فهرست مطالب

Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Volume:17 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:17 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
  • Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M. Adcock Pages 100-109
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil. NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system. NTM are also found in many subjects without any known risk factors. Although the recent advances in imaging and microbiologic techniques including gene sequencing have provided a better view of the problems caused by NTM and has enhanced our understanding of the disease, many uncertainties regarding the immunologic response to NTM still exist. There is also limited data on the immunogenetics of NTM infection. Here, the authors reviewed the main immunogenetic defects as well as other immunological conditions which are associated with an increased the risk of NTM infections.
    Keywords: Immunodeficiency, Interferon, Interleukin-12, Lung disease, Non-tuberculous mycobacteria
  • Jinhong Wu, Bing Chen, Wenxian Li, Yanan Xiao Pages 110-122
    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of NGF inhibition on AHR and other asthma phenotypes in a mouse model of asthma. 12 mice in each group were injected with lentiviral vectors expressing non-targeting shRNA (sham shRNA), targeting NGF (shRNA-1 and shRNA-2), or normal saline for control before the asthma models were established. Peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), NGF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and bronchoconstriction in response to acetylcholine (ACh) were measured. Immunohistochemistry semi-quantitative analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (mAChR M3) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) were measured by Image Pro Plus (IPP), and qRT-PCR analysis of mRNAs of cholinergic receptors, muscarinic 3 (Chrm3), Ngf and Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) were performed. Immunohistochemistry showed mAChR M3 was overexpressed and a-SMA was hyperplasia in control and sham shRNA, semi-quantitative analysis revealed optical density (OD) values were significantly higher than shRNA-1 and shRNA-2, (p
    Keywords: Asthma, Muscarinic receptors, Nerve growth factor, Respiratory hypersensitivity, Small interfering RNA, Smooth muscle
  • Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Behnoosh Tayebi, Fatemeh Nadali, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Shamim Khandan Alamdari, Majid Moslemi, Masoud Movehdi, Adriano Mari, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin Pages 123-133
    Allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens could be considered as a predictor in allergic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess IgE-mediated sensitization to inhalant allergens in allergic and non-allergic adults as well as the evaluation of its association with allergic diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2013 to 2016 in 604 allergic and 102 non-allergic adults selected from blood donor volunteers in Tehran, Iran. After taking informed consent, a standard questionnaire was filled to determine asthma, allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in participants. Specific IgE assay to common inhalant allergens was performed for all subjects. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of IgE sensitization on allergic diseases. A total of 371(61.4%) allergic subjects and 41(40.2%) non-allergic patients were males. The weeds (especially saltwort) and grasses (particularly meadow fescue and ryegrass) were identified as the most common inhalant allergens. The prevalence of IgE sensitization to trees, weeds, and grasses was higher in subjects with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and trees sensitization was a significant factor in them [OR=2.32, 95% CI (1.58-3.41)]. IgE sensitization to any inhalant allergens could be a predictor for allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and rhino-conjunctivitis in adults [OR=2.20, 95% CI (1.54-3.15], [OR=1.81, 95% CI (1.28-2.54)] and [OR=2.55, 95% CI (1.72-3.78)], respectively. With an increase in the sum of specific IgE concentrations, the prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and rhino-conjunctivitis also increased. Our results showed the association between positive specific IgE and its concentration with some allergic diseases which could help physicians to prevent such diseases by recognizing and treating them, particularly in individuals with a positive family history of allergic diseases.
    Keywords: Allergen, Allergic diseases, IgE, Inhalant, Sensitization
  • Ziba Ghasemi, Abdol-Reza Varasteh, Malihe Moghadam, Farnaz Sedghi, Farahzad Jabbariazad, Mojtaba Sankian Pages 134-143
    The Salsola kali pollen is considered the main cause of allergic sensitization in desert and semi-desert regions. We have constructed recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing Sal k1 protein with the aim of using it as a mucosal vaccine for specific immunotherapy. The Sal k1 gene was amplified, and transferred into a PNZ 8148 plasmid. The PNZ8148-Sal k1 recombinant plasmid was transformed into competent E.coli strain MC1061 for replication, and then was isolated and cloned into competent L. lactis by electroporation. The cloning was verified by PCR and gene sequencing. The production of recombinant Sal K1 (rSal K1) protein was induced by nisin. The rSal K1 protein was purified by affinity chromatography and dialysis, and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analyses. The recombinant L. lactis was successfully constructed. Production of a 40-kDa rSal k1 protein with the L. lactis was shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. In addition, western blot analysis using specific mouse anti-Sal k1 polyclonal antibodies and sensitive human sera verified the 40-kD protein as rSal k1 allergen. This study demonstrated that L. lactis may be used as a promising live delivery system for recombinant Sal k1 protein without altering its immunoreactivity; however, its efficacy in the context of the immune system is suggested to be pursued in future studies.
    Keywords: Lactococcus lactis, Pollen, Recombinant protein, Salsola kali, Sal k1
  • Parvin Mosadeghi, Hafez Heydari-Zarnagh Pages 144-150
    We aimed to develope a peptide-based indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Two chimeric peptides (CP-1 and CP-2) were designed using linear immunodominant epitopes of gp-46-I, and gp21-I proteins, according to the sequence from Uniprot database. These peptides were studied initially in the ELISA using infected sera. The most promising peptideCP-1, was used to develop a peptide ELISA for detection of HTLV-I infected sera. The optimal conditions for CP-1ELISA were: the optimum coating buffer was 100mM NaHCO3, pH 9.6; coating peptide concentration was 10 µg/mL; the optimal blocking buffer was5% fetal bovine serum (FBS); the secondary antibody concentration was 1:2000; and serum dilution was 1:20. 20serum samples from HTLV-I infected patients were evaluated by ELISA developed. CP-1 showed high antigenicity while lacking any cross-reactivity with normal human sera. The results of evaluations indicated that in comparison with commercial ELISA, CP-1 ELISA showed good sensitivity and specificity. With further validation, CP-1as described in the present study could be introduced as novel reliable and cost-effective candidates for the high-specific screening of HTLV-I/-II infections in endemic regions.
    Keywords: Antigenicity, gp-46-I, gp21-I, HTLV-I, p19, Synthetic peptides
  • Tahereh Khamechian, Behnaz Irandoust, Hanieh Mohammadi, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari Pages 151-157
    In recent years, it has been recognized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance. Moreover, the expression of two markers named Helios and neurophilin-1 (NRP-1) has been highlighted in such cells. Helios, an intracellular transcription marker, largely differentiates twomost operative sub group of Tregs, namely naturally occurring (nTreg) and induced (iTreg) Tregs, and NRP-1 is reckoned as a membranous activity marker of Tregs. We aimed to count peripheral mononuclear cells expressing such markers in a group of type 1 diabetes patients to elucidate the possible role of Tregs in the pathogenesis of such disease and its complications. Blood samples from 61 adult patients with type 1 diabetes and 61 sex and age-matched healthy controls were tested to count two types of Tregs, namely naturally occurring and inducible types, according to the expression of cell surface markers of CD4/CD25/CD47–FITC/PE/APC and intracellular markers of FoxP3/Helios–PE-CY5/eFlour450 by flow cytometry, respectively.We also investigated the relation between expression of such markers with HbA1c, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), and common carotid intima thickness (CIMT). The circulatory frequency of both Helios and Helios- T-cells were significantly decreased in patients compared to those in healthy controls (p
    Keywords: Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3), Helios, Neuropilin-1, Regulatory T cells, Type 1 diabetes
  • Maysam Mard-Soltani, Mohammad Javad Rasaee, Saeed Khalili, Abdolkarim Sheikhi, Mehdi Hedayati, Hossein Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Milad Alasvand Pages 158-170
    The production of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) immunoassays requires specific antibodies against hTSH which is a cumbersome process. Therefore, producing specific polyclonal antibodies against engineered recombinant fusion hTSH antigens would be of great significance. The best immunogenic region of the hTSH was selected based on in silico analyses and equipped with two different fusions. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, verification, structural evaluation, and immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits. Ultimately, immunized serums were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization (specificity, sensitivity and cross reactivity). The desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. Structural analyses indicated that only the bigger antigen has showed changed 2 dimensional (2D) and 3D structural properties in comparison to the smaller antigen. The raised polyclonal antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum and negligible. The fusion which was solely composed of the tetanus toxin epitopes led to better protein folding and was capable of immunizing the host animals resulting into high titer antibody. Therefore, the minimal fusion sequences seem to be more effective in eliciting specific antibody responses.
    Keywords: Cross reactivity, Fusion protein immunization, Immunoassay
  • Farinaz Behfarjam, Parvine Mansouri, Zohreh Jadali Pages 171-178
    There is growing evidence to suggest that Th cells play pivotal roles in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, including vitiligo. However, the exact role of different subsets of Th cells in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is still a question. The purpose of present study was to determine the mRNA expression level of Th17 master transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors gamma (RORɣt) and cytokine mRNA and protein expression profiles of Th17 cells. 22 patients with vitiligo and 22 normal subjects were enrolled in the study. Gene expression profiles of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Plasma concentrations of IL-17A and IL-22 were also assayed using ELISA kits. The results showed that RORɣt, IL-17A and IL-22 mRNA expression were increased in patients remarkably compared to healthy controls (p
    Keywords: Autoimmunity, Cytokines, Gene expression profiling, T lymphocyte, Vitiligo
  • Mojtaba Sehat, Rezvan Talaei, Ehsan Dadgostar, Hassan Nikoueinejad, Hossein Akbari Pages 179-187
    Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-33, IL-36 and IL-37 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T helper (Th)1/Th17 mediated autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Although IL-33 and IL-36 expression are increased in skin lesions of patients with psoriasis, their serum levels in such patients have not yet been adequately studied. We aimed to evaluate serum level of IL-33, IL-36 and IL-37 cytokines and IL-37 gene expression in patients with autoimmune/inflammatory disease of psoriasis and to explore their correlation with disease severity. Such evaluation further clarifies disease pathogenesis and may be utilized in clinical practice. 47 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 47 healthy individuals were included. Serum IL-33, IL-36 and IL-37 levels were measured by Elisa and gene expression of IL-37 measured by real time PCR in all participants. The disease activity was assessed by the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Linear Correlation between interleukin measures and PASI score was calculated. Also sensitivity and specificity of such measurements were determined. Serum IL-36 and 37 levels in patients with psoriasis vulgaris were significantly higher than those in healthy controls and positively correlated with disease activity (PASI score). Serum IL-33 levels in patients were equal to those in healthy controls but positively correlated with disease activity. Serum IL-36 levels were significantly higher than serum IL-33 levels. Gene expression of IL-37 levels in patients were higher than healthy controls but was not correlated with disease activity. Serum IL-36 and IL-37 levels are generally increased in psoriasis vulgaris and correlated with disease severity. Therefore, serum IL-36 and IL-37 levels may be markers of treatment and diagnosis of psoriasis.
    Keywords: IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, Psoriasis, Psoriasis area, severity index (PASI) score
  • Laleh Sharifi, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Reza Yazdani, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Farimah Masoumi, Saied Bokaie, Parsova Tavasolian, Rouzbeh Sanaei, Mona Moshiri, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Tina Alinia, Gholamreza Azizi, Abbas Mirshafiey Pages 188-200
    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinical primary antibody deficiency, characterized by increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the maturation and differentiation of B-cells, TLRs’ defect can be involved in the pathogenesis of CVID. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and their signaling pathway; also their association with autoimmunity, B-cell subtypes and response to pneumovax-23 were assessed in CVID patients. Sixteen CVID patients were enrolled in the study. Flow cytometry was used for assessing the protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4, and real-time PCR was used for gene expression of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and toll interacting protein (Tollip). We found a higher protein expression of TLR2 in CVID patients which was associated with lower number of end stage B-cells and hyporesponse to pneumovax-23 vaccination. We showed a lower mRNA expression of MyD88 and an almost equal Tollip mRNA expression in CVID patients compared with controls. There was a profound association between MyD88 gene expression and autoimmunity in CVID patients. According to the presence of the lower number of end stage B-cells and poor vaccine response in CVID patients and their correlation with the higher expression of TLR2, we hypothesized that there is a functional defect in this receptor and/or its downstream in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of CVID patients.
    Keywords: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Toll interacting protein (Tollip)
  • Shahrzad Fallah, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mahboubeh Mansouri, Delara Babaei, Abdollah Karimi, Seyed Alireza Fahimzad, Shahnaz Armin, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei, Roxana Azma, Ghamartaj Khanbabaee, Bahram Bashardoost, Mehrdad Amirmoeini, Saeed Sadr Pages 201-207
    Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) is a life-threatening condition leading to early infant death as a result of severe infection, due to impaired cellular and humoral immune systems. Various forms of SCID are classified based on the presence or absence of T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. Patients usually present with recurrent infections and failure to thrive. Definitive treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To achieve the best outcome, it should be performed prior to the development of severe infection. In This study, we described 10 patients (6 male and 4 female) with SCID who were admitted to Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2013. We reviewed patients’ clinical manifestation, laboratory data, family history and outcome. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 131.8 days. One patient had non-consanguineous parents. Seven patients received BCG vaccine before the diagnosis of SCID, three of them showed disseminated BCG infection. One patient presented with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed T⁻B⁺NK⁻ in three patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁺ in five patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁻ in one patient, and T⁻B⁺NK⁺ in one patient. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and patient referral before the occurrence of serious infection.
    Keywords: Neonatal screening, Primary immunodeficiency disorder, Severe combined immunodeficiency