فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Margareth S. Zanchetta, Marguerite Cognet, Mary Rachel Lam-Kin-Teng, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Carlos Haag, Bernard Kadio, FranCois Desgrandchamps, Lise REnaud * Pages 92-101
    Background
    This study explored the French media’s presentation of ideas and medical information about prostate cancer (PC) that may influence men’s understanding, attitudes and behaviour.
    Methods
    A qualitative media content analysis centered on PC information delivered by French professional media. The selected data were produced in the aftermath of the High Health Authority’s decision in 2008 not to recommend systematic screening by prostate specific antigen (PSA) for men over 50. Source was the Media Archives of the French National Library. Content was analyzed from 15 television programs, 14 radio programs, and 55 articles from 35 popular French newspapers (online and printed, weekly and monthly) and 20 magazines. Audio content was narrated into textual form and submitted to manual coding along with the print content.
    Results
    Television and radio content focused on the nature of PC, screening and treatment, and conveyed a gender-centric position linked to male sexuality and virility. Newspapers and magazines targeted the testing controversy, the lack of consensus among professionals, and scientific advances in screening and treatment.
    Conclusion
    Media participation in the European testing debate is valuable for allowing patients to hear all opinions on PC risk factors. Debate on testing policy contributes to confusion and uncertainty regarding appropriate action.
    Keywords: Health education, Media content analysis, Health messages, Prostate cancer
  • Majid Bagheri Hosseinabadi, Siavash Etemadinezhad, Narges Khanjani, Omran Ahmadi, Hemat Gholinia, Mina Galeshi, Seyed Ehsan Samaei* Pages 102-108
    Background
    This study was designed to investigate job satisfaction and its relation to perceived job stress among hospital nurses in Babol County, Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 406 female nurses in 6 Babol hospitals. Respondents completed the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the health and safety executive (HSE) indicator tool and a demographic questionnaire. Descriptive, analytical and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were carried out applying SPSS v. 22 and AMOS v. 22.
    Results
    The Normed Fit Index (NFI), Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) were greater than 0.9. Also, goodness of fit index (GFI = 0.99) and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) were greater than 0.8, and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were 0.04, The model was found to be with an appropriate fit. The R-squared was 0.42 for job satisfaction, and all its dimensions were related to job stress. The dimensions of job stress explained 42% of changes in the variance of job satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between the dimensions of job stress such as demand (β = 0.173, CI = 0.095 - 0.365, P ≤ 0.001), control (β = 0.135, CI = 0.062 - 0.404, P = 0.008), relationships (β = -0.208, CI = -0.637– -0.209; P ≤ 0.001) and changes (β = 0.247, CI = 0.360 - 1.026, P ≤ 0.001) with job satisfaction.
    Conclusion
    One of the important interventions to increase job satisfaction among nurses may be improvement in the workplace. Reducing the level of workload in order to improve job demand and minimizing role conflict through reducing conflicting demands are recommended.
    Keywords: Job stress, Job satisfaction, Nurses
  • Emily Frith, Paul D. Loprinzi * Pages 109-119
    Background
    We evaluated the differential influence of preferred versus imposed media selections on distinct hedonic responses to an acute bout of treadmill walking.
    Methods
    Twenty university students were recruited for this [160 person-visit] laboratory experiment, which employed a within-subject, counter-balanced design. Participants were exposed to 8 experimental conditions, including (1) Exercise Only, (2) Texting Only, (3) Preferred Phone Call, (4) Imposed Phone Call, (5) Preferred Music Playlist, (6) Imposed Music Playlist, (7) Preferred Video and (8) Imposed Video. During each visit (except Texting Only), participants completed a 10-minute bout of walking on the treadmill at a self-selected pace. Walking speed was identical for all experimental conditions. Before, at the midpoint of exercise, and post-exercise, participants completed the Feeling Scale (FS) and the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS) to measure acute hedonic response. The Affective Circumplex Scale was administered pre-exercise and post-exercise.
    Results
    Significant pre-post change scores were observed for happy (Imposed Call: P = 0.05; Preferred Music: P = 0.02; Imposed Video: P = 0.03), excited (Exercise Only: P = 0.001; Preferred Video: P = 0.01; Imposed Video: P = 0.03), sad (Preferred Music: P = 0.05), anxious (Exercise Only: P = 0.05; Preferred Video: P = 0.01), and fatigue (Exercise Only: P = 0.03; Imposed Video: P = 0.002). For the FS all change scores were statistically significant from pre-to-mid and pre-topost (P
    Conclusion
    This experiment provides strong evidence that entertaining media platforms substantively influences hedonic responses to exercise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
    Article
    Keywords: Health promotion, Motivation, Physical activity, Social media
  • Meena Jain*, Shourya Tandon, Ankur Sharma, Vishal Jain, Nisha Rani Yadav Pages 120-126
    Background
    An appropriate scale to assess the dental anxiety of Hindi speaking population is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of Hindi version of one of the oldest dental anxiety scale, Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) in Hindi speaking Indian adults.
    Methods
    A total of 348 subjects from the outpatient department of a dental hospital in India participated in this cross-sectional study. The scale was cross-culturally adapted by forward and backward translation, committee review and pretesting method. The construct validity of the translated scale was explored with exploratory factor analysis. The correlation of the Hindi version of CDAS with visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through calculations of Cronbach’s alpha and intra class correlation 48 forms were completed for test-retest.
    Results
    Prevalence of dental anxiety in the sample within the age range of 18-80 years was 85.63% [95% CI: 0.815-0.891]. The response rate was 100 %. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test value was 0.776. After factor analysis, a single factor (dental anxiety) was obtained with 4 items. The single factor model explained 61% variance. Pearson correlation coefficient between CDAS and VAS was 0.494. Test-retest showed the Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.814. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient of the total CDAS score was 0.881 [95% CI: 0.318-0.554].
    Conclusion
    Hindi version of CDAS is a valid and reliable scale to assess dental anxiety in Hindi speaking population. Convergent validity is well recognized but discriminant validity is limited and requires further study.
    Keywords: Dental anxiety, Psychometrics, Questionnaires, Reliability, Validity
  • Esmatolsadat Hashemi, Mahdi Zangi, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani *, Joaquim Soares, Eija Viitasara, Reza Mohammadi Pages 127-132
    Background
    Our aim in this survey was to explore descriptive epidemiology of injuries in Tehran in 2012 and to report the recalled estimates of injury incidence rates.
    Methods
    A population survey was conducted in Tehran during 2012, within which a total of 8626 participants were enrolled. The cluster sampling was used to draw samples in 100 clusters with a pre-specified cluster size of 25 households per cluster. Data were collected on demographic features, accident and injury characteristics based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10).
    Results
    A total of 618 injuries per 3 months were reported, within which 597 cases (96.6%) were unintentional injuries. More than 82% of all injuries were those caused by exposure to inanimate mechanical forces, traffic accidents, falls and burns. Above 80% of the traffic injuries happened among men (P
    Conclusion
    Injuries are major health problems in Tehran with a highly reported incidence. The status is not substantially improved over the recent years which urges the need to be adequately and emergently addressed. As the incidence rate was estimated based on participant recalls, the real incidence rate may even be higher than those reported in the current study.
    Keywords: Injuries, Accidents, Epidemiology, Road traffic injuries, Burns, Falls, Iran, Tehran
  • Amir Bagheri, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak*, Mansour Rezaei, Mozhgan Moravridzade, Mahmoudreza Moradi, Michael Nelson Pages 133-138
    Background
    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer with a high mortality rate. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk among Iranian men.
    Methods
    This case-control study was conducted in Kermanshah province in western Iran in November 2016. Fifty patients with prostate cancer were selected as cases and 150 healthy men matched for age and body mass index (BMI) were selected as controls. Dietary intake data were collected by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Food items were grouped according to the similarity of nutrient profiles. The main dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis.
    Results
    After adjustment for potential confounders, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer (highest versus lowest tertile OR:0.24; 95% CI: 0.07-0.81; trend p: 0.025). An unhealthy dietary pattern was related to increased risk of prostate cancer (highest versus lowest tertile OR:3.4; 95% CI: 1.09-10.32; trend p: 0.037).
    Conclusion
    This study shows that an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. However, a healthy dietary pattern was associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer.
    Keywords: Diet, Dietary patterns, Factor analysis, Prostate cancer, Case–control study
  • Maryamalsadat Kazemi Shishavan, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Nayyereh Aminisani, Mohammad Shahbazi, Mahasti Alizadeh * Pages 139-146
    Background
    Hypertension affects the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and self-care behaviors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among hypertensive people
    Methods
    All people aged 35 years and older with hypertension were invited to participate in this study. Information on self-care behavior for hypertension (H-scale), and health-related quality of life (WHOHRQOL-BRFF) were completed by trained interviewer. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.
    Results
    The median age of hypertensive patients was 62.5(25th to 75th percentile: 55 to 72 years), the correlation between quality of life and overall self-care scores was not significant (r = -0.048, P = 0.520). Physical activity was the only significant predictor for quality of life, showing that the quality of life of hypertensive people increased by 3.371 units per day of being physically active in the cohort study (β = 0.223, P
    Conclusion
    No association was observed between self-care and HRQOL total score in hypertensive patients in the study. Among the self-care domains, only medication adherence and physical activity had significant association with social health. There was a reverse association between smoking and HRQOL.
    Keywords: Health related quality of life, Hypertension, H, scale, Quality of life, Self, care
  • Nevin Hammam*, Victor E. Ezeugwu, Patricia J. Manns, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart Pages 147-154
    Background
    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a biomarker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). RDW is associated with sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) in adults. To date, no study has evaluated this association in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between RDW and SB and PA levels of children and adolescents.
    Methods
    This observational study included data from participants aged 12-20 years in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). SB and PA were measured using accelerometers. Activity levels were classified into intensity categories. Sexspecific multivariable regression analyses (adjusted for covariates) were used to explore the associations between SB, PA and RDW.
    Results
    The study included 2143 children and adolescents (1080 boys and 1063 girls). In the fully adjusted regression model for boys, SB was positively associated with RDW (β = 0.116, P = 0.004) while moderate PA was negatively associated with RDW (β = -0.082, P = 0.048). In girls, there were no significant associations between activity levels and RDW.
    Conclusion
    This study provides preliminary evidence of the association between SB, moderateintensity PA and RDW in boys, but not in girls. Further research to determine the mechanisms associated with this relationship and underlying sex differences is warranted.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Cardiovascular disease, Accelerometer, Physical activity, Sedentary behaviour
  • Farid Gharibi, Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi * Pages 155-162
    Background
    Considering the lack of accreditation models for health education and promotion (HEP) activities in the Iranian primary health care (PHC) system we conducted the present study to develop a national accreditation model for HEP actions in the Iranian PHC system.
    Methods
    After a comprehensive review on the accreditation models in PHC field, especially those concentrated on the HEP programs, an initial HEP accreditation model was developed. Then, applying the Delphi technique, 18 experts in the Iranian PHC system with field experience in HEP programs were invited to assess the initial model. In the two-round Delphi study, aggregation was provided on the opinions and the standards and indicators were finalized. Conventional content analysis was applied to make sense of the data collected in the study.
    Results
    The developed HEP accreditation model encompassed 62 indicators and five standards. The standards were as follow: “resources for HEP programs”, “educational needs assessment of the target groups”, “methods of providing a community with education”, “management of health volunteers’ actions” and “evaluation of HEP programs”.
    Conclusion
    The standards and indicators found in the present study may serve as an educational rationale for health educators while designing high-quality health education/promotion programs. This model may be helpful for health policy-makers and stakeholders while planning to assess the continuous quality improvement of HEP services delivered in the PHC systems.
    Keywords: Accreditation, Standards, Health education, promotion
  • Carla R. Marchira, Warih A. Puspitosari, Ida Rochmawati, Siti Mulyani, Irwan Supriyanto * Pages 163-166
    Background
    Information gaps hinder the management of psychotic patients. Incorporating mental health services into primary care might solve the problem. Health workers can be trained to provide psycho-education for caregivers of psychotic patients.
    Methods
    This study was a two stage experimental study. In the first stage, 43 health workers were trained to provide a psycho-education for caregivers of psychotic patients. Next, 10 health workers were selected to provide the psycho-education. Participants were family caregivers of psychotic patients (n = 113) randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. Pre- and post-tests were conducted to assess the results. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired t tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
    Results
    The intervention group scored higher for Knowledge of Psychosis at post-test. Both groups showed significant increase of knowledge (paired t tests: P
    Conclusion
    Psycho-education was applicable in primary care settings. Training primary care health workers is a feasible method to address information gaps in the management of mental health problems.
    Keywords: Brief psychoeducation, Family caregivers, Psychotic disorders, Primary health center
  • Sarah A. Maclean*, Corey H. Basch, Ashley Clark, Charles E. Basch Pages 167-170
    Background
    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has decreased in recent years, due in large part to increased screening, particularly through colonoscopy. This study aimed to examine the level of readability of information on colonoscopy preparation written on 100 websites that were found via an internet search.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, the content of the first 100 websites in English found via an internet search were analyzed using established readability scales. Websites were compared based on whether they had a commercial or non-commercial URL extension.
    Results
    The majority of websites were found to have information of a difficult reading level. Less than 10% of websites had an easy reading level. Readability did not differ significantly based on URL extension.
    Conclusion
    The information currently posted on the internet regarding preparation for colonoscopy is written at a difficult reading level. If information presented was both accurate and easier to read, it could benefit a greater proportion of the general public and help inform decisions about preparing for a colonoscopy.
    Keywords: Colonoscopy, Colon cancer, Readability, On, line information