فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Keon-Cheol Lee * Page 1
    Female sex hormones are thought to be important in the histological and functional maintenance of the genitourinary tract. Estrogen deficiency after menopause may be related to urinary symptoms. Postmenopausal atrophic changes cause genital and urinary deterioration and reduce sexual health, resulting in an overactive bladder. Ovariectomized virgin rats appear to be an optimal postmenopausal animal model, as they are free of the confounding effects of delivery and advancing age. Although the exact mechanisms of postmenopausal bladder dysfunction are undetermined, decreased vascularity has been introduced as the primary event resulting in atrophy, with possible underlying mechanisms, which can explain bladder dysfunction. Local administration of estrogen seems to be effective in the management of urinary symptoms in postmenopausal women, and this route of administration has the advantage of alleviating the adverse side effects of systemic replacement.
    Keywords: Menopause, Overactive Badder, Ovariectomy, Estrogen
  • Mina Danaei, Moghadameh Mirzaei, Hossein Safizadeh, Mohammad Shojaei Baghini, Mehrdad Askarian, Mohsen Momeni * Page 2
    Background
    Managing pregnancy complications is a major health concern worldwide. This study aimed at investigating the pregnancy outcomes in mothers and infants in Kerman province and ranking important indicators in different cities of Kerman using cluster analysis method.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, demographic information and pregnancy outcomes were extracted from the mother and infant national system of Kerman province in 2014 and imported into Excel file. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software through clustering.
    Results
    More than 98% of deliveries were performed in hospitals. The prevalence of cesarean section was 44%. Three maternal deaths occurred in hospitals and the prevalence of neonatal death was 0.9%. Approximately, 10.1% of infants born in Kerman had low birth weight. Clustering different cities of Kerman province showed 4 different clusters in Kerman province. Kerman was in a single cluster. Cities with no specialists or those very close to Kerman were in one cluster. Three large cities in the south of Kerman province and Rafsanjan were clustered. Two cities located in the southwest of Kerman were clustered in a group.
    Conclusions
    The rate of cesarean section is high and low birth weight is a health issue in this area. Thus, policymakers should pay more attention to mother and neonate deaths that occur in hospitals. Bad pregnancy outcomes are more frequent in referral cities, as high risk pregnancies are more frequent in such cities. Governments should focus on equipping hospitals in referral cities and build and upgrade hospitals in disadvantaged cities.
    Keywords: Pregnancy Outcomes, Cluster Analysis, Justice
  • Zahra Molazem, Fatemeh Mohseni, Mahnaz Rakhshan *, Sareh Keshavarzi, Masoumeh Younesi Page 3
    Background
    Along with an increase in the rate of cesarean sections, the complications and problems associated with this procedure have also increased in Iran. Factors such as complications associated with caesarean scars, the high cost of chemical treatments, and failure of medications in treatments have led to an increased use of traditional and biological therapies in the healing and preventing of cesarean wound infections.
    Objective
    To determine the effect of an amniotic membrane dressing on cesarean wound healing.
    Methods
    This study is a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical trial. Patients participating in the study were women who underwent cesarean sections at Amir-al-Momenin Hospital in Gerash, Iran. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (N = 45 for each group). In one group, the cesarean wound was dressed using an amniotic membrane; in the control group, the dressing was performed using a simple dressing. The wound healing was assessed by the Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean procedure.
    Results
    The average REEDA score, reflecting wound healing was significantly different between the groups 24 hours after the cesarean section, which proved to be less in the amniotic membrane group (.00 ± .00 vs. 0.60 ± 1.30; P = .003). However, on the 8th day after the cesarean section, there was no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.078).
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed that the application of an amniotic membrane dressing can be helpful in early stage wound healing of cesarean.
    Keywords: Amnion, Cesarean Section, Wound Healing
  • Petra Jansen *, Sandra Kaltner, Lukas Prantl, Britta A. Kuehlmann Page 4
    Background
    Several studies have shown cognitive impairment occurring in patients after treatment of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the mental rotation ability of patients with breast cancer (13 women) and 13 healthy control subjects.
    Methods
    Participants solved a chronometric mental rotation test with object-based and egocentric transformations between May and June 2016 in a laboratory at the Center for Plastic, Aesthetic, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery. Two repeated measure analyses of variance were performed with “stimulus condition”, “group”, and “angular disparity” as independent variables and “reaction time” (RT) and “accuracy rate” as dependent measurements. Furthermore, depression score, physical self-appearance, and cognitive speed were measured. Three separate univariate analyses of variance (significance level alpha = 0.05) were performed with those three measurements as dependent variables and the factor “group”.
    Results
    The findings showed that women with breast cancer differed in their reaction time from subjects in the healthy control group: Women with breast cancer experienced fewer difficulties in solving the egocentric (1813.96 ± 1257.43) compared to the object-based transformations (2236.05 ± 1613.71, P = 0.043). There was no significant difference between the object-based transformation (1706.08 ± 473.11) and egocentric condition (2027.76 ± 932.66) in healthy women (P = 0.218).
    Conclusion
    The results give a hint that relation to egocentric transformations increases in women with breast cancer compared to healthy women.
    Keywords: Mental Rotation, Breast Cancer, Physical Awareness
  • Shabnam Ghazanfari, Sedigheh Ebrahimi, Omid Asemani * Page 5
    Background
    Despite many studies, we are still in need of more investigations aiming at the implementation of patients’ rights in Iran; this would be more important concerning vulnerable groups like women. In this way, we have tried to study how much are Iranian women justified about Iranian patients’ rights charter and how much are their rights observed during hospitalization.
    Methods
    In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 150 competent in-patients were selected by simple random sampling. A previously validated (face, content, and construct validity) and reliable (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92) questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was designed based on the last version of Iranian patient rights charter and included four subscales. The data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using parametric statistics.
    Results
    Patients’ rights charter was practiced weak (0.76 ± 0.24 out of 3) according to the patients. The weakest score was observed for the dimension of ‘accountability and handling of complaints’ (0.09 ± 0.27). Generally, the participants placed a relative importance (justified relatively well) for the charter (2.20 ± 0.46). Additionally, the "importance" of the rights was also significantly different regarding patients’ educational (P
    Conclusions
    According to the findings, more attempts should be implemented aiming at informing and sensitizing women about their rights. Therefore, establishing and/or supporting the following measures could be helpful: hospital and media-based advising programs for both patients and professionals, patients’ rights movements, systematic controls and supervisions and carrying out patients’ rights as a firm policy.
    Keywords: Patient's Rights, Iran, Attitude, Women
  • Farideh Vaziri *, Mina Taheri, Zohreh Tavana Page 6
    Background
    Repeated maintenance intramuscular injections of magnesium sulfate can be painful experiences. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lavender oil on intramuscular injection pain of magnesium sulfate.
    Methods
    This randomized placebo controlled clinical trial was performed on 40 females undergoing postpartum care. The females were assigned to the lavender oil and placebo groups with 20 samples in each group. They received lavender oil inhalation or placebo 10 to 15 minutes before and after injections. The pain during and after the intramuscular injection was assessed using the visual analog scale and verbal reports. In addition, the pain during an intramuscular injection without any intervention was measured and considered as baseline pain.
    Results
    The intensity of pain at baseline had a mean value of 68 ± 23.78, with a median value of 72, and mode of 100. Also, 55% of the females described their pain verbally as severe and very severe. Upon interventions, the 2 groups had no statistically significant differences in relation to the intensity of pain during and after the intramuscular injection (t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively). According to the paired-wise analysis, the intensity of pain during the intramuscular injection upon the intervention was lower than baseline in the lavender essential oil group (P = 0.01). Nevertheless, Fisher’s exact test showed that the female’s satisfaction was higher in the lavender essential oil group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.01).
    Conclusions
    This study supports the use of aromatherapy with the aim to improve patient well-being in painful medical procedures.
    Keywords: Intramuscular Injection, Pain, Essential Oil, Aromatherapy, Magnesium Sulfate
  • Zohreh Yousefi, Amir Hosein Jafarian, Laya Shirinzadeh, Leila Mousavi Seresh, Nooshin Babapour *, Behrouz Davach, Fereshteh Bazmi Page 7
    Introduction
    Isolated metastasis of cervical carcinoma to iliopsoas region might be infrequent and its occurrence is a diagnostic challenge. The aim of this study was to report a case of iliopsoas muscle metastasis from cervical carcinoma.
    Case Presentation
    A 52-year-old multiparous females complaining about post menopause bleeding was referred to the researcher’s oncology department. Gynecological examination revealed cervical mass with involved parameters and biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the patient had a large cystic mass on the lateral side of pelvic area and abdomen. Investigations detected solid ovarian mass associated with a rise of tumor marker CA-125 and CEA levels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT scan reports suggested possible hematoma in iliopsoas muscle. Imaging-guided biopsy detected metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in iliopsoas muscle mass. Based on diagnosis of advance stage cervical cancer, the patient received chemotherapy following adjuvant radiation therapy.
    Conclusions
    Metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix to iliopsoas muscle is considered as a rare event. It is recommended to keep this unusual manifestation in mind.
    Keywords: Iliopsoas Metastasis, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Cancer