فهرست مطالب

Arthropod-Borne Diseases - Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Zahra Saeidi, Hassan Vatandoost Pages 1-15
    Iran has a wide variety of zoogeographical regions and different seasons. Here are some important mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes normally live in waters. Its aquatic insect fauna is highly unexplored. To being resolved this faunal gap, a variety of literature records from previous century in different parts of Iran was reviewed. In some southern and southeastern foci in Iran, Malaria is still a main endemic disease which is unstable with two seasonal spring and autumn peaks even though Iran is lunching Malaria elimination. This review article showed the wide variety of aquatic insects throughout the country. Researchers can discuss water pollutant and its quality by using aquatic insect fauna as well as biological control for vectors. Types of aquatic in­sects and macroinvertebrates sampling can be useful for water quality monitoring as indicators. Looking at aquatic insects’ life in water could be one of the most cost-effective and the easiest method to assess the water contaminations by different pollutants and will provide a guideline for scientific communities and environmental agencies for decision making.
    Keywords: aquatic insects, Arthropod-borne diseases, Iran, water quality
  • Hamid Kassiri, Majid Zarrin, Rahele Veys-Behbahani Pages 16-23
    Background
    Cockroaches are the most prevalent domestic pests of a worldwide distribution. They were recognized as possible vectors of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in residential dwellings and hospital environ­ments. The present study isolated and identified yeasts and filamentous fungi from digestive tract of American cock­roaches, collected from three different residential regions of Iran.
    Methods
    Seventy cockroaches were sampled using direct collection (hand catch), vacuum cleaner and sticky traps in Ahvaz, Iran in 2009–2010. Their medically important fungal microorganisms were isolated from digestive tract using standard mycological methods. Filamentous fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examina­tion. Yeasts were identified by API ID32C-32100 kit.
    Results
    A high percentage of cockroaches (88.6%) were detected to carry fungi of medical importance. Overall, 23 fungi species/genera were isolated from the American cockroache's alimentary tract. The fungi isolated from cock­roaches, from the residential regions were species of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucorales, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mycelia, Chrysosporium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Zygosaccharomyces, and Debaryomyces. Candida spp. (41.4%), Aspergillus spp. (37.1%) and Rhodotorula spp (27.1%) were the most common fungi recovered on cockroaches. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the commonest species of the genus Candida. In addi­tion, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the most frequent species of the genus Aspergillus.
    Conclusion
    American cockroaches may carry pathogenic fungi in the urban areas of Ahvaz.
    Keywords: Periplaneta americana, American cockroach, Residential environments, Fungal flora, Isolation
  • Fatemeh Ghorbani, Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Reza Abai, Hassan Nikookar, Ahmad Ali Enayati Pages 24-30
    Background
    Culex pipiens is a mosquito species distributed in different parts of Iran. It is known as vector of some diseases as well as a nuisance insect. A successful control campaign needs to study the biology, ecology and suscep­tibility status of the target pest. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility status of Culex pipiens to some insecticides recommended by WHO in north of Iran.
    Methods
    Larvae were collected from different breeding places in Sari County by standard dipping method. They were reared to adult stage in an under standard condition. World Health Organization (WHO) standard test kits and the diagnostic dose of 12 imagicides were used for adults, while two larvicides were used against larvae.
    Results
    The least and highest mortality rates after exposure to insecticides were 4.7% (Propoxur 0.1%) and 76.4% (Etofenprox 0.5%), respectively. Larvae showed high resistance to temephos (19.19%) and malathion (54.63%). Culex pipiens was found to be resistant to all used insecticides/larvicides at diagnostic dose.
    Conclusion
    Intensive use of pesticides against agriculture and urban pests increased the resistance level of this spe­cies to different insecticides, although currently there is no control program against it. Study on the mechanisms of resistant in this species to different insecticides is recommended.
    Keywords: Culex pipiens, Insecticide resistance, Temephos, Propoxur, Deltamethrin
  • Khalil Pourkhalili, Hossein Fatemikia, Euikyung Kim, Navid Reza Mashayekhy, Naser Mohammadpour Dounighi, Abdollah Hajivandi, Yaghoob Hassan, Ramin Seyedian Pages 31-40
    Background
    We investigated the hemodynamic changes (Inotropic, chronotropic and arrhythmogenic) in intrave­nously envenomed anesthetized rats with Hemiscorpius lepturus venom. The neutralizing potencies of different drugs and commercial antivenom were assessed simultaneously.
    Methods
    Different doses of the crude venom (100, 200 and 400μg/rat) were injected during five minutes via the femoral vein and cardiovascular changes were recorded in rats in Razi Institute Corporation, Karaj, Iran in 2017. The drugs (Atropine, lidocaine, propranolol and prazosin) were injected before the venom for determination of the coun­teracting effects. Different volumes (100, 500 and 1000µl) of the antivenom were pre envenomed to neutralize cardi­ovascular changes.
    Results
    Temporary hypertension and bradycardia with no arrhythmogenic effects were depicted within twenty minutes. There was a difference in arterial pressure between the venom (400μg/rat) and the vehicle at 8 minutes (114.68±5.1mmHg versus 70.2±4.3mmHg). Elevation of the mean arterial pressure was inhibited by propranolol (2 mg/kg) and neutralized by prazosin (1mg/kg) while lidocaine (4mg/kg) and atropine (1mg/kg) had no effects. Pre­medication with Iranian commercial antivenom (1000μl) produced surprisingly temporary hypertension compared to the vehicle (140.84±4.5 versus 84.3±3.2). It had no neutralizing properties on blood pressure variation before the venom injection. Volume-expanded hypertension phenomenon was ruled out in a parallel study.
    Conclusion
    This venom has vasoconstrictive effects in rats probably due to the presence of norepinephrine like ma­terials in its content or liberated from adrenal gland inhibited by prazosin premedication. The neutralizing effects of antivenom on venom-induced hypertension are questionable.
    Keywords: Hemiscorpius lepturus, Vasoconstriction, Polyvalent antivenom
  • Abdolali Golpayegani, Ali Reza Moslem, Amir Ahmad Akhavan, Azam Zeydabadi, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ahmad Allah-Abadi Pages 41-66
    Background
    Leishmaniasis is a re-emerging serious international public health problem, and both visceral and cu­taneous types of leishmaniasis became important endemic diseases in Iran. In this study, the relationships between environmental factors (vegetation and elevation) and the prevalence of diseases have been investigated.
    Methods
    All international and national online databases were searched by terms such as leishmaniasis, incidence, prevalence and other related words attributed to Iran and published until first quarter of 2015. The developed data­base in Excel, later imported to the ArcMap for spatial analyst and mapping. Afterwards, the software was used for modeling the relationship between the prevalence/incidence and environmental variables (vegetation and elevation) by both linear and nonlinear regression.
    Results
    After mapping the prevalence data from 144 studies, considering non-parametric ANOVA, the tendency of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis to presence in high elevation and high vegetation was more than Anthroponotic and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. While linear regression showed weaker results for modeling, however, additive nonparametric regression analysis suggested that 10km buffers for elevation, and 10 as well as 50km buffers for veg­etation could contribute in better fitness in modeling of these variables.
    Conclusion
    The detailed maps for distribution of disease concluded. The nonlinear regression is a reliable predictor of the relationship between environmental factors and disease incidence, although more and wide researchers are needed to confirm it.
    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, GIS, Remote sensing, Environmental variables, Nonlinear regression
  • Molecular-Based Detection of Leishmania infantum in Human Blood Samples in a New Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Lorestan Province, Iran
    Leila Masoori, Farnaz Kheirandish, Ali Haghighi, Mehdi Mohebali, Behnaz Akhoundi, Niloofar Taghipour, Latif Gachkar, Ali Chegeni-Sharafi, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri Pages 67-75
    Background
    The fatal form of leishmaniasis is visceral form (VL), found in some of the countries in the world. Visceral leishmaniasis has been reported sporadically from all provinces in Iran, including Lorestan. This study aimed to characterize parasite species in DAT positive and some of the DAT negative human blood samples of Delfan district, Lorestan Province, central Iran.
    Methods
    Blood samples were collected from different geographical areas of Delfan. Serum was used for DAT test and remained part of molecular study. DNA was extracted by using DNG-plus extracted kit (Cinagen, Iran). Poly­merase chain reaction amplification of Leishmania kDNA and PCR-RFLP of ITS1 was done to identify Leishmania species. Some amplicons were sequenced, submitted to GenBank and analyzed by BLASTn.
    Results
    Expected band of kDNA for L. infantum (720bp) was amplified in 16 out of 186 (8.6%) samples which showed previously anti-Leishmania antibody at different titers or were negative serologically. Using BLASTn, 93% similarity with L. infantum has been shown. The rDNA-ITS1 was amplified only in 9 samples (4.7%). RFLP pattern was similar to what expected for L. infantum.
    Conclusion
    A new emerging hypo-endemic focus, caused by L. infantum, is going to be established in Delphan District, Lorestan Province. Further studies on vector and reservoirs are necessary for the region and other parts of Lorestan Province.
    Keywords: Visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, kDNA, ITS1, Iran
  • Sajjad Fekri, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Yousef Salari, Parivash Davoodian, Reza Safari, Habib Dadvand, Mohsen Mohebbi, Hossein Issazadeh, Zahra Kamali Pages 76-84
    Background
    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne diseases in Iran, existing in a variety of forms ranging from cutaneous to visceral forms. Jask County has been recognized as an endemic focus of the disease in the southeastern region of Iran. This study analyzed the situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) during 2006–2014.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on CL data got from health sector. ArcGIS 10.3 was exploited for the spatial analysis of CL. Potential high-risk areas of the disease regarding it's current geographical distribution were considered.
    Results
    Overall, 874 CL cases had been registered in the district health center, implying an average incidence of 162.5per 100000. More than 90% of the cases emerged from rural areas. The disease is geographically distributed in the southeastern regions of Jask County. Over one-third of the total study area can be classified as high-risk areas, involving 61 villages with a total population of about 18000. Remarkably, altitude and total precipitation were real­ized to play key roles in CL transmission within the study area.
    Conclusion
    Although the national protocol for the control of ZCL recommends the substantial destruction of rodent colonies serving as reservoirs of the disease in infected foci, critical improvement of the knowledge of the residents in these areas is crucial for community-based management of the disease in Jask County.
    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Epidemiology, Spatial analysis, Iran
  • Hassan Vatandoost, Arezoo Rustaie, Zeynab Talaeian, Mohammad Reza Abai, Fatemeh Moradkhani, Mahdi Vazirian, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Mohammad Reza Shams-Ardekani, Mahnaz Khanavi Pages 85-93
    Background
    Malaria, a mosquito-transmitted disease, is still a major human health problem all over the world. Lar­viciding is a component of comprehensive control program to overcome the disease. Negative aspects of synthetic insecticides application, such as environmental safety concerns, have favored use of natural insecticides.
    Methods
    Larvicidal activity of essential oil, extracts and fractions of a wild grown and a cultivated type of Bunium persicum fruits against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was assessed according to the method described by WHO.
    Results
    Bunium persicum showed remarkable potency against An. stephensi larvae. LC50 values for essential oil, total extract, petroleum ether fraction and methanol fraction were 27.4284, 64.9933, 85.9933 and 255.7486ppm for wild type, and 21.3823, 63.2580, 62.7814 and 152.6357ppm for cultivated one.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study suggest B. persicum as a valuable source of natural insecticides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.
    Keywords: Anopheles stephensi, Bunium persicum, larvicidal activity, extract, essential oil
  • Aparecida de Carvalho *, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Trindade Maia, Carlos Fernando Salgueirosa de Andrade, Leucio Câmara Alves Pages 94-99
    Background

    Dirofilaria immitis is an important filarioid transmitted by culicids. The vector role of these arthropods may be influenced by biological events as melanization against D. immitis larvae. This study aimed to detect the occurrence of melanization in Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus experimentally infected with D. immitis.

    Methods

    Five populations (Cx. quinquefasciatus RECIFE (P1), Ae. albopictus RECIFE (P2), Ae. aegypti RECIFE (P3), Ae. aegypti CAMPINAS (P4) and Ae. aegypti ROCKEFELLER (P5)) were artificially fed with infected blood containing D. immitis microfilariae. Ten mosquitoes per day from each population were dissected for 14 days.

    Results

    Melanized larvae of D. immitis were observed in all population except in P3. The period in which melanized larvae were found varied from the third to the 14th day post-infection. Difference in the number of these larvae was observed between P5 and P2–P3 (P

    Conclusion

    The melanization did not seem to be a limiting factor to the development of this filarioid in these local Brazilian Culicidae populations.

    Keywords: Mosquitoes, Immune response, Dirofilariasis, Vector
  • Hamed Ebrahimzadeh, Leyla badlo Page 100

    In recent years, Iran has made significant advances on the fight against malaria with a stated objective of complete elimination. Ac­cording to the report of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the annual number of malaria cases have been reduced from 12294 in 2000 to 787 in 2012, 366 cas­es in 2014 and only 150 cases reported in 2015. In 2009, WHO malaria report, an­nounced Iran was in the pre-elimination phase (1).