فهرست مطالب

Advances in Environmental Health Research - Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/01/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Reza Shokoohi, Abdollah Dargahi, Raheleh Amiri, Zhila Ghavami * Pages 1-8
    Erythrosine B is widely used for dyeing in various applications, especially in the food industry, despite its already proved toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the synthesis process of US/S2O8-2 in removing erythrosine B dye from aqueous solution. In this experimental study, the removal of erythrosine B dye using combined persulfate and 40 kHz ultrasound process was studied. All reactions was conducted in a beaker of 1,000 mL in an ultrasonic bath. The effects of operational parameters such as pH of the solution (3-7), initial concentration of erythrosine B dye (10–100 mg/L), and amount of persulfate concentration (0.001–0.005 mol/L) in different contact time were investigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency increased significantly by increasing the oxidant concentration, then a steady trend was observed in the removal of erythrosine B dye. The process used US/S2O8-2 at pH:3, concentration of persulfate at 0.003 mol/L, and the time of 60 min for achieving the highest removal efficiency (98.91%). Ultrasonic device alone had little effect in the removal of this dye. The effects of ion changes from calcium chloride on the performance of the US/S2O8- process were ineffective for erythrosine B dye. The results of the US/S2O8-2 process application in the removal of erythrosine B dye indicated that this process has a suitably proper ability for erythrosine B dye removal and could be used as an effective method for industrial wastewater treatment.
    Keywords: US_S2O8-2 process_Erythrosine B dye_ultrasonic_aqueous solutions
  • Rouhhollah Shokri, Abdollah Dargahi *, Shima Rezaei, Aliasghar Valipour, Sharareh Zovedavianpoor, Zahra Atafar, Azimeh Karimian, Moslem Golchehreh Pages 9-16
    Students’ academic achievement as the community capital depends on the appropriate educational, physical, and psychological environment. Since students spend 20% of their time at school, and due to their high vulnerability to health problems and their value for the family, attention and promotion of their educational environment health is essential. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the environmental health and safety of 192 urban and rural schools in Abadan using a checklist prepared according to the Ministry of Health Regulations. The collected data were analyzed using Excel. The results showed that 100% of urban and rural schools have access to safe drinking water. In 98.6% of urban schools and 93.75% of rural schools, the standards for water drinking were followed. The minimum required area per student was met in 100% of urban and rural schools. Per capita green space was observed in 100% and 12.5% of urban and rural schools, respectively. In 95.5% of urban schools and 79.2% of rural schools, the standards for the number of hand washing stations was followed. The standard number of toilets was followed for 76.4% of urban schools and 77% of rural schools. In 100% of urban schools and 77% of rural schools, waste disposal was based on the sanitary standard. A total of 73.4% of urban schools and 45% of rural schools adhered to Article 13 of the Food, Cosmetics and Health Act. With regard to the effect of school buildings on education and academic achievement of students, it is necessary to address the environmental health deficiencies of schools.
    Keywords: School Health, ?Environmental, Building condition, National Standards, Abadan
  • Hamdollah Eskandari *, Ashraf Alizadeh Amraie Pages 17-20
    In this research, accumulation and distribution of nickel in root, leaves and stem and grains of wheat were studied to assess the health of wheat grain for human consumption. A greenhouse experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Wheat was grown under two nickel concentrations in soil (0.0 and 100 mg kg-1). At maturity, wheat was divided into its parts (root, leaves and stem, grain) and nickel concentrations were measured in plant parts. Results indicated that the highest nickel (132.8 mg kg-1 plant tissue) was accumulated in roots which was 12 times more than nickel accumulated in shoots, suggesting that no actual remediation was occurred by wheat. Under high concentrations of nickel, wheat grains are not suitable for human consumption, because health risk index was achieved 130.27 and 169.40 for adults and children, respectively. However, because wheat was able to grow under high concentrations of nickel, this plant can be considered as a tolerant plant to nickel stress. Further research is needed to determine the ultimate limit of nickel concentrations in soils where the accumulation of nickel in the grains is not such a high amount that it threatens human health.
    Keywords: Concentration Factor, Heavy metal, Plant Part, Wheat Grain
  • Borhan Mansouri, Behroz Davari *, Mehri Mahmoudi Pages 21-26
    This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the commonly used cosmetic products such as eyeshadows, eyeliners, and skin whitening creams in markets of Sanandaj city, Iran in 2014. In this study, 60 samples comprising of three different types of eyeshadows, eyeliners, and skin whitening creams were purchased randomly from different cosmetic shops in Sanandaj city. The cosmetic product samples were digested using wet digestion method. Trace elements were assayed using an ICP-OES. According to the results, Ag and Fe were the trace elements with the lowest and highest concentration in the three brands, respectively. Moreover, the results indicated that eyeshadow contains the highest (except Ag and Cd) concentrations of trace elements. On the other hand, the levels of HQ for trace elements in the cosmetic products decreased in the following order: Zn > Cr > Cd > Fe > Cu > Ag > Ni > Pb. The trace element concentrations in the three brands of cosmetic products in our research were lower than the international standards and similar to those reported from researchers in different parts of Iran, but according to the accumulation and toxicity of these trace elements in the human body, they require periodic monitoring.
    Keywords: Cd, Pb, Toxicity, Cosmetic products, Health risk
  • Rouhhollah Shokri, Majid Hashemi, Reza Jorvand, Hashem Hajiveisi, Atefeh Shamsi, Hafez Golestani Far, Shima Rezaei * Pages 27-33
    Controlling and ensuring the safety of food plays an important role in preventing foodborne illness. The major objective of this descriptive cross-sectional study was determined the food safety knowledge and attitudes of Dehloran Health Network personnel using a self-completed questionnaire. This structured questionnaire contains personal information, knowledge, and attitude questions. A total of 100 personnel were selected using a census method. All data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software. The results of the study showed that 29% of the personnel had good knowledge, 47% had moderate knowledge, and 24% had poor knowledge about food safety. Personnel had a good attitude about food safety and health. There was no statistically significant difference across different staff in terms of knowledge (p-value = 0.166). Also, there was no statistically significant difference in knowledge and attitude level among different age groups (p-value = 0.51 and 0.21, respectively). The p-value for mean scores of knowledge and attitude in men and women were 0.038 and 0.84. According to the moderate level of participants’ knowledge, we encouraged personnel to create plans and procedures to enhance the level of their consciousness, offered a training workshop in this field, and personnel must be more educated, along with development of appropriate information and communication material.
    Keywords: Attitude, Dehloran, Food safety, knowledge
  • Hassan Aslani, Hassan Taghipour * Pages 34-43
    Determining the seasonal and annual quantities and compositions of the municipal solid waste and assessing the present management conditions of three urban communities in the northwest of Iran were the core objectives of this study. Our findings revealed that the average daily per capita of municipal waste generation was 0.489–0.841 kg/cap-day. Organic and food waste comprised the largest part (56.46%) of the total generated waste in the studied cities, whereas paper and cardboard, plastics, metals, rubber, textiles, glass, woods, and other waste constituted 5.99, 12.62, 1.05, 0.95, 7.71, 1.63, 1.23, and 12.36%, respectively. More than 21% of the total generated waste was directly recyclable. Bulk density of the waste was determined as 182.53 kg/m3. In addition, the moisture content and the chemical characteristics (food and organic fraction) of the generated waste including the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, ash, and C/N ratio were 67.44, 50.86, 1.67, 0.41, 34.91, and 30.61%, respectively. Waste composition in different seasons followed a variable pattern. In the present conditions, all the three studied cities were sending their waste to the municipal waste landfill sites that were actually used as a dump for waste. Hence, great concerns were raised from the public health and environmental viewpoints such as ground water, soil, and air pollution at the final disposal sites in the area. Implementation of source reduction, separation and recycling program, closing dump sites, and investing for new landfill sites according to the scientific and environmental approaches, were proposed.
    Keywords: urban area, Municipal solid waste, Quantification, Characteristics, management
  • Shadi Kohzadi *, Rashid Ramazanzade, Hozan Loqmani, Pegah Shakib, Hamed Ghaderzadeh, Bita Khasi, Naser Reshadmanesh Pages 44-51
    Despite regular disinfection and decontamination of the hospital floors and surfaces, resistant pathogens from the hospital surfaces and their transmission to humans have been reported recently. The resistance of pathogens to the disinfectant agents or failed disinfection techniques have put the routine floor and non-critical surface disinfection done in hospitals into question with regard to their effectiveness. In this study, 112 samples were collected using cotton swabs which were immediately placed in a broth agar media. The collected samples were cultured in broth agar and eosin methylene blue media. We determined the bacterial load on the ward floors and patient rooms before and after disinfection and assessed the effectiveness of the used method and decontamination agents in cleaning the floors. The results showed that disinfection did not have a significant effect on the hospital surface decontamination, and the disinfection process did not change the colony count in the different wards of the hospital (P-value
    Keywords: Hospital, Disinfection, Effectiveness, Floor, Contamination
  • Seiran Shahmohammadi, Asadollah Noori, Shafieh Karami, Ata Amini, Behzad Shahmoradi *, Soheil Sobhan Ardakani, Seung-Mok Lee, Radheshyam Pawar Pages 52-60
    Corrosion is a physicochemical reaction occurring between the metal and its surroundings, which usually has an electrochemical nature and results in changes in the properties of the metal. The corrosive water dissolves the pipe’s material during flowing and this causes many problems. This study investigated the potential of corrosion and scaling of 46 water supply resources in the villages of Sarvabad, west of Iran during high-water (HW) and low-water (LW) periods. Parameters including pH, temperature, alkalinity, calcium hardness, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured and the Langelier, Rayznar, Aggressive, and Puchorius indices were calculated using the data collected. The zoning maps for the indices were prepared using ArcGIS (Ver. 9.3) software. The results showed that the mean value and standard deviation for the Langelier index were 0.23 and 0.28, respectively, while for the Rayznar index, they were 7.12 and 1.18, respectively. The values for the Aggressive index and Puchorius index were 11.6 and 1.84, and 7.03 and 1.45, respectively. The Langelier index in some water supplies showed a tendency to dissolve calcium carbonate, and meanwhile in some areas it tended to precipitate calcium carbonate. Moreover, based on the Rayznar index value, water potential for corrosion increases in steel pipes; based on the Aggressive index, the potential for corrosion is medium, whereas based on the Puchorius index, there is a potential for corrosion. A brief description about the zoning maps is also given.
    Keywords: Corrosion, scaling, Water, GIS