فهرست مطالب

نامه فرهنگستان - سال پانزدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 60، شهریور 1395)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 60، شهریور 1395)
  • ویژه نامه زبان ها و گویش های ایرانی (6)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Vahid Reza Zeini Jahromi * Pages 3-32
    old Iranian speakers limited the meaning of verbs through combining preverbs with them and herewith could make Particle Complex Verbs out of them. In the first phase of long term history of preverbs, different mechanisms were working in the case of grammaticalization to generate them from Proto-Indo-European particle adverbs. Next in the second phase, some other mechanisms made morphological, semantic and phonological changes. They changed preverbs to verbal prefixes and then to dead prefixes. Finally, Iranian languages made new preverbs through changing old adverbs and prepositions and started to use them instead of the old ones. These newly invented preverbs were used vastly in the middle Iranian languages and continued to be used with a few changes even in New Persian. The purpose of this paper is to investigate mechanisms involving the changes of old preverbs from Proto-Indo-European to old Iranian and then to middle Iranian languages.
  • Mohsen Mirzai * Pages 33-53
    In the study of Manichaean’s versified fragments, it must always be considered that these fragments, in general, have been used as a song or as a text’s chant. Therefore, in analysis of each poem, there are some technical terms, which apart from a try to comprehend the rhetorical phrases and discern the terminology, must be scanned carefully according to the musical terms. Due to the text format or usage, some words and phrases are not used in their typical meanings, but in specialized or figurative ones. Therefore, cognition of these terms and paying attention to their secondary meanings are the clue to solve that ambiguity.
    In analyzing these poems, commonly, owing to the lack of firm evidences, the words or phrases have inevitably been translated word-byword or literally by researchers. And somehow for the discovering and discerning the correct meaning of that poetry the syntax has been changed by them. However, that fragment is yet obscure and meaningless, and the researcher’s question marks still exist. This article tries, as much as possible, due to technical and secondary meanings of the words in Manichaean Parthian and Middle Persian poems, to point out some notes and resolve some ambiguities.
  • Askar Bahrami * Pages 55-61
    MƗnnjšþƯhr, son of JࡅuwƗn Jࡅam, high priest of Pars and Kerman Zoroastrians, in ninth century AD, wrote three epistles, as regards the heretical decree of his younger brother, Zadspram, on the Barshnum purification. Zadspram, high priest of SƯrjƗn, had said, that the faithful can perform just a simple fifteen-fold ablution for that complicated religious purifying. In his letters, known as NƗmagƯhƗ Ư MƗnnjšþƯhr, (Epistles of MƗnnjšþƯhr) in Middle Persian, the author acknowledges that he has no skill in secretary. So this text is very sophisticated with a lot of grammatical mistakes, but it contains also some new words, especially religious and legal. In this article, two new words “nišƗn-šnƗsƯh” (semiology) and “MusalmƗnƗn” (Muslims), relying on the evidence of the Epistles, were studied
  • Masoud Mohammadi Rad * Pages 63-91
    Semantic map is a way which represents cross-linguistic regularity in the mapping of meaning on form. Semantic map is a way for showing crosslinguistic variation through meaning. Of course, there are some universal restrictions on these variations. This is against the frequently thought in linguistics that semantics is an area fraught with irregularity and idiosyncrasy (Narrog & Ito 2007: 273). In this article we aim to show polysemy of adpositions in instrumental-comitative area of nine Iranian languages and to show the related semantic map of each language. Narrog’s (2010) semantic map in the area of instrumental related functions is the basis for drawing semantic map of Iranian languages. The results show that each of the Iranian languages has a special place in the instrumental-comitative semantic map and there are similarities as well as differences in the representation of instrumental related functions in these languages. Of course differences are regular and are explainable in the framework of Narrog’s (2010) semantic map.

  • Nezam Emadi * Pages 93-120
    This research studies and describes the verbal system of Galedari, a dialect spoken by the people of Galedar. Galedar is a town in the south of Fars province, neighboring Bushehr province. Galedari as a dialect of Lori, belongs to the south-western branch of New Iranian Languages, which has, for long years, both influenced and been influenced by its neighboring dialects. This research first studies the infinitive construction, present and past stems, past participle, verb endings in present and past tenses, aspect, mood and tense, causative affixes, negation and voice. Then, it proceeds to examine the verb in terms of derivational structure and syntax.
  • Musa Mahmoudzahi * Pages 121-143
    The present paper tries to study the original derivational suffixes of modern Baluchi language (central dialect of Baluchistan, Iran) which is partly affected by modern Persian. The data are mainly collected through field research since there is a lack of an individual dictionary of the dialect, and are meanwhile compared with two monolingual dictionaries (Seyed Ganj (2000) and Labz Balad (2015)) described in terms of: 1) alphabetical categorization according to Persian alphabet; 2) exemplification of each suffix and derivation of it based on all possible structures; 3) description of their use frequency and of their being borrowed or original, and other certain descriptions based on what the case is. The results show that there are 89 derivational suffixes in the above dialect, and suffixial derivation is one of the most productive word-formation processes in Baluchi language.
  • Ruzbeh Tusserkani, Safar Vafadar Dolagh Pages 145-166
    Current spoken languages in the world, are the product of centuries of transmutation within human societies. Languages were not created over night, yet they have transformed through a gradual process in which they have distanced themselves from the spoken words of our ancestors and developed into the modern day languages and dialects in use. The historical journey of our spoken words with their transmutation and evolution, has been the subject of many studies through time. Resemblance between the evolution and diversification of languages with that of living species has promoted scientists to apply the developed models of biological evolution aided by data processing tools developed by the advancements in computer sciences to study the historical evolution of languages and discover affinities and the approximate time of their transmutation from the dialects of their ancestors. Such methods have been utilized to study the genealogy of languages in the past, especially for Indo-European family of languages and dialects. In this article, the authors have utilized prevalent models in evolution biology to chart the genealogy of 49 Iranian (Persian) dialects. It is hoped that advancement of the proposed method will result in collection, documentation and study of all Iranian dialects.