فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Seyed Mohammad Hadi Mirab, Mohammad Barbarestani, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei, Soodeh Shahsavari, Mohammad Bagher Minaeii Zangi * Pages 3-8
    Introduction
    Disc degeneration is a natural aging process characterized by changes in appearance and chemical structure of the disc. This degeneration leads to back pain. In regard to the limitation of current therapeutical methods for patients with degenerated discs, arthroplasty has been suggested as an alternative method. To manufacture artificial discs for Iranians, determining normal lumbar intervertebral disc dimensions is necessary. Thus, we measure the most important dimensions of normal lumbar intervertebral discs in Iranians using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
    Methods
    we studied lumbar intervertebral discs of 34 people who were 40-60 years old in Medical Imaging Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital. Out of them, 14 people without herniated disc and any other abnormalities related to spinal column on MRI were selected. There were 7 males and 7 females, and their average age was 48.07 years (range: 40 to 59 years). For accurate measurements, the relevant disc distances were measured by two radiologists and then the mean value for each segment was calculated.
    Results
    The mean (SD) values of anterior intervertebral disc height for L1/L2 to L5/S1 levels were measured and found as follows: 10.82(1.59) mm, 13.09(1.21) mm, 15.21(1.24) mm, 18.14(1.49) mm, 18.71(1.61) mm. The mean (SD) values of middle intervertebral disc height for L1/L2 to L5/S1 levels were measured as follows: 10(1.89) mm, 11.59(1.51) mm, 12.45(1.79) mm, 13.82(1.96) mm, 12.99(2.53) mm. The mean (SD) values of posterior intervertebral disc height for L1/L2 to L5/S1 levels were found as follows: 7.31(1.71) mm, 8.58(1.66) mm, 9.08(1.22) mm, 10.14(1.01) mm, 8.51(1.08) mm. The mean (SD) values of anterior-posterior disc length for L1/L2 to L5/S1 levels were found as follows: 30.23(2.71) mm, 32.03(2.43) mm, 32.86(2.44) mm, 33.08(2.37) mm, 31.33(2.55) mm. The mean (SD) values of transversal disc length for L1/L2 to L5/S1 levels were found as follows: 48.24(2.23) mm, 51.27(1.92) mm, 52.59(1.69) mm, 55.12(1.69) mm, 52.87(2.14) mm.
    Conclusion
    Knowledge of the normal lumbar intervertebral disc dimensions in every society is useful for surgical reconstruction to treat lumbar spine diseases and for medical manufacturers to make proper surgical devices in this regard.
    Keywords: Lumbar intervertebral disc, Magnetic resonance imaging, Degeneration, Measurement
  • Ali Abbasi, Hamid Jalilvand *, Leyla Jalilvand Karimi, Alireza Akbarzade Baghban Pages 9-14
    Introduction
    The Acceptable Noise Level (ANL) evaluates the willingness of a listener to hear a continuous speech in the presence of background noise. ANL is related to some variables. Although many studies were accomplished on the relationship between ANL and hearing aid satisfaction, no study was found for the usage of ANL as the predictor of initial hearing aid acquisition. Therefore, the current study aimed at determining the relationship between the initial acceptance of hearing aid and individual’s ANL. The study also aimed at quantifying human potentials for what is out of their personal control, as well as assessing their commitment in the actions that improve and enrich their quality of life.
    Methods
    A total of 60 patients with hearing loss who were the candidate for wearing hearing aid were participated. ANLs were measured and comprehensive hearing aid counseling was given to the patients. Patients were free to accept or reject using hearing aids. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationships among variables, and the independent t test was used to compare data between the groups
    Results
    The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the acceptance of hearing aid. ANL means in the subjects who accept and reject hearing aid were 7.83 and 11.73, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results showed the correlation between lower ANLs and acceptance of hearing aid and also the correlation between higher ANLs and resistance to get hearing aid. Participants who accepted to take hearing aid had lower ANL mean and the ones who refused to take hearing aid had higher ANL mean.
    Keywords: Acceptable noise level, Cognition, Hearing in noise, Hearing aid acceptance, commitment, Hearing loss, Hearing impaired behavior
  • Sohrab Heydarian, Iraj Pousty *, Hamid Reza Moradi Pages 15-18
    Introduction
    Phasianidae is a non-migratory group of birds belonged to partridges family. One of the well-known species of partridge is Alectoris chukar, which is a medium-sized bird, larger than quails and smaller than pheasants. They are native to Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East and belong to the category of gallinaceous birds. Understanding the physiology and immunology of the lymphoid system is incomplete without knowledge of its basic structure that we are going to examine it in these birds.
    Methods
    Histomorphological studies were conducted on the spleen of 60 fertilized eggs from the healthy Alectoris chukar birds. Eggs were opened and the spleens of Embryonic Day (ED) 10 to 22 were dissected by dissecting microscope. Gross morphological parameters were studied immediately after collection of samples and then the spleen samples were fixed in Bouin’s solution. After tissue processing, spleens were embedded in paraffin and the prepared sections (5–6 μm) were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method.
    Results
    Based on our findings the capsule of spleen was formed by a thin and single layer of the mesothelial cells, on ED 12. At this time, macrophages were observed beneath the endothelium of sinusoids for the first time. The early distinction between the red and white pulp had been obvious on ED 14. The central artery was seen in white pulp of the spleen at ED 20. Reticular cells with large euchromatin nucleus and specified nucleolus were observed in the white pulp. At ED 22, there were Billroth cords in the spleen. Trabecular artery was observed in spleen of the partridge embryos at this time.
    Conclusion
    This study was the first study on histogenesis and histological of spleen were performed in prenatal partridge.
    Keywords: Histomorphology, Spleen, Partridge, Prenatal
  • Fatemeh Ramezani Nowrozani * Pages 19-24
    Introduction
    Arteries are made up three layers; tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia. However, in some part of the artery this structure may change. The greatest change occurs at the junctions and bifurcations. In this regard, we decided to study the renal artery bifurcation just where the renal arteries divide into smaller arteries before entering the kidney.
    Methods
    The structure of renal artery bifurcation was assessed in six normal male dogs by light microscopy. Also the thickness of the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia before and after bifurcation area was measured.
    Results
    Tunica intima cannot be seen in this area and tunica media in one side and tunica adventitia in other side were very thick. It seems that division of renal artery happens with the penetration of tunica adventitia in one side and tunica media in the other side.
    Conclusion
    In this area, the artery has thick tunica media on one side and thick tunica adventitia on the other side and these differences were significant. The circular and longitudinal smooth muscle cells can be seen in renal artery bifurcation. These structures may be due to function of this area to maintain and control blood pressure and prevent artery from bursting and dilation.
    Keywords: Renal artery, Smooth muscle cell, Elastic fibers, Dog
  • Nader Goodarzi *, Ghasem Akbari, Payam Razeghi Tehrani Pages 25-30
    Introduction
    Formaldehyde is one of the most common chemicals used for embalming and as a result teaching anatomy. Because of the adverse effects of formaldehyde on human health and also its environmental complications, this study was conducted to investigate a new solution containing zinc chloride for fixation and preservation of anatomical specimens.
    Methods
    In this study, we used 40% zinc chloride solution (400 g in 1 liter of tap water) combining with 1 liter of glycerin and 200 g thymol per 10 liters solution. One equine (donkey), two carnivores (dog) and one ruminant (goat) were embalmed with the mentioned solution. Two another dogs were also embalmed with only 40% zinc chloride solution. The specimens were dissected after three weeks.
    Results
    Muscular tissue as well as joints were remained soft and flexible. The vessels and nerves were dissected and detected easily. No sign of tissue desiccation was seen. Color of muscular tissues and internal organs were similar to formalin-embalmed specimens. Sedimentation of salt on skin or internal organs was not seen. Similar results were obtained from specimens which embalmed with only 40% ZnCl2 solution.
    Conclusion
    It seems that 40% ZnCl2 solution could embalm and preserve anatomical specimens as well without using formalin, alcohol, glycerin, or thymol.
    Keywords: Anatomical specimens, Embalming, Preservation, Zinc chloride
  • Mohammad Rigi Manesh *, Mohammad Reza Arab, Fereydoon Sargolzaei Aval, Mohamad Ali Mashhadi, Narjes Sargolzaei, Mohsen Mir, Masoud Shahraki Salar Pages 31-36
    Introduction
    Cisplatin is a platinum-based drug widely used for the treatment of different cancers. Cell surface glycoconjugates play an important role in cell-cell interactions. The present investigation was carried out to study the toxic effects of double dose injection of cisplatin on cell surface glycoconjugates in rat as an experimental model.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, 45 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Experimental group E1 and experimental group E2 received two repeated dose of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg of cisplatin, respectively in the beginning of the first and fifth week of the experiment. After 8 weeks of injection, rats were killed. Tissue samples were removed and prepared sections were stained with H&E, PNA (Peanut agglutinin), and UEA (Ulex europaeus agglutinin) methods. Prepared microscopic slides were utilized for both histopathological and morphometrical studies. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests using SPSS.
    Results
    Cisplatin administration induced a significant decrease in internal and external diameters of seminiferous tubules in the experimental groups compared to the control one (P
    Conclusion
    Cisplatin induces a dose-dependent morphological changes of germinal epithelium and extensive changes in distribution pattern of fucose- and Gal/GalNac-containing glycoconjugates in seminiferous epithelium in rats.
    Keywords: Cisplatin, Seminiferous tubules, Glycoconjugates, Spermatogenesis, Rat
  • Integrated Percutaneous Atrial Septal Defect Occlusion and Pulmonary Balloon Valvuloplasty
    Seyed Hassan Voshtani *, Arsalan Salari, Ebrahim Nasiri, Zohre Heidarnejad, Seyed Mahsa Voshtani Pages 37-40
    Introduction
    Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases during childhood. Today, ASD closure is done by occlutech device via cardiac catheterization. ASD repair with transcatheter technique has shown high closure rate. However, coexistence of severe pulmonary stenosis and large defect in atrial septum is rare. When these two problems coexist, the result is inhibition of remarkable left-to-right shunt by obstruction of the RV output flow, which will preserve the pulmonary bed up to adulthood.
    Methods
    A 5-year-old girl with a history of exertional dyspnea and palpitation was referred for the treatment of severe valvar pulmonary stenosis and large ASD. Echocardiography showed a large secundum ASD (16 mm) with appropriate rims and also severe pulmonary valvular stenosis. The patient was candidate for closure of ASD by transcatheter procedure and balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty.
    Cardiac catheterization showed that the right ventricular pressure was 78 mm Hg and pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve was 62 mm Hg, also the ratio of pulmonary blood flow to systemic blood flow was 2.7/1. Anteroposterior and lateral views in the angiography of right ventricle showed severe valvular pulmonary stenosis and poststenotic dilation. Diameter of the ASD size by balloon was 16 mm. Pulmonary valve annulus diameter was 15-16 mm.
    Results
    The patient was picked up for closure of ASD by transcatheter procedure and balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. There was no remaining shunt and complication on transthoracic echocardiography performed immediately and in later follow-ups.
    Conclusion
    Coexistence of severe pulmonary stenosis with a large defect in atrial septum is an uncommon event. Combined transcatheter closure of ASD and pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty is a practicable and effective therapeutic intervention for this problem which will bring satisfying outcomes.
    Keywords: Integrated Percutaneous ASD Occlusion, Pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty