فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:12 Issue:3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Parichehr Ahrari Roodi, Zahra Moosavi *, Amir Afkhami Goli, Mohammad Azizzadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Pages 1-8
    Background
    The therapeutic potential of honey is related to antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species because it contains compounds such as polyphenols; therefore, we evaluated the potential protective effect of honey on subacute toxicity of ACR by histopathologic study on tissue lesions in rat.
    Methods
    In Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 2016, male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. To induce toxicity, ACR was injected (50 mg/kg for 11 d) to rats in 5 groups. In treatment groups, rats received three doses of honey 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/kg in addition to the ACR. The two remaining groups received vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and normal saline as positive and negative control respectively. On the last day, after necropsy, tissue specimens from brain and liver were collected for histopathological studies.
    Results
    Receiving of ACR caused tissue injuries including degeneration, necrosis, hyperemia, hemorrhage and inflammation in liver; ischemic cell change, hyperemia, hemorrhage and edema in brain tissue. Administration of honey considerably reduced tissue damages caused by ACR, particularly with dosage 5 g/kg.
    Conclusion
    The severity of tissue lesions caused by the ACR can be reduced by honey, likely through its antioxidant activity. Increasing concentrations of honey will enhance its effectiveness.
    Keywords: Acrylamide, Histopathology, Honey, Wistar Rat
  • Mehrzad Bahtouee *, Hossein Fatemikia, Ali Movahed, Abdolhamid Esmaili, Yaghoob Hassan, Mohammad Zarei, Ramin Seyedian Pages 9-13
    Background
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of saffron and methylprednisolone on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.
    Methods
    This study was conducted in Bushehr, southern Iran in 2017.The animals were divided into four groups of five rats each. Three groups were injected with a single intratracheal dose of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). The fourth group was administered with normal saline at the same volume (200 µl). Saffron extract dissolved in water was given to one group (100 mg /body weight) orally while intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (2.5 mg/kg) injected to another one for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 28 days following surgery and their right and left lungs were removed and washed for measuring lung indices, myeloperoxidase activities and finally histopathological examination.
    Results
    Injection of bleomycin caused decrement of body weight aggravated by intraperitoneal methylprednisolone treatment. Lung indices were increased in the bleomycin-treated group compared with the control, while methylprednisolone, unlike saffron, had no preventive effects on it. Both saffron and methylprednisolone treatment prevented the increase in lung myeloperoxidase as a destructive enzyme. In addition, excessive collagen deposition and thickening of alveolar septa were significantly prevented with saffron treatment as compared to methylprednisolone injection following hematoxylin and eosin staining.
    Conclusion
    Saffron with established antioxidant properties could prevent some detrimental effects in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis even more than methylprednisolone injection known as a standard therapy in this murine model. More investigations must be carried out to examine the beneficial or harmful effects of this remedy.
    Keywords: Fibrosis, Lung, Methylprednisolone, Saffron
  • Mahdi Balali-Mood, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Adeleh Mahdizadeh, Valiallah Moradi, Rana Fazeli-Bakhtiyari * Pages 15-20
    Background
    Contamination of fruit juices with heavy metals presents a risk for human health. Concentrations of lead, and arsenic in fruit juices of market in Mashhad, Iran, were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).
    Methods
    Fifty varieties of commercial fruit juices (grape, apple, orange, pomegranate, and multi-fruit) from 5 popular brands (A, B, C, D and E) were purchased from local markets of Mashhad during spring and winter 2016. Five samples of each brand were analyzed by AAS.
    Results
    The mean concentrations of lead and arsenic were 39.4 and 1.9 ng/mL, with a range of 18.5–54.6 and 1.52-2.35 ng/mL, respectively. The orange A and multi-fruit A samples had a higher lead level than the others, whilst multi-fruit E contained the lowest. The lowest arsenic content was found in grape B, while the highest was found in multi-fruit C.
    Conclusion
    Eighty-three percent of the samples had lead levels exceeding the maximum level (30 ng/mL) accepted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, while arsenic levels were below the maximal permissible value (10 ng/mL). Due to the fact that fruit juices are used by all age groups including infants and children, it is necessary to minimize the health risk from heavy metal contamination in fruit juices. For this reason, the amount of heavy metals contaminants in fruit juice samples should be regularly checked and controlled by the local health authorities.
    Keywords: Arsenic, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Fruit Juice, Iran, Lead
  • Augustave Kenfack, Edouard Akono Nantia *, Ferdinand Ngoula, ArthEnice Jemima Guiekep Nounamo, Pierre Kamtchouing, Joseph Tchoumboue Pages 21-27
    Background
    Pesticide toxicity is one of the major environmental health problems for the modern societies, as some of the effects may last long time after exposure. Propoxur is one of the Carbamate pesticide largely used in agriculture in the Western region of Cameroon.
    Methods
    In order to evaluate the post-exposure effects of propoxur, 48 male rats (12 animals per group) aged 30 d were orally gavaged with 0.00, 1.73, 2.60 and 5.20 mg.kg-1 body weight of propoxur for 90 d. At the end of treatment, 6 rats per group were sacrificed and others were followed up for 90 additional days and submitted to a fertility test before sacrifice.
    Results
    At the end of exposure propoxur significantly increased (P
    Conclusion
    Propoxur negatively affected male rats’ reproductive parameters with more significant adverse effects observed 90 d after the end of exposure.
    Keywords: Fertility, Male Rats, Post-Exposure Effects, Propoxur, Reproductive Parameters
  • Ismaila Olanrewaju Nurain *, Clement Olatunbosun Bewaji, Abdulazeez Aderemi Abubakar, Abdulrazaq Mustapha, Emmanuel Oladipo Ajani, Saeed Sabiu, Lutfat Abimbola Usman, Hassan Taye Abdulhameed, Sikiru Bolaji Ahmed Pages 29-37
    Background
    Malaria is a worldwide threat, which affects millions of people. Although several antimalarial has been reported, they are either not effective or toxic. This study evaluated the antimalarial efficacy and safety of stem bark aqueous extracts of Khaya grandifoliola (KG) and Enantia chlorantha (EC) in Plasmodium berghie (NK65S) infected Swiss mice.
    Methods
    Forty-two animals were grouped into six groups. Group A (control) comprised uninfected animals given sterile placebo. Group B was infected but untreated. Groups C, D, E, and F were infected and treated with 50 mg/kg artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), 400 mg/kg body weight of KG, EC, and the combined extracts (200 mg/ml body weight each) respectively.
    Results
    Alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and saponins were all present in the two extracts. The percentage parasitemia in the treated groups C, D, E, and F was significantly (P˂0.05) reduced from 44%, 24%, 35%, and 31% to 17%, 8%, 9% and 8% respectively. The level of creatinine C (1.33±0.08 g/d), D (2.07±0.15 g/d), E (2.17±0.24 g/d) and F (1.20±0.0.12 g/d) increased significantly (P˂0.05) compared to group A (0.73±0.08 g/d). There was no significant difference in the urea level, potassium and sodium concentrations among all the groups.
    Conclusion
    The efficacy and renal safety of oral administration of aqueous stem bark extract of KG and EC were confirmed. Therefore, the extracts could be used as alternatives to standard drugs in the management of malaria.
    Keywords: Combination Therapy, Enantia chlorantha, Khaya grandifoliola, Malaria, Reno Protective Effects
  • Fahimeh Sangi, Abbas Mohammadi *, Nazar Afzali, Mansoureh Mirabolfathy Pages 39-44
    Background
    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic compound mainly produced by the Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. nomius, A. tamari, and A. pseudotamarii. AFB1 biodegradation is the most important strategy for reducing AFB1 in plant tissues. Bacteria can deactivate and biodegrade AFB1 for effective detoxification of contaminated products. The present study investigated the efficiency of AFB1 degradation by soil bacteria from the Southern Khorasan Province in Eastern Iran by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography during 2014–2015.
    Methods
    DNA was extracted from AFB1-degrading isolates by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the 27f and 1492r general bacterial primers and the sequences were used to identify the isolates based on their similarity to Gene Bank sequences of known bacterial species.
    Results
    We isolated five strains from four species of AFB1-degrading bacteria from Birjand plain, including Bacillus pumilus, two isolates of Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloace, which had AFB1-degrading activities of 88%, 78%, 61%, 58%, and 51%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    We provide the first demonstration of AFB1 degradation by B. pumilus in from Iran and the first report identifying O. pseudogrigonens and E. cloace species as having AFB1-degrading activity.
    Keywords: Degrading, Detoxification, Enterobacter cloace, Ochrobactrum pseudogrigonens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Saurabh Sarkar, Prem Rajak, Sumedha Roy * Pages 45-50
    Background
    Flubendiamide, comparatively a new pesticide designed to eradicate lepidopteran insect pests is known to have low risk to birds, mammals, fish, algae, honey bees, non-target arthropods, earthworms, soil macro- and micro-organisms, non-target plants as well as sewage treatment organisms; however, the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates from metabolite could not be finalized with available data.
    Methods
    Different concentrations of flubendiamide (TATA TAKUMI®, Rallis, India) were introduced to larvae, pupae, and adult flies. A wide range of comparatively higher concentrations was selected for acute LC50 than chronic LC50 due to their exposure duration. Furthermore, relatively lower concentrations were introduced to larvae for assessment of emergence.
    Results
    At chronic exposure, the effect-concentration relationship exhibited a linear response when adult emergence was considered in Drosophila melanogaster. When acute LC50 of flubendiamide in 3rd instar larvae was compared with the chronic LC50 then it was seen to be approximately 21 fold higher whereas chronic LC50 for adult flies was nearly 19 times less than the adult acute LC50. Similarly, adult emergence was seen to lower by 91.95% at 1500 µg/mL concentration. The chronic LC50 of the flubendiamide in Drosophila was approximately 170303 times more than the reported No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC).
    Conclusion
    Hence, the chemical, flubendiamide can induce its effects at very low concentration, far below the lethal ones. Thus, the study is of relevance for the non-target insects as well as the insect dependent organisms.
    Keywords: Drosophila Melanogaster, Emergence, Flubendiamide, LC50
  • Abubakar Awwal Yusuf, Bashir Lawal *, Mumeen Abdulganeey Yusuf, Emisi Omotayo Omonije, Arogbokun Opeyemi Adejoke, Feyisara Habibat Raji, Dannana Luke Wenawo Pages 51-58
    Background
    Xylopia aethiopica is highly reputed for its numerous medicinal properties. In the present study, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicity profile of methanol seed extract of Nigerian X. aethiopica in rat were evaluated.
    Methods
    Phytochemical compositions were evaluated using standard procedures. The antibacterial study was carried out using agar well diffusion method, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay. Twenty-five rats (5 each) were given 0, 75, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg bwt of the extract orally for 28 days.
    Results
    The extract had total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 15.98±0.03mg GAE/g and 2.29±0.02 mg/g CE respectively. The extract had IC50 values of 52.45±3.05 µg/mL and 73.45±3.89 μg/mL in DPPH and FRAP assay respectively. The E. coli showed the highest susceptibility (20.27±0.90mm) while P. aeuruginisa showed the least (15.08±0.20mm). The MIC ranged from 25-50 µg/mL while MBC ranged between 50µg/mL and 100 µg/mL. In comparison with the control rats, the levels of serum creatinine, bicarbonate total proteins, albumin, and ALP were significantly higher in rat dosed 600 mg/kg bwt while urea decreases in rat dose 300 and 600 mg/kg. However, serum concentration of ALT, AST, bilirubin, Na, K and Cl- compared favorably (P>0.05) with control at all doses.
    Conclusion
    The study revealed the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Nigerian X. aethiopica, the extract at 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/b.wt did not provoke toxic effects to the animals’ liver and kidney; however, caution should be exercised when using as a prolonged oral remedy at high doses.
    Keywords: Antibacterial, Anti-Oxidants, Flavonoids Xylopia aethiopica, Phenolics, Toxicity