicated that G. duodenalis infection is prevalent in cattle of Urmia and the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region.
    Keywords: Cattle, ? Giardia duodenalis, ? Glutamate dehydrogenase, ? Iran, ? PCR, RFLP
  • Ý Farkhondeh Pooyanfar, Tahereh Foroutan*, Mojtaba Dashtizad Pages 87-92
    Although the rate of blastocysts implantation of embryos is higher than previous stages but their survival rate is lower than them, which could be attributed to the completely filled blastocoel cavity with liquid and increased possibility of the formation of ice crystals. This liquid could prevent the penetration of cryoprotecting materials into the embryos. In this study, we reduced the volume of blastocoel before vitrification and compared survival rate and quality of in vitro embryos through klf4 gene expression with control group. In vitro mouse blastocysts were divided into three groups. In group 1, the blastocoel volume of blastocysts were reduced before vitrification and warming. In group 2, blastocysts were just vitrified and warmed and the blastocysts of group 3 (control group) were not undergone any specific treatment and were not vitrified. The expression ofklf4 gene was assessed using real-time PCR technique. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s post hoc tests. Our results showed that blastocoel volume reduction before vitrification significantly increased the hatching rate of the blastocysts from the zona pellucida and klf4 gene expression compared to vitrified group. Blastocoel volume reduction before vitrification could be used as an efficient method for improving the rate of in vitro fertilization.
    Keywords: Artificial collapse, ý Blastocyst, ý In vitro fertilization, ý klf4 gene, ý Vitrification
  • Pouria Motamed Chaboki, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi*, Vahid Karimi, Hamed Abdollahi, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Hossein Hosseini, Reza Khaltababdi Farahahni, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Mohammad Hossein Falah, Hussein Rezaee Pages 93-97
    Avianmetapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and swollen head syndrome in chickens. Four aMPV subgroups (A-D) have been reported previously based on their genetic and antigenic differences. Evidence suggests that the live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the epidemiology of the avian viral diseases. A total number of 450 oropharyngeal samples from eight different species of birds (migratory and local) were collected from LBMs of Gilan province, Iran, from October to December 2016. The presence of aMPV was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on nucleoprotein gene. The aMPV was detected in 30.60% of the examined birds including chickens (37.00%), turkey (33.00%), Eurasian teal (25.00%), common blackbird (33.00%), and Eurasian woodcock (25.00%). Bioinformatics analysis and a phylogenetic tree based on partial nucleotide sequences of the N gene showed that the detected aMPVs were belonged to subtype B. This is the first report of aMPV in non-commercial birds in Iran. Knowledge of the frequency and types of infected birds with pneumoviruses allow a better understanding of the epidemiology of aMPV in Iran.
    Keywords: Avian metapneumovirus, ý Iran, ý Live bird market, ý Phylogenetic analysis