فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های حبوبات ایران - سال هشتم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • سال هشتم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • مقالات پژوهشی
  • محسن جهان، محمد بهزاد امیری، فرانک نوربخش صفحات 10-30
    در سال های اخیر استفاده از نهاده های بوم سازگار و بهینه سازی این منابع، به عنوان راهکاری اکولوژیک مدنظر قرار گرفته و افزایش تولید و بهبود سلامت محصولات مختلف را در پی داشته است. به منظور تعیین مقادیر بهینه سوپرجاذب رطوبت، اسید هیومیک و کود دامی در زراعت لوبیا (Phoseolus vulgaris L.) آزمایشی با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ، در قالب باکس بنکن طراحی و در سال زراعی 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ترکیبی از سوپرجاذب رطوبت (در دو سطح 80 و 160 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، اسید هیومیک (در دو سطح 4 و 8 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کود گاوی (در دو سطح صفر و 30 تن در هکتار) بود که با در نظرگرفتن سه تکرار برای نقطه مرکزی، در مجموع 15 ترکیب تیماری برای مطالعه لحاظ گردید. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه در سطوح میانی اسید هیومیک (6 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد، به طوری که مصرف این مقدار اسید هیومیک عملکرد دانه را به ترتیب 15 و 11 درصد نسبت به سطوح 4 و 8 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش داد. افزایش متعادل مقادیر مصرفی کود دامی منجر به افزایش عملکرد ماده خشک شد، به این ترتیب که با افزایش مقدار کود دامی از صفر به 15 تن در هکتار عملکرد ماده خشک 36 درصد افزایش یافت، ولی افزایش بیشتر کود دامی (از 15 به 30 تن در هکتار) کاهش چهار درصدی عملکرد ماده خشک را سبب شد. با افزایش مقادیر مصرفی سوپرجاذب، میزان تلفات نیتروژن کاهش یافت، به طوری که کاربرد 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب به جای 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار از این کود منجر به کاهش 17 درصدی میزان تلفات نیتروژن شد. کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن در سطح 6 کیلوگرم در هکتار اسید هیومیک به ترتیب 16 و 13 درصد نسبت به سطوح چهار و هشت کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشتر بود. در سناریوی اقتصادی به ترتیب با مصرف 83/143 و 14/6 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و اسید هیومیک و 12/22 تن در هکتار کود دامی، عملکرد دانه ای معادل 1613 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. در سناریوی زیست محیطی میزان تلفات نیتروژن نسبت به سناریوی اقتصادی به شدت (95 درصد) کاهش یافت. از آنجایی که در سناریوی اقتصادی-زیست محیطی از ابعاد مختلف به بهینه سازی منابع توجه می شود، به نظر می رسد استفاده از مقادیر بهینه منابع در این سناریو (به ترتیب 71/131 و 02/6 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب و اسید هیومیک و 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود دامی) مناسب ترین سطوح نهاده های مصرفی در این پژوهش باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: باکس بنکن، تلفات نیتروژن، راهکار اکولوژیک، سلامت محصول، نهاده بوم سازگار
  • روح الله قاسمی، عبدالرضا باقری، نسرین مشتاقی، فرهاد شکوهی فر صفحات 31-43
    سازگاری گیاهان به تنش یخ زدگی از طریق تنظیم فعالیت ژن ها و متابولیسم سلولی انجام می شود. در این پژوهش، تغییرات بیان ژن های P5CS و (DREB1)CBF در شرایط دمایی معمولی (23 درجه سانتی گراد)، خوسرمایی (10درجه سانتی گراد) و یخ زدگی (10- درجه سانتی گراد) در دو ژنوتیپ نخود زراعی مقاوم (MCC426) و حساس (MCC505) به سرما مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج آنالیز داده ها نشان داد که بیان این ژن ها در ژنوتیپ مقاوم در مقایسه با ژنوتیپ حساس به طور معنی داری بیشتر بود (P
    کلیدواژگان: بیان ژن، تنش یخ زدگی، پرولین، نخود زراعی
  • کاظم خاوازی، محمد جعفر ملکوتی، فرهاد رجالی صفحات 44-56
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کود های زیستی محتوی فسفر و روی بر کاهش ویژگی های کیفی نامطلوب تغذیه ای لوبیاچیتی (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)، آزمایش مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور های این آزمایش شامل دو رقم لوبیاچیتی (تلاش و صدری)، چهار سطح فسفر (P0: شاهد،P1: مصرف سوپر فسفات تریپل بر اساس آزمون خاک، P2: مصرف کود زیستی فسفاتی و سوپر فسفات تریپل به میزان 50 درصد توصیه بر اساس آزمون خاک و P3: کود زیستی فسفاتی) و سه سطح روی (Zn0: شاهد،Zn1 : مصرف 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی وZn2: کود زیستی روی) بود.کود زیستی فسفاتی شامل تلقیح با قارچ های میکوریزی و باکتری Azotobacter و تیمار زیستی روی تلقیح با باکتری های Pseudomonas بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس تفاوت معنی داری در ویژگی های کیفی نامطلوب تغذیه ای بین دو رقم نشان نداد. کمترین مقدار این ویژگی ها (به جز اسید فیتیک) در رقم صدری مشاهده شد. تیمار فسفر و روی، تفاوت معنی دار در ویژگی های مورد بررسی ایجاد نمودند. کمترین میزان این ویژگی ها در تیمار فسفری از تیمار P2 و در تیمار روی از تیمارهای Zn1 و Zn2 به دست آمد. اثر متقابل تیمارهای فسفر و روی بر صفات مورد بررسی به جز بازدارنده های تریپسین معنی دار شد. کمترین میزان اسید فیتیک، اسید فنلیک، تانن از تیمار P2Zn1 و بازدارنده های تریپسین ازتیمار P2Zn2 حاصل شد.کود های زیستی فسفاتی مورد استفاده در این تحقیق با افزایش رشد و جذب عناصر غذایی و غنی سازی زیستی بذر با روی و آهن باعث بهبود کیفیت تغذیه ای دو رقم لوبیاچیتی شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: اسید فیتیک، تانن، روی، لوبیا، میکوریزا
  • حسین نوری، میلاد سلطانیه، پیام معاونی صفحات 57-68
    یک ذره که حداقل ابعاد آن از 100 نانومتر تجاوز نکند، به عنوان یک نانوذره شناخته می شود. نانوذرات با نسبت بالایی از سطح به حجم یا وزن، دارای تاثیر فیزیکی و شیمیایی زیادی هستند. نانو ذرات دارای کاربردهای زیادی در زندگی روزمره هستند. عدس یکی از محصولات عمده حبوبات در سراسر جهان از جمله ایران است. به منظور بررسی اثر محلول پاشی نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم بر برخی صفات زراعی عدس، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان در سال 1390 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شش سطح محلول پاشی با نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم (صفر، 01/0، 02/0، 03/0، 04/0 و 05/0) و دو زمان محلول پاشی (60درصد ساقه روی و 50درصد گلدهی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل محلول پاشی غلظت های مختلف نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم× مرحله رشدی بر صفاتی مانند عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن صد دانه، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف پوک و کلروفیلb و شاخص برداشت معنی دار بود. تیمارهای شاهد دارای بیشترین میزان کلروفیلb در هر دو مرحله بودند و کمترین میزان کلروفیلb در تیمار 01/0درصد نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی مشاهده شد. غلظت نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 01/0درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی، بیشترین ارتفاع بوته را داشت و غلظت نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 05/0درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله ساقه روی کمترین تاثیر را روی ارتفاع گیاه عدس داشت. غلظت نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 02/0درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی دارای بیشترین عملکرد دانه بود؛ هرچند با تیمار 01/0درصد محلول پاشی در همین مرحله اختلاف معنی داری نداشت. غلظت نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 02/0درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله گلدهی دارای کمترین عملکرد دانه بود. بیشترین شاخص برداشت مربوط به تیمار با غلظت نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 05/0درصد و محلول پاشی شده در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی و کمترین شاخص برداشت مربوط به تیمار با غلظت نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 04/0درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی بود. وزن صد دانه در غلظت نانو ذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 01/0 درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله 60درصد ساقه روی دارای بیشترین میانگین بود و غلظت نانوذرات دی اکسید تیتانیوم 01/0 درصد محلول پاشی شده در مرحله گلدهی کمترین وزن صد دانه را داشت. تیمار نانو ذرات تیتانیوم با مقادیر 05/0درصد و 02/0درصد به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تاثیر را بر میزان کلروفیلa داشت. همچنین مصرف نانو ذرات تیتانیوم در مرحله 50درصد گلدهی و 60درصد ساقه دهی به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین تاثیر را بر میزان کلروفیلa داشته است. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد با این که تیمار نانو باعث افزایش در صفات کمی و کیفی گیاه زراعی عدس شد، ولی برای استفاده از نانوذرات توجه به جنبه های ایمنی زیست محیطی آن اهمیت خاصی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: دی اکسید تیتانیوم، ساقه روی، عملکرد دانه، گلدهی
  • فاطمه قراجه داغی، محمدرضا بی همتا، سیدعلی پیغمبری، مریم رضایی نیا صفحات 69-83
    به منظور بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی و تعیین تنوع فنوتیپی و رابطه عملکرد دانه در بوته با سایر صفات مورد بررسی تحت تنش خشکی آزمایشی با 35 ژنوتیپ لوبیا در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار تحت دو شرایط نرمال و تنش خشکی در مزرعه آموزشی-پژوهشی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه تهران در سال زراعی 92-1391 اجرا گردید. نتایج تجزیه های آماری نشان داد که بین ژنوتیپ ها از نظر صفات مورد بررسی اختلاف معنی داری وجود داشت که دال بر وجود تنوع ژنتیکی بین ژنوتیپ ها بود. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از همبستگی های فنوتیپی، رگرسیون مرحله ای، تجزیه علیت در هر دو شرایط نرمال و تنش، صفات وزن دانه با غلاف، عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد دانه در بوته، از جمله صفات مهم و تاثیرگذار بر عملکرد دانه بودند و می توان با گزینش و به نژادی برای این صفات، عملکرد دانه در بوته را به نحو مطلوبی افزایش داد. بر اساس تجزیه به عامل ها در هر دو شرایط پنج عامل شناسایی شدند که در مجموع تحت شرایط نرمال 76/83 و تحت شرایط تنش 08/79 درصد از تغییرات کل را توجیه کردند. در ارزیابی تحمل به خشکی شاخص های میانگین بهره وری، میانگین هندسی بهره وری، میانگین هارمونیک بهره وری و شاخص تحمل به تنش که بیشترین همبستگی معنی دار را با عملکرد در شرایط نرمال و تنش داشتند، به عنوان شاخص های برتر برای غربال ژنوتیپ های متحمل معرفی شدند. بر اساس نمودار بای پلات ترسیم شده با استفاده از نه شاخص تحمل به خشکی و عملکرد در شرایط نرمال و تنش، ژنوتیپ های 25، 27 و 28 به عنوان ژنوتیپ های متحمل با عملکرد بالا و ژنوتیپ های 7، 10، 22 و 23 به عنوان ژنوتیپ های حساس به خشکی معرفی شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه به عامل ها، تجزیه کلاستر، شاخص های تحمل، لوبیا
  • فاطمه ذاکر تولایی، عبدالرضا باقری، بهزاد قره یاضی، کایران کمار شارما صفحات 84-95
    عدس از جمله حبوبات مهم در ایران است که با توجه به وقوع تنش های مختلف در مناطق کشت آن در کشور، اصلاح آن جهت افزایش تحمل به تنش های زیستی و غیرزیستی از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. در این زمینه، کارآیی استفاده از فناوری های نوین از جمله کشت این ویترو و انتقال ژن، قابل توجه می باشد. در این مطالعه بهینه سازی انتقال ژن به عدس با استفاده از ژن گزارشگر gus با واسطه اگروباکتریوم تومیفاشینس انجام شد. در این پژوهش اثر عواملی مانند نوع ریزنمونه، آنتی بیوتیک مورد استفاده، غلظت باکتری، مدت زمان کشت مشترک، تاثیر استوسرینگون، بر موفقیت تراریزش بررسی شدند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که ریزنمونه لپه شاخه دارشده روی محیط کشت دارای سیتوکنین پس از حذف سرشاخه ها یک ریزنمونه خوب برای فرایند انتقال ژن می باشد. غلظت پنج میلی گرم بر لیتر هیگرومایسین بهترین محیط انتخابی برای شاخه های تراریخته شناخته شد. غلظت چهار میلی لیتر از کشت شبانه باکتری در 25 میلی لیتر محیط کشت مایع و مدت زمان 72 ساعت کشت مشترک شرایط مناسب را برای انتقال ژن فراهم کرد. استفاده از استوسرینگون بر نتایج بی تاثیر بود. پس از کشت مشترک، شاخه زایی ریزنمونه ها روی محیط کشت انتخابی، ریشه زایی، سازگاری و انتقال به گلخانه انجام شد. آزمون هیستوشیمیایی gus در مرحله قبل از ریشه زایی بیان ژن gus را تایید نمود. پس از انتقال گیاهچه ها به گلخانه تایید حضور ژن gus با استفاده از واکنش زنجیره ای پلیمراز(PCR) روی نمونه های برگی انجام شد. امید است، نتایج این پژوهش برای اصلاح عدس از طریق مهندسی ژنتیک و همچنین استفاده از عدس به عنوان میزبان برای تولید ترکیبات دارویی مفید واقع شود.
    کلیدواژگان: باززایی، ژن gus، عدس (Lens culinaris Medik.)، گیاه تراریخته، مهندسی ژنتیک
  • فاطمه خمدی، موسی مسکرباشی، پیمان حسیبی صفحات 96-108
    به منظور بررسی اثر مقادیر مختلف کاه و کلش گندم و سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ماش، پژوهشی در سال1393 در شرایط آب و هوایی اهواز در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه چمران به صورت اسپلیت پلات با طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از مقادیر مختلف بقایای کاه و کلش گندم در پنج سطح (صفر، 1750، 3500، 5250 و 700 کیلوگرم در هکتار) که به عنوان کرت اصلی و کود نیتروژن از منبع اوره در سه سطح (صفر، 150 و 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار) که به عنوان کرت فرعی درنظرگرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که مقادیر مختلف کاه و کلش گندم و سطوح کود نیتروژن اثر معنی داری بر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف و ارتفاع بوته داشتند، به طوری که بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار 3500 و 7000 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاه و کلش گندم حاصل شد. با افزایش کاربرد کود نیتروژن تا سطح 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ماش افزایش یافت. کود نیتروژن در ابتدای رشد موجب شکل گیری سریع کانوپی و افزایش سطح برگ شد که منجر به پوشش سطح خاک می شود و کود سرک نیتروژن باعث دوام سطح سبز و طول مدت گلدهی و پرشدن دانه می شود. اثر متقابل بقایا و کود بر عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه و تعداد غلاف در بوته معنی دار شد و بیشترین این ویژگی ها از تیمار 3500 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاه و کلش گندم توام با 250 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار به دست آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: تثبیت زیستی نیتروژن، علف هرز، مدیریت پایدار سیستم زراعی
  • محمد جواد ارشدی، مهدی پارسا، امیر لکزیان، محمد کافی صفحات 109-125
    به منظور بررسی تلقیح بذور ژنوتیپ های نخود با ریزوبیوم، میکوریزای آرباسکولار و شبه میکوریزای داخلی، آزمایشی به صورت اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا در آمد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سه سطح میکوریزایی (میکوریزای آرباسکولار Glomus mosseae، شبه میکوریزای داخلیPiriformospora indica و عدم مصرف قارچ) و فاکتور فرعی شامل 9 ژنوتیپ نخود بود. نتایج نشان داد که میکوریزا به طور معنی داری باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت و تعداد غلاف در بوته گردید. لکن اثر سطوح میکوریزا بر روی صفات تعداد دانه در غلاف و وزن هزار دانه معنی دار نشد. در بین ژنوتیپ های مورد بررسی در این تحقیق، بیشترین عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و تعداد غلاف در بوته به ژنوتیپ MCC537 اختصاص داشت و ژنوتیپ های MCC80، MCC537 و MCC392 مشترکا به طور معنی داری بیشترین شاخص برداشت را از خود نشان دادند. بیشترین وزن هزار دانه نیز به ژنوتیپ MCC392 اختصاص داشت، اما از نظر تعداد دانه در غلاف اختلاف معنی داری بین ژنوتیپ های مورد مطالعه مشاهده نشد. در بررسی اثرات متقابل میکوریزا و ژنوتیپ های نخود ملاحظه گردید که بیشترین عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک به ترکیب میکوریزا همراه با ژنوتیپ MCC537 و بیشترین شاخص برداشت به ترکیب میکوریزا و ژنوتیپ MCC80 تعلق داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: شبه میکوریزای داخلی، میکوریزای آرباسکولار، نخود و همزیستی سه گانه
  • عباس نصیری دهسرخی، حسن مکاریان، منوچهر قلی پور، حمید عباس دخت صفحات 126-140
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر امواج فراصوت و پرایمینگ بذر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد لوبیا چشم بلبلی رقم محلی بسطامی در رقابت با علف های هرز، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود در سال1393 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل امواج اولتراسونیک (فرکانس kHz20) + عدم وجین، امواج اولتراسونیک + وجین (تمام فصل)، امواج اولتراسونیک + علف کش تریفلورالین (48درصدEC ) با دوز کاهش یافته (یک لیتر در هکتار)، امواج اولتراسونیک + تریفلورالین با دوز توصیه شده (2 لیتر در هکتار)، هیدروپرایمینگ (به مدت هفت ساعت) + عدم وجین، هیدروپرایمینگ+ وجین، هیدروپرایمینگ + علف کش تریفلورالین با دوز کاهش یافته، هیدروپرایمینگ + علف کش تریفلورالین با دوز توصیه شده، عدم وجین، وجین تمام فصل، علف کش تریفلورالین با دوز توصیه شده و علف کش تریفلورالین با دوز کاهش یافته بودند. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد تیمارهای امواج اولتراسونیک و پرایمینگ در ترکیب با دوز کاهش یافته علف کش تریفلورالین توانست به اندازه دوز کامل این علف کش، تراکم و وزن خشک علف های هرز را کاهش و عملکرد دانه لوبیا را افزایش دهد. تیمار ترکیبی امواج اولتراسونیک + وجین تمام فصل علف هرز، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک لوبیا را به ترتیب 62 و 3/52 درصد نسبت به تیمار عدم وجین افزایش داد. همچنین کاربرد هیدروپرایمینگ + علف کش کاهش یافته و امواج اولتراسونیک + علف کش کاهش یافته به ترتیب سبب کاهش 61 و 5/46 درصدی زیست توده کل علف های هرز نسبت به تیمار کاربرد علف کش با دوز کاهش یافته به تنهایی گردید. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش با کاربرد امواج اولتراسونیک و همچنین پرایمینگ در تلفیق با دوز کاهش یافته علف کش تریفلورالین می توان ضمن کاهش معنی دار وزن خشک علف های هرز، عملکردی معادل تیمار وجین تمام فصل یا مصرف دوز کامل علف کش به دست آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: استقرار اولیه، تریفلورالین، مدیریت تلفیقی علف هرز
  • تبسم قدیمیان، حمید مدنی، مسعود گماریان صفحات 141-154
    به منظور بررسی واکنش لوبیا قرمز رقمD81083 به قطع آبیاری و اسید هیومیک، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی94-1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اراک اجرا شد. سطوح آبیاری به عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح شامل آبیاری کامل، قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و در مرحله غلاف دهی و محلول پاشی با اسید هیومیک به عنوان عامل فرعی در سه سطح شامل عدم مصرف اسید هیومیک، مصرف 5/1 و سه لیتر در هکتار اسید هیومیک درنظرگرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که قطع آبیاری بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی تاثیر معنی داری داشت. در اکثر صفات مهم اندازه گیری شده مانند عملکرد دانه، محلول پاشی اسید هیومیک هم در شرایط آبیاری کامل و هم در شرایط قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و غلاف دهی در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد موجب افزایش معنی دار شد. در مورد عملکرد دانه و وزن صد دانه از نظر مصرف اسید هیومیک بین مقادیر 5/1 و سه لیتر در هکتار تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده نشد. بیشترین میزان پروتئین، آهن و روی دانه و همچنین مقدار کلروفیل در تیمار قطع آبیاری در زمان گلدهی به دست آمد. از بین اجزای عملکرد تعداد دانه در غلاف بیشترین همبستگی را با عملکرد دانه داشت. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده اثر قطع آبیاری در مرحله غلاف دهی مشابه اثر تیمار شاهد بود و از طرفی به نظر می رسد در بهبود خصوصیات زراعی، کیفی و فیزیولوژیکی لوبیا اسید هیومیک می تواند موثر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسید هیومیک، پروتئین، تنش کم آبیاری، عناصر میکرو، لوبیا
  • عادل غدیری، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، عبدالرضا باقری، رضا قربانی، علیرضا بهشتی صفحات 155-165
    به منظور ارزیابی و شناسایی ژنوتیپ های لوبیای مناسب جهت کشت در مدیریت های زراعی کم نهاده، آزمایشی در مزرعه ایستگاه ملی تحقیقات لوبیای خمین در سال 1393 اجرا گردید. تعداد 559 ژنوتیپ لوبیاچیتی موجود در کلکسیون لوبیای این ایستگاه به همراه سه شاهد در قالب طرح آگمنت در دو شرایط مدیریت زراعی معمول و مدیریت زراعی کم نهاده کشت شدند. در طول فصل رشد و نمو، مراقبت های زراعی لازم بر اساس شرایط هر یک از مدیریت های زراعی صورت پذیرفت و در پایان عملکرد ژنوتیپ ها اندازه گیری شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، مدیریت زراعی کم نهاده به طور متوسط منجر به کاهش عملکرد به میزان 5/45 درصد شد. برای ارزیابی ژنوتیپ ها از نظر تحمل به شرایط کم نهاده، میانگین حسابی(MP)، میانگین هندسی(GMP)، تحمل به تنش(STI)، حساسیت به تنش(SSI) و تحمل(TOL) محاسبه شد. بر اساس تجزیه کلاستر انجام شده، ژنوتیپ های لوبیا در پنج خوشه قرار گرفتند که ژنوتیپ های خوشه2 از نظر شاخص های GMP و STI به ترتیب 8/76 و 2/181 درصد بیشتر از میانگین کل و از نظر شاخص های SSI و TOL به ترتیب 60 و 5/48 درصد کمتر از میانگین کل بودند و لذا به عنوان ژنوتیپ های برتر برای کشت در شرایط کم نهاده، انتخاب گردیدند. بر اساس تجزیه به مولفه های اصلی بر روی شاخص های ذکرشده و عملکرد دانه در دو شرایط معمول و کم نهاده، با استفاده از نمودار بای پلات و مشاهده وضعیت قرارگرفتن ژنوتیپ ها در بای پلات، 10 ژنوتیپ Ks-21184، Ks-92021، Ks-21119، Ks-21280،Ks-21461، Ks-21362، Ks-92198، Ks-21671، Ks-21673 و Ks-21236 که STI و GMP بالاو SSI پایین داشتند، به عنوان ژنوتیپ های مناسب جهت کشت در مدیریت های زراعی کم نهاده شناسایی شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص تحمل به تنش، عملکرد دانه، لوبیاچیتی
  • حسن مکاریان، حسن شجاعی، علی دماوندی، عباس نصیری دهسرخی، احمد اخیانی صفحات 166-180
    به منظور بررسی اثرات محلول پاشی عنصر روی بر رشد و عملکرد ماش تحت تاثیر تنش آب، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی شاهرود در سال زراعی 91-1390 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل تنش کم آبی در دو سطح: یک نوبت قطع آبیاری در مرحله50درصد گلدهی، یک نوبت قطع آبیاری در مرحله50درصد غلافدهی و شاهد (آبیاری کامل)، به عنوان کرت اصلی و تیمارهای محلول پاشی عنصر روی در کرت های فرعی در چهار سطح پنج و 10 گرم در لیتر نانو اکسید روی (Nano-ZnO) و پنج و 10 گرم در لیتر اکسید روی (Zno) و شاهد (بدون محلول پاشی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد محلول پاشی عنصر روی به شکل های معمولی و نانو، ارتفاع گیاه، محتوای پرولین و عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه را در حالت تنش خشکی و عدم تنش خشکی به طور معنی داری افزایش داد. بیشترین تاثیر عنصر روی بر گیاه به ترتیب مربوط به کاربرد 10 گرم نانواکسید روی، 10 گرم اکسیدروی، پنج گرم نانو اکسید روی و پنج گرم اکسید روی بود. محلول پاشی با 10 گرم نانو ذرات اکسید روی در شرایط عدم تنش، تنش در گلدهی و غلافدهی به ترتیب باعث افزایش 6/6 ، 6/3 و 4/5 درصدی عملکرد نسبت به عدم کاربرد آن گردید. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، محلول پاشی عنصر روی به صورت نانو ذرات نسبت به اکسید روی معمولی تاثیر بیشتری بر کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی در گیاه ماش نشان داد
    کلیدواژگان: تنش کم آبی، عملکرد دانه، محتوای پرولین
  • ادریس چوپانی، خدیجه باقری، بهرام ملکی زنجانی صفحات 181-191
    جهت اجتناب از مضرات پروموترهای عمومی، شناسایی و جداسازی پروموترهای قوی و اختصاصی بافت امری بسیار مهم و ضروری در مهندسی ژنتیک است. یکی از پروموترهای اختصاصی و قوی بذری، پروموتر بتافازئولین لوبیا می باشد که بیان حدود 50 درصد پروتئین های بذر لوبیا را کنترل می کند. استفاده از این پروموتر برای بهینه کردن تولید پروتئین های بذری در لوبیا و گیاهان دیگر و همچنین تولید پروتئین های نوترکیب مفید خواهد بود. آنالیز بیوانفورماتیکی پروموترها برای پیشگویی در مورد قدرت و ضعف آن ها، جداسازی صحیح و همچنین سنتز پروموترهای مصنوعی کمک خواهد کرد. ابتدا به وسیله نرم افزارهای آنالیز پروموتر توالی های پروموتری بتافازئولین گیاه لوبیا مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که بیش از 20 فاکتور سیس از جمله مهم ترین آن ها G-box، E-box، فاکتور RY،ACGTSEED2، جعبه لگومین، جعبه اندوسپرم و...در توالی پروموتر بتافازئولین وجود دارد که در بیان بالا و اختصاصیت آن نقش دارند. با توجه به نتایج آنالیز بیوانفورماتیکی پرایمرهای اختصاصی این پروموتر طراحی شد و با استفاده از آن ها توالی پروموتر موردنظر از DNA ژنومی لوبیا تکثیر و با توجه به اندازه قطعه تکثیرشده، صحت آن مورد تایید قرار گرفت. در مرحله بعدی توالی پروموتر موردنظر در ناقل pTZ57R/T کلون شد و با استفاده از واکنش های PCR و هضم آنزیمی مورد تایید قرار گرفت. از آنجایی که هدف از این تحقیق جداسازی پروموتر اختصاصی بذر بتافازئولین از لوبیا و استفاده از آن در تهیه سازه های ژنی می باشد، لذا قطعه موردنظر در ناقل بیانی گیاهی pBI121 ساب کلون شد و نتایج آن با هضم آنزیمی و PCR تایید شد.
    کلیدواژگان: پروموتر اختصاصی، پروموتر بذری، آنالیز بیوانفورماتیکی
  • قربانعلی اسدی، سرور خرم دل، روشنک شهریاری، فاطمه رنجبر، مهسا اقحوانی شجری صفحات 192-204
    به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت شیرین تحت تاثیر نسبت های کشت مخلوط ردیفی سری جایگزینی با ارقام لوبیا، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‏ تحقیقاتی دانشکده‏ کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل نسبت های جایگزینی 75+25، 50+50 و 25+75درصد ذرت شیرین (رقم چیس) با پنج رقم لوبیا (قرمز، چشم بلبلی، سفید، چیتی و توده محلی) و کشت خالص هر دو گیاه بود. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه ذرت شیرین در کشت خالص بیشتر از کشت مخلوط بود و با افزایش تراکم در نسبت های مخلوط با ارقام لوبیا به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. بالاترین و کمترین عملکرد دانه در بین نسبت های مخلوط به ترتیب برای 75درصد ذرت شیرین+25درصد لوبیا با 81/734 گرم بر متر مربع و 25درصد ذرت شیرین+75درصد لوبیا با 6/346 گرم بر متر مربع به دست آمد. بالاترین میانگین عملکرد دانه ارقام لوبیا در نسبت کاشت 75درصد لوبیا+ 25 درصد ذرت شیرین با 7/165 گرم بر متر مربع و پایین ترین میزان برای 25 درصد لوبیا+ 75درصد ذرت شیرین با 8/77 گرم بر متر مربع حاصل شد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در لوبیا چشم بلبلی (23/234 گرم بر متر مربع) و کمترین میزان در توده محلی (8/84 گرم بر متر مربع) مشاهده شد. بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین برای نسبت 25درصد لوبیا توده محلی+75درصد ذرت شیرین (47/1) به دست آمد. نتایج تیمارها نشان داد که توده محلی نسبت به سایر ارقام لوبیا توان رقابتی بیشتری نسبت به ذرت شیرین داشت
    کلیدواژگان: توان رقابتی، شاخص برداشت، کشت مخلوط، نسبت برابری زمین
  • سعید سعیدی پور، زینب بوعلی صفحات 205-214
    علف‏های هرز همواره از رقبای قوی گیاهان زراعی به شمار آمده و امروزه بخش جدایی ناپذیر سیستم های زراعی هستند که موجب واردآمدن آسیب و زیان به محصولات زراعی می‏شوند. یک مطالعه میدانی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شوشتر در سال زراعی 1393-1392 جهت ارزیابی اثربخشی برخی از علف‏کش‏های پس‏رویشی بر رشد علف‏های هرز و تاثیر آن ها بر رشد و عملکرد باقلا انجام شد. تیمارها شامل: 1- علف‏کش بنتازون 5/1 لیتر در هکتار+ هالوکسی فپ- آر- متیل 6/0 لیتر در هکتار 2- بنتازون 5/1 لیتر در هکتار + ستوکسیدیوم 5/1 لیتر در هکتار، 3- بنتازون 5/1 لیتر در هکتار + فنوکساپراپ- پی- اتیل 7/0 لیتر در هکتار، 4- ایمازتاپیر 6/0 لیتر در هکتار، 5- ایمازتاپیر 4/0 لیتر در هکتار و دو تیمار شاهد کنترل وجین دستی و عدم کنترل علف‏های هرز در سراسر فصل جهت مقایسه سایر تیمارها نیز اعمال شدند. آزمایش با چهار تکرار در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد بدون کنترل، استفاده از علف‏کش‏ها موجب کاهش زیست توده علف‏های هرز و افزایش عملکرد بیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه باقلا شد. در این میان بیشترین کاهش وزن خشک علف هرز به میزان 7/98درصد مربوط به تیمار ایمازتاپیر به میزان 6/0 لیتر در هکتار بود که با تیمار بنتازون + هالوکسی فپ- آر- متیل در یک گروه آماری قرار گرفت. حداکثر عملکرد بیولوژیک باقلا در تیمار شاهد کنترل مکانیکی در سراسر فصل به میزان 4/15513 کیلو‏گرم در هکتار مشاهده شد که با دیگر تیمارهای آزمایش اختلاف معنی‏داری را نشان داد. در میان علف‏کش‏ها، حداکثر عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمار ایمازتاپیر دوز 6/0 لیتر در هکتار به میزان 5/2545 کیلو‏گرم در هکتار بود. البته بین تیمارهای علف‏کش به لحاظ عملکرد دانه تفاوت آماری معنی‏داری در پنج درصد مشاهده نشد
    کلیدواژگان: علف کش ایمازتاپیر، عملکرد دانه، وزن خشک علف هرز
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  • Mohsen Jahan, Mohammad Behzad Amiri, Faranak Noorbakhsh Pages 10-30
    IntroductionMaintenance of soil fertility as a permanent bed for continuous production of agricultural products is one of the most important issues affecting the sustainability of food production. In order to achieve healthy food production, application of ecological inputs such as cattle manure and organic acids are inevitable. Cattle manure is an excellent fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. It also adds organic matter to the soil which may improve soil structure, aeration, soil moisture-holding capacity, and water infiltration. Humic substances are a mixture of different organic compounds that extract from various sources such as soil, humus, peat, oxidized lignite and coal. They are different in molecular size and chemical structure. A little amounts of humic acid increase soil fertility by improving the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil. Water super absorbents are water absorbing polymers (they may contain over 99% water). They have been defined as polymeric materials which exhibit the ability of swelling in water and retaining a significant fraction (> 20%) of water within their structure, without dissolving in water content. The applications of hydrogels are grown extensively. These materials have 100% natural structures and do not have any harm for the environment. Development of using super absorbent hydrogels to reduce crises such as soil erosion, frequent droughts or providing food security requires knowledge of their behaviors and performances in the soil. To determine the optimal irrigation water and fertilizer, the use of mathematical models is inevitable. One of the most common methods used to optimize these factors is the central composite design. A central composite design is an experimental design, useful in response surface methodology, for building a second order (quadratic) model for the response variable without needing to use a complete three-level factorial experiment. Considering the importance of bean as the main crop in Fabaceae family and also the lack of comprehensive information in the field of simultaneous optimization of water super absorbent, humic acid and cattle manure, in this study, different economic and environmental scenarios for bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) production via optimization of water super absorbent, humic acid and cattle manure application was evaluated.
    Materials & MethodsIn order to estimate optimized application rates of water superabsorbent, humic acid and cattle manure in cultivation of bean, an experiment as Box Benken design using Response Surface Methodology, was conducted at Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2013-14 growing season. The experimental treatments were designed considering of the high and the low levels of water superabsorbent (80 and 160 kg.ha-1), humic acid (4 and 8 kg.ha-1) and cattle manure (0 and 30 t.ha-1) using MINITAB Ver. 17 statistical software, as the central point in every treatment replicated 3 times, so 15 treatment combinations were provided totally.
    Results & DiscussionThe result showed that the highest seed yield obtained in the middle level of humic acid (6 kg.ha-1), so that application of 6 kg.ha-1 humic acid increased seed yield 15 and 11% compared to the levels of 4 and 8 kg.ha-1, respectively. The moderate increasing of cattle manure amounts led to an increase in dry matter yield, so that by increasing the amounts of cattle manure from 0 to 15 t.ha-1, dry matter yield increased by 36%, but more increasing the amounts of cattle manure from 15 to 30 t.ha-1 led to a decrease in dry matter yield by 4%. By increasing the amounts of superabsorbent, nitrogen losses decreased, so that the application of 120 kg.ha-1 superabsorbent decreased nitrogen losses 17% compared to the level of 80 kg.ha-1. Nitrogen use efficiency in the 6 kg.ha-1 level of humic acid was 16 and 13% more than the levels of 4 and 8 kg.ha-1, respectively. It seems that application of humic acid increased seed yield by improving soil physical properties. Amiri (2015) reported that humic acid and folic acid increased seed yield of Echium amoenum by 32 and 22% compared to control, respectively. The highest and the lowest seed yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) obtained in treatments of 80 kg.ha-1 water super absorbent humic acid and Non-applicaion of water super absorbent and humic acid, respectively. El-Baz et al., (2012) evaluated effect of humic acid on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L.) and reported that the highest seed yield obtained in level of 1000 ppm humic acid.
    ConclusionsIn economic scenario, using 143.83 kg.ha-1 superabsorbent, 6.14 kg.ha-1 humic acid and 22.12 t.ha-1 cattle manure, resulted in 1613 kg.ha-1 seed yield. The nitrogen losses in environmental scenario decreased by 95% compared to economic scenario. Eco-environmental scenario attended to different aspects of resource optimization, therefore it seems using the optimized amounts of resources in this scenario (131.71 and 6.02 kg.ha-1 superabsorbent and humic acid and 0.30 t.ha-1 cattle manure, respectively) are the best levels of ecological inputs in this research.
    Keywords: Box Benken, Ecological approach, Ecological input, Health of product, Nitrogen losses
  • Rohollah Ghasemi, Abdolreza Bagheri, Nasrin Moshtaghi, Farhad Shokouhi Far Pages 31-43
    IntroductionCold and freezing stress is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect the growth and yield of crops. One of the important processes in plant resistance to cold stress is known to acclimatize. In this process, the internal mechanisms of plants causes higher resistance to freezing stress after exposure to temperatures close to zero. Low temperature stress induce or inhibit the expression of certain genes. P5CS protein and transcription factor DREB (CBF) play an important role in adaptation and cold tolerance in plants. P5CS activates the enzymes in proline synthesis pathway and cause accumulation of this substance in plant that protects membranes and proteins against different effects of high concentrations of inorganic ions and high and low temperatures. Also DREB proteins with a conserved sequence bind to specific DNA sequences upstream of responsible genes in resistance to cold stress and leads to their expression. In this study the expression of P5CS and (DREB1)CBF genes that have an important role in the face of many plants to freezing and cold stress were examined in chickpea in both resistant and susceptible genotypes and used of Real time PCR method to evaluate the expression of these genes under stress and non-stress.
    Materials & MethodsIn the first experiment, the expression pattern of P5CS and CBF (DREB1) genes were evaluated at normal (23°C), acclimation (10°C) and freezing (-10°C)temperatures in two resistant (MCC426) and susceptible (MCC505) genotypes of chickpea, in two organs (leaf and stem). Briefly pots containing plants of both genotypes stored at 23°C for two weeks. After this period, plants are divided into two parts, half remained in the normal conditions and the other half were transferred to 10°C for cold acclimation. After 10 days, seedlings of normal and acclimation conditions transferred to a thermogradient freezer and after 15 minutes at -10°C, sampling was carried out from the leaves and stems. The simultaneous sampling of the control plants (normal conditions) were also done. After RNA extracting from samples and determine the concentration and quality by nanodrop and treatment with DNase I enzyme, cDNA synthesis was performed. After designing appropriate primers, the PCR process was optimized and Real time PCR was performed under optimized process conditions and gene expression levels were calculated. In the Second experiment free proline changes of seedlings in the acclimation phase were evaluated. Briefly after transferring of plants in the acclimation conditions, amount of proline at them were measured at appropriate intervals after exposure in acclimation conditions.
    Results & DiscussionResults of analysis showed that the expression of these genes were significantly higher in resistant genotype than the susceptible one. Because of these genes are the important factors in plant resistance to stress especially cold and freezing stress, this can confirm that MCC426 genotype is resistant and MCC505 genotype is sensitive to cold. Also the interaction of genotype and organ sample in the control condition showed significant difference only for expression of P5CS gene. Since this gene is an important gene in freezing and cold stress, increased expression of this gene in MCC426 genotype that is resistant to cold not unexpected. But expression of CBF gene occurred only after cold stress induction and in the absence of stress is poor expression. In addition, it was revealed that the interaction of genotype and acclimation treatment on CBF genes in both genotypes had significant differences, but in P5CS gene only in MCC426, this trend was observed. However, changes of free proline as one of the mechanisms of cell protection in acclimation period in both genotypes showed that proline contents of MCC426 in response to acclimation treatment was gradually increased, but this increase in MCC505 genotype occurred during the early stages of acclimation, and proline has decreased over time.
    ConclusionAccording to the results, it generally seems, one of the main reason for tolerance to chilling is the high expression levels of the mentioned genes during chilling and freezing stress and therefore it can be used for inducing freezing tolerance into sensitive plants.
    Keywords: Cicer arietinum, Gene expression
  • Kazem Khavazi, Mohammad Jafar Malakouti, Farhad Rejali Pages 44-56
    IntroductionBean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the richest seeds in legumes. It has special importance in the diet because it contains 20-25 percent protein, 60 percent carbohydrates, vitamins, dietary fiber, antioxidants, trace minerals and amino acids containing Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe). Mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azotobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp. are able to increase uptake of nutrient elements particularly when they are applied with others. P solubilizing fungus and bacteria facilitate uptake of slowly diffusing nutrient ions such as phosphorus (P), Zn, Fe and increase their availability usually by increasing volume of soil exploited by plants, spreading external mycelium, secreting organic acids, production of dehydrogenase and phosphates enzymes and reducing rhizosphere acidity. Despite the high nutritional value of bean, it contains some antinutritional factors that caused to decrease this nutritional value with reducing the digestion and absorption of protein, minerals and trace elements. The main is phytic acid (PA), phenolic acid, tannin and trypsin inhibitors. PA has the ability to form bonds with divalent cations such as Fe, Zn, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). The high chelating capacity of PA reduces strongly availability of these elements and causes disturbances in the human gastrointestinal system. PA, phenolic compounds, tannin, and trypsin inhibitors can form bond with protein, fiber, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and other macromolecules and hence reduce enzyme activities, absorption and digestion of proteins and minerals. The main objective of this farm study was to evaluate the effect of P and Zn bio-fertilizers on decrease of antinutritional factors and improve seed quality in two cultivars of bean in Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari province.
    Material & MethodsThis field experiment was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments of this research consisted of two cultivars of Chiti bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0: Control, P1: Chemical fertilizer on the basis of soil test, P2: 50 percent of recommended P bio-fertilizer (P), and P3: bio-fertilizer (P)), three levels of Zn (Zn0: Control, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 Zinc sulphate, and Zn3: bio-fertilizer (Zn)). Bio-fertilizer (P) treatment consisted of using inoculum of P solubilizing bacteria from Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 and three species of mycorrhizal fungi from Glomus species (Glomus etunicatum, Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae). Bio-fertilizer (Zn) treatment consisted of using inoculum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MPFM and Pseudomonas fluorescent strain 187. Grain inoculation (5%) was done in shadow and after drying, inoculated grains were immediately cultivated. Two g of mycorrhizal fungus was applied under the grain hole just prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied from TSP at a rate of 100 and 50 kg ha-1 in P1 and P2 respectively, 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4.7H2O in Zn1. After harvesting, seeds were prepared to measure antinutritional factors after grounding and passing from 60 mesh sieve. Phytic acid was measured by Haug and Lantzsch (1983), phenolic acid and Tannin by Makkar et al. (1993) and trypsin inhibitors by Kakade et al. (1974). Statistical analysis was done with SAS statistical software. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to compare means.
    Results & DiscussionThe results revealed that there were not significant difference between two cultivars on studying factors. The least of these characteristics except of phytic acid (PA) were obtained from Sadri cultivar. The effect of P treatment was significant on studying parameters, in a way P2 treatment in comparison with control treatment caused to decrease PA (11.5%), phenolic acid (35%), Tannin (38%) and trypsin inhibitors (25%). The effect of Zn treatment was also significant on studying parameters. The minimum of studying factors were obtained from Zn1 and Zn2 treatments. The effect of interaction between P and Zn was significant on these anti-nutritional factors except the trypsin inhibitors. The least rate of PA, phenolic acid, tannin were obtained 3.90 g kg-1, 3.13 and 2.45 mg GAE g-1 sample respectively from P2Zn1 and the rate of trypsin inhibitor 4.70 mg TI g-1 sample from P2Zn2. In this study, the dual inoculation with phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused to increase nutrient uptake and improve in seed enrichment especially nutrients with antioxidant capacity such as Zn and Fe. It can be done with increasing mycorrhizal symbiosis, root colonization phytosiderophores secretion, organic acids and chelated compounds production. Our results were similar to findings of other researches. Reducing in antinutritional factors related to production of enriched seeds with using phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers.
    ConclusionThe results of this research revealed that individual and dual using of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused to decrease antinutritional factors in two studied cultivars of bean. Microorganisms used in biological treatments caused to increase the availability and uptake of nutrient elements such as N, P, Fe and Zn. It can be done with increasing mycorrhizal symbiosis, root colonization and enhance secretion of siderophore compounds, organic acids and chelate compounds. Also, plant hormones and enzymes promoting growth increased with using of these bio treatments. Application of bio-fertilizers in this study caused to decrease antinutritional factors in both cultivars with increase of growth and nutrient uptake and seed bioenrichment with iron (Fe) and Zn Seed bio-enrichment with Fe, Zn and other nutrients caused to indirectly decrease in PA and other antinutritional factors. In this research, the best treatment was using of mycorrhizal fungi with Azotobacter inoculant and 50 kg ha-1 TSP and 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4.7H2O, (P2Zn1 treatment).
    Keywords: Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Mycorrhizal fungi, Phytic acid, Tannin, Zinc
  • Hossein Nouri, Milad Soltanieh, Payam Moaveni Pages 57-68
    IntroductionA particle in which at least one of the dimensions does not exceed 100 nm is classified as a nanoparticle. Nanoparticles are characterized by high ratio of surface area to volume or weight, what strongly influences physical and chemical properties of Nano sized materials. Nano products find applications in many fields of daily life. Lentil is one of the major legumes crops in all over the world including Iran. It is a cheap source of high quality protein in the diets of millions in developing countries, who cannot afford animal protein for balanced nutrition and also rich in important vitamins, minerals, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.
    Material & MethodsTo study the effect of nanoparticle Tio2 spray on some agronomic traits of lentil, a factorial experiment was carried out based on RCBD with four replications in Zanjan University on 2011. Treatments included six levels of nanoparticle Tio2 solution spray (control, 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04% and 0.05%) and two times of spraying (flowering and 60% steaming stage).
    Results & DiscussionResults showed spray concentration × application time interaction on grain and biological yield, number of pod per plant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, plant height, number pod hollow and chlorophyll b and harvest index was significant. But spray concentration × application time interaction on chlorophyll a was not significant. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of chlorophyll b was obtained with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at both stage and the lowest obtained with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of plant height was obtained with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest obtained with applying 0.05% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of grain yield was obtained with applying 0.02% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage. However, with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 this stage there were not significant and the lowest obtained with applying 0.02% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at flowering stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of biological yield was obtained with applying 0.02% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest was obtained with applying 0.02% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at flowering stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of harvest index was obtained with applying 0.05% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest was obtained with applying 0.04% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of pod per plant was obtained with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest was obtained with applying 0.04% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at flowering stage. The result of mean comparison showed that the highest amount of number of grain per pod was related with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest was related with applying 0.04% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage. Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount of 100 grain weight was obtained with applying 0.01% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at 60% steaming stage and the lowest was obtained with applying 0.04% nanoparticle Tio2 solution at flowering stage. As well as, the results showed the effect of spray of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and spraying time on chlorophyll a was significant (P ≤ 0.01). Mean comparison of the traits showed that the highest amount chlorophyll a were obtained with applying 0.05% nanoparticle Tio2, the highest amount chlorophyll a were obtained with applying 0.02% nanoparticle Tio2. The spray of nanoparticles titanium at 50% flowering and steaming stage (60%) was the highest and lowest impact on the amount of chlorophyll a.
    ConclusionAccording to the results of this study, it is concluded that spray with nanoparticles increased quantity and quality of lentil. But, the use of nanoparticles according to the aspect of environmental safety is very important.
    Keywords: Flowering, Grain yield, Steaming, TiO2
  • Fateme Gharajedaghi, Mohammad Reza Bihamta, Seyed Ali Peyghambari, Maryam Rezaeinia Pages 69-83
    IntroductionPulse crops with 18-32% protein are the most important source of grain for human food. Protein of food legumes due to the presence of essential amino acids such as Lysine, have high nutritional value. Common beans are half of the beans used in the world, its grains rich in protein and carbohydrates. Common bean is very sensitive to weather conditions and soil quality and its performance even in short periods of stress. About two-thirds of the land under cultivation in Iran is in semi-arid areas, so the varieties with resistance to drought stress are the most important objectives of the breeding programs. Genetic diversity is the base for the selection of genotypes with desirable traits. In addition genetic resources have the fundamental role for agricultural development, as a source of useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the development of genetic adaptation to environmental changes considered that the proper utilization of these varieties can be produced new and more desirable plants.
    Materials & MethodsIn order to evaluate genotypic and phenotypic variation and determine the relationship between grain yield with other traits in 35 common bean genotypes under normal and drought stress conditions, an experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design under two conditions in 2013 at the research field of college of Agriculture and natural resource of University of Tehran in Karaj state with latitude 35° and 56 minutes north and longitude 50° and 58 minutes east and 1112.5 m height above sea level. Treatments consisted of 33 common bean genotypes with three Khomein, Daneshkadeh and Goli Cultivars as control, were selected from the collections of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. Based on 30 years of data, mean annual precipitation of 243 mm and the test run of 47.7 mm rainfall during the growing season was over. Planting was done manually. Each plot consisted of three rows of two meters in length and with a spacing of 50 cm and 10 cm seeds space on the row and depth of planting was about five centimeters. Irrigation took place similar to both conditions at flowering stage, for seven days (Equivalent to 70 mm evaporation) and after the vegetative growth and loss of the risk sufficient to remove the bushes. Irrigation of water stress piece was performed each 11 days (Equivalent to 110 mm evaporation). Harvest was performed when 90% of plants were matured and the seven plants in compliance with marginal effect of each plot were collected to measure traits and then by using the mean yield genotypes per plot in non-stress (Ypi) and stress conditions (Ysi), drought tolerance indices including, Mean Productivity, Geometric Mean Productivity, Harmonic Mean Productivity, Stress Tolerance Index, Stress Susceptibility Index, Tolerance Index, Yield Index, Yield Stability Index, Stress Intensity and yield reduction rate were calculated for each genotype.
    Results & DiscussionResults showed that among genotypes in the studied traits there were significant differences which displayed genetic variation among the genotypes. Based on the average of genotypes yield in normal conditions the highest and lowest seed yield pertained genotypes 27 and 12, respectively, and in the stress related to genotypes 32 and 12, respectively. According to the results of phenotypic correlations, stepwise regression, and path analysis in both normal and stress conditions, the traits of seed and pod weight, biological yield, number of seeds per plant, and number of seed per pod were the most important and effective traits affecting yield. The highest diversity was observed for these traits; therefore the selection of these traits can ideally improve the yield. Based on factor analysis, five factors were selected that the total variation were explained 83.76 and 80.79 percent under normal and drought stress conditions, respectively. The first and second factors were named yield and yield component factors. Geometric Mean Productivity, Harmonic Mean and Stress Tolerance Index, indices had the highest significant correlation with yield in both conditions, hence, were introduced as the best indices for screening tolerant genotypes. Based on biplot graph, genotypes 25, 27 and 28 were identified as tolerant genotypes with high yield, whereas genotypes 7, 10, 22 and 23 as drought-sensitive genotypes. Based on indicators STI, GMP, GMP, HRM and performance in normal and stress conditions, using Ward method genotypes were classified in three clusters 21 genotypes in first class, 3 genotypes in cluster II and 11 genotypes were in Cluster III and tolerant genotypes with the highest distance from sensitive genotypes (cluster I) in the third cluster.
    ConclusionThus, according to genetic distance can be genotypes in breeding programs to produce hybrids with high yield and drought tolerance can be used.
    Keywords: Cluster analysis, Common bean, Factor analysis, Tolerance Indices
  • Fatemeh Zaker Tavallaie, Abdorreza Bagheri, Behzad Ghareyazi, Kiran Komar Sharma Pages 84-95
    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) may have been one of the first agricultural crops grown more than 8,500 years ago and belongs to genus Lens from family leguminous and it is diploid (2n=14). Lentil is a seed propagating, self-pollinating crop originating from Near East. Lentil contains high percentage of protein, and has high nutrient value and easy digestibility. Genetic engineering has high potential to improve tolerance of lentil against biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetic engineering may also have a role in eliminating anti-nutritional factors and improving the nutritional quality of lentil proteins. Lentil can also be employed as host to produce drug using gene transformation. To date only a few reports are available on attempts to transform lentil. In this research we attempted to optimize conditions of gene transformation in lentil.
    Materials & MethodsSeeds of lentil (Lens Culinaris Medik) variety of Gachsaran (ILL6212) were used in present investigation, collected from Shirvan Agriculture Research Center, northeast of Iran. The Explants of Cotyledon with slight part of Embryo Axes (CEA) were prepared as described in Zakertavallaie et al, (2011) study. The explants were kept on Shoot Induction Media (SIM) including MS media supplemented with 7.5µM 2ip, 4 µM Kin and 2 µM TDZ for 8 days. Then explants containing shoots sub cultured on MS media for another 7 days. 15 days explants containing shoots were used for co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain C58 containing binary vector of pCAMBIA1301 was used for transformation experiments. This plasmid contains a reporter gene gus and a selectable gene hptΙΙ, into
    T-DNA for selection of putative transgenic shoots and selectable marker gene nptΙΙ to select transformed bacteria in backbone sequence. Suspension of agrobacterium in 1/2 MS with 4 concentration of OD: 0.13, OD: 0.18, OD: 0.22 and OD: 0.26 was compared to use in co-cultivation media. Explants containing shoots were used for co-cultivation. There was compared two type of preparation of explants to use in co-cultivation. About some of explants, only tip of the shoots removed using scalpel but about some of them almost of shoots removed. All of explants were submerged in Agrobacterium suspension for 2 second and were co-cultured on shoot induction media. Cu-cultivated explants containing shoots were cultured on MS media containing 250mg/lit cefotaxim for 7 days. In this stage shoots transferred to elongation media including MS supplemented with 4µM 2ip and 1µM Kin containing 3 mg/L hygromycine to select transgenic shoots and 200 mg/lit cefotaxim to kill bacteria. The hygromycine was increased with each subculture at 7 days intervals up to 5 mg/lit and the non-health and non-green shoots were discarded in each subculture. Elongation of shoots, rooting, hardening and glasshouse growth was done according to Zakertavallaie et al, (2011) protocol. Gus assay carried out before root induction using Hay et al. (2004) protocol and Blue dot were observed under microscope. DNA was extracted from leaves of both non transgenic and putative transgenic plants using modified CTAB protocol. DNA was subjected to Polymerase change reaction using the hyg and gus primers with. PCR was carried out with following condition: PCR reaction mix of 25 µl contained 2 µl genomic DNA (100ng/µl), 2.5µl 10X buffer, 2 µl MgCl2 (50mM), 0.5 µl dNTP (10Mm) and 0.5 µl Taq DNA polymerase (5u/µl). The concentration of primers were also 100 pmol/ µl. in PCR amplification DNA denatured at 94ºC for 5 min then followed by 35 cycles with 1 min at 94ºC, I min at annealing temperature (for gus gene at 58 ºC and for hpt gene at 59 ºC), 1 min at 72 ºC. final extension was carried out at 72 ºC for 10 min. PCR product was run on 1.2% agarose gel and observed under UV after staining with ethidium bromide.
    Results & DiscussionExplants after shoot induction were prepared for co-cultivation. Co-cultivation period was 72 hours. Concentration of Agrobacterium was important. Acetoceringone has no effect on success of gene transformation. Concentrations of 3 to 5 mg/lit hygromycine were suitable for selection media in shooting stage. Gus assay confirmed gene transformation in putative transgenic shoots. Also PCR reaction confirmed existence of gus and hpt genes in plants.
    ConclusionThe employed protocol in this research can be used for gene transformation of lentil using another gene to improve it about other treats such as enhancement of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
    Keywords: Genetic engineering, Gus gene, Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), Regeneration, Transgenic plant
  • Fatemeh Khamadi, Mossa Mesgarbashi, Pyman Hassibi Pages 96-108
    IntroductionCrop residues are those parts of the plants that left in the field after the harvestable parts of crops (grain, tubers, roots, etc.) are removed. The recycling of crop residues has the advantage of converting the surplus farm waste into useful products for meeting nutrient requirements of crops. It also maintains the soil physical and chemical condition and improves the overall ecological balance of the crop production system. Research has shown that the return of crop residues on fragile soils improved the tilt and fertility of soil, enhance crop productivity, reduce the wind and water erosion and prevent nutrients losses by run off and leaching. Despite these advantages, farmers in Iran prefer to remove crop residues out of field to feed livestock or use them as fuel or as building construction materials and burning. Nitrogen is one of the basic compounds in plant nutrition and its deficit directly one of important growth limiting factors in plants because the need of plants to this element is much more than the other one. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the wheat residue management and nitrogen fertilizer levels to improve mungbean growth and productivity under Ahwaz conditions.
    Materials & MethodsThe experiment was conducted at Agriculture Faculty Farm, of Chamran University during summer of 2014. The soil texture of the experimental site is clay loam with pH of 7.9 and EC of 2.8 ds.m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design using split plot arrangement with three replications. Five crop residues (0, 1750, 3500, 5250 and 7000 kg.ha-1) were assigned to the main plots. While three levels of nitrogen (0, 150, 250 kg.ha-1) were applied to the sub plots. The experimental unit area was 10.5 m2 (4.2 × 2.5 m). At harvest, random samples of ten plants for each experimental unit were taken and plant height number of branches, pod per plant, seed per pod, 1000 grain weight, were recorded. Whole plot was harvested for determination of seed, straw and biological yield and harvest index. All collected data were subjected to analysis of variance procedure using the MCTATC statistical software and means were separated using Duncan method at 5% level of significance.
    Results & DiscussionThe results of experiment revealed that crop residue management and interaction wheat residue and nitrogen levels had a significant effect on number of pod plant-1, number of seed pod-1 traits. Wheat residue incorporation enhanced those traits in comparison with control (No crop residue incorporation) in this respect application of 3500 kg/ha straw (50% wheat residue) produced 50.77 pod per plant and 9.75 seed per pod respectively. It is plausible that wheat residue gave the highest number of branches, consequently increased the number of plant. Application of N fertilizer significantly enhanced all yield component in this study compared with control. The highest values of number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000 kernel weight, plant height traits were obtained when N application was used at the rate of 250 kg ha-1. There was no significant difference between the mean values obtained from applying 150 or 250 kg ha-1 for number branch/plant and 1000 seed weight. The results are in agreement with that obtained by Achakzai et al., (2010) and Azadi et al., (2013). Data revealed that wheat straw rates, N fertilizer levels and their interaction had significant effect on seed yield and biological yield and harvest index. Application of wheat straw enhanced this trait in comparison with control (no crop residue) and the superiority in this respect to (3500 and 5250 kg.ha-1 wheat straw) which gave the highest values of 2611 and 6983 for seed yield and biological yield respectively. The highest values of seed yield and biological yield were obtained when N fertilizer application was used at the rate of 250 kg.ha-1, furthermore, the interaction between crop residue and N fertilizer rates had significant effect on seed yield and biological yield. The highest seed yield and biological yield were obtained from combination treatment with 50% wheat straw incorporation and 250 kg/ha with no significant differences between this interaction and obtained seed yield and biological yield from 75% wheat straw and 250 kg N.ha-1. This is to be logic since the same interaction gained the highest values of yield components and consequently seed yield. It might be due to the addition of crop residue and additional fertilization which might have improved the soil health and consequently higher uptake of available nutrients from the soil and increased the yield components, morphological and physiological characteristics which ultimately attributed to increase grain yield. Crop residue on decomposition released nutrients slowly throughout the growth period, which resulted in better plant growth and higher yields. Also biological nitrogen fixation by legumes increased by crop residue application on soil surface due to better activity of rhizobia created by relatively cooler and moist environment in the rhizosphere led to high crop growth, increased NPK uptake, and resulted into significant increase in mungbean yield.
    ConclusionThe results of this experiment showed that application of 3500 kg wheat residue ha-1 and 250 kg N.ha-1 enhanced crop growth and produced the highest seed yield.
    Keywords: Biological nitrogen fixation, Crop system sustainable management, Weed
  • Mohammad Javad Arshadi, Mahdi Parsa, Amir Lakzian, Mohammad Kafi Pages 109-125
    IntroductionIn Iran, among pluses, chickpea has been allocated the most area under cultivation. However, the yield average of water and dry chickpea is 1000 and 500 kg per hectare, respectively and among the producer countries of this product, the yield average is low. One of the factors which could be effective in increasing yield of chickpea is its symbiosis with the mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi because of stimulating the development of the root system of plants can affect food absorption. In addition to, mycorrhizal fungi specially provide biological phosphorus absorption for plants involved. Among them, the endo myccorihza (or Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) that abbreviated VAM, in creation of symbiosis with the roots of chickpea have been more successful. The mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium bacteria before create symbiosis with host plant, directly affect the overlay in rhizosphere environment of host plant. Studies have shown that the VAMs (which are newly named AMF ) are generally belong to Zigomaycota groups and ecto-myccorihza are mainly to Basidiomaycota. However recently a new species of Basidiomaycota has been identified with name of Piriformospora indica that acts as AMF and is an entophyte fungus. That is why it is called to be like-endo myccorihza. However, the Triplet symbiosis of chickpea, mycorrhiza and rhizobium and also chickpea genotypes response to this symbiosis should be examined.
    Materials & MethodsIn order to investigate the inolulation of kabuli seeds of chickpea genotypes with arbuscular mycorrhiza and like-endo mycorhiza, an experiment was conducted in 2014, in split plot by arrangement of two - factors with a randomized complete block design and three replications in research field at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Main plots were consisted of three levels of mycorhiza (arbuscular mycorhiza of Glomus mosseae, like-endo mycorhiza of Piriformospora indica and non - used mycorhiza) and sub plots were consisted of nine genotypes of chickpea: MCC 80, MCC 358, MCC 361, MCC 392, MCC 427, MCC 537, MCC 693, MCC 696 and MCC 950. (These genotypes had good yield potentials and selection and presented in the studies on germplasm from the Institute of Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad seed bank). All seeds of genotypes were infected to the symbiotic rhizobium bacteria of chickpea.
    Results & DiscussionThe results indicated that mycorrhiza significantly increased seed and biological yield, harvest index and number of pods per plant. The effect of mycorrhiza was not significant on number of seeds in pod and weight of 1000 seeds. Among the genotypes in this study, the highest seed and biological yield and number of pods per plant was dedicated to genotype MCC 537. Genotypes MCC 80, MCC 537 and MCC 392 showed highest harvest index significantly. The highest weight of 1000 seeds was assigned to the genotype of MCC 392. There was not significant differences between genotypes due to the number of seeds per pod. In the study the interactions effects was observed between mycorrhizal and chickpea genotypes that the highest seed and biological yield belonged to the factor of arbuscular mycorrhiza-MCC 537 genotype and the highest harvest index belonged to the factor of arbuscular mycorrhiza-MCC 80 genotype.
    ConclusionApplication of dual inoculation of mycorrhiza and rhizobium could improve the uptake of yield and yield components in chickpea genotypes. Application of like-endo mycorrhiza had not significant effect on seed production and yield components on chickpea. In a general conclusion, among the studied genotypes, MCC 537 and MCC 427 were better than the others.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorhiza, Chickpea, Like-endo mycorhiza, Triplet symbiosis
  • Abbas Nasiri Dehsorkhi, Hassan Makarian, Manouchehr Gholipoor, Hamid Abbasdokht Pages 126-140
    IntroductionThe mechanism of seed priming is to initiate the repairing system for membrane and the metabolic preparation for germination through controlling water absorption rate of seed. As a result, the germination capability and resistance to unfavorable conditions of seed can be promoted obviously. Ultrasound is defined as acoustic waves at frequencies greater than 20 kHz that can be an effective method of improve germination and growth characteristics of plants. Mirshekari et al. (2013) found that treating common narrow seeds with ultrasonic irradiation increases its germination and primary growth. There is no knowledge about the effect of ultrasonic waves and seed priming on plant competition with weeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the effect of ultrasonic waves and seed priming on yield and yield components of cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) in competition with weeds.
    Materials and MethodsExperiment was conducted at the research field of Shahrood University of Technology (latitude of 36° 25 'N and longitude of 54° 57' E with an elevation of 1345 m) as randomized complete block design with four replications in during the growing season of 2013-2014. Treatments included; ultrasonic waves (ultrasound) no weeding, ultrasonic waves weeding (all season), ultrasonic waves reduced herbicide dose (trifluralin 1 L.ha-1), ultrasonic waves the recommended herbicide dose (2 L.ha-1), hydro-priming no weeding, hydro-priming weeding, hydro-priming reduced herbicide dose, hydro-priming recommended herbicide dose, no weeding, weeding (all season), recommended herbicide dose, and reduced herbicide dose. In hydro-priming treatment, seeds were treated with water before sowing for 7 hours. Also for ultrasonic treatment, the seeds before sonication (for 6 minutes) treated with water for 7 hour. Trifluralin used in recommended dose (2 L.ha-1) and reduced herbicide dose (1 L.ha-1), therefore immediate mixed with soil before planting. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that all treatments decreased significantly biomass and density of weeds in comparison to control (no weeding). No significant difference was observed in density and shoot biomass of weeds between the application of hydro-priming trifluralin 1 L.ha-1 and ultrasonic waves trifluralin 1 L.ha-1 with trifluralin 2 L.ha-1 treatment. Hydro-priming reduced herbicide dose and ultrasonic waves reduced herbicide dose treatments decreased total weed biomass by 61 and 46.5% in comparison to using reduced herbicide dose treatment. In this regard Abbasdokht et al (2012) reported that density and shoot biomass of weeds was similar between reduced herbicide dose (Nicosulfuron 40 g.a.i. ha-1) hydro priming and recommended herbicide dose (Nicosulfuron 80 g.a.i. ha-1). During priming, seeds are partially hydrated so that pre-germinative metabolic activities proceed, while radicle protrusion is prevented, then are dried back to the original moisture level (McDonald, 2000). Ghassemi-Golezani et al, (2008) suggested hydropriming as a simple and effective method for improving seed germination and seedling emergence of lentil in the field. Also the results indicated that the combined use of ultrasonic waves weeding (all season) treatment increased grain and biological yield by 62 and 52.3 percent in comparison to control (no weeding) treatment respectively. Rajabian (2013) reported that seed pretreatment of corn by ultrasonic waves increased the grain and biologic yield in comparison to control significantly. The results indicated that no significant difference was observed in grain yield between the application of hydro-priming trifluralin 1 L.ha-1 and ultrasonic waves trifluralin 1 L.ha-1 in comparison to trifluralin 2 L.ha-1 and weeding (all season) treatments. Whereas, sowing pretreated seeds by ultrasonic waves and hydro-priming in soil containing recommended trifluralin dose decreased the investigated traits in comparison to application of pre-treatments alone and recommended herbicide dose. In this regard, Moradbeygi and Khara (2011) observed a significant reduction due to increased trifluralin concentrations on root and shoot length and dry weight of sunflower plants. Based on Yaldagard et al, (2008), one of the possible explanations could be that the mechanical effects of ultra-sonication produced numerous small holes in the coating and after steeping in the water a significant rise in seedling moisture resulted. It has been suggested that the sonication process accelerates the imbibition of water through the pericarp. Sonication may create or enlarge fissures in the protective coating surrounding the seed and pericarp. The superiority of sonication may be due to a higher holding capacity and higher porosity, which increase oxygen availability. Generally it seems that pre-treatment of cowpea seeds by hydro-priming and ultrasonic waves can increase competitiveness of bean plant with weeds through increasing crop growth rate. The results showed that proper combination of trifluralin herbicide along with seed priming could be used to control the weeds in the bean and obtain seed yield comparable with weed-free conditions.
    ConclusionBoth hydro-priming and ultrasonic waves had the effects on accelerating germination and improving competitive ability of bean plant. Hydro- or ultrasonic waves priming showed better plant growth than that without priming treatment when exposed to competition conditions. Pretreated seeds in combination to low herbicide dose had the best effects on the weed suppression and increasing crop yield. Based on our results, priming and sonication of seeds in combination with reduced dose of herbicide can be an effective method of weeds control and increase crop yield and also reduce herbicide consumption.
    Keywords: Integrated weed management, Primary establishment, Trifluralin
  • Tabassom Ghadimian, Hamid Madani, Masoud Gomarian Pages 141-154
    IntroductionRapid population growth in developing countries have resulted to adverse effect such as food shortages and malnutrition. Lack of protein in the diet is accounted for the largest portion. Pulses with high amounts of protein are the second largest source of food after cereals. Among pulses, beans as a supplier of plant proteins in many countries, particularly developing countries has high consumption. Area under cultivation of bean is 240000 hectares with an average yield of 1500 kg per hectare in Iran. In arid and semi-arid area due to excessive exploitation of water resources, the water shortage is constantly evolving and according to the climatic conditions that are considered hot and dry, and sensitivity of bean to drought further research in this field is clear. Humic acid is extracted from different sources, such as humus and, soil and using chelating essential elements improve and increase fertility and productivity of soil, especially in conditions of stress. As we mentioned before, purpose of this study was evaluating effect of water stress and use of humic acid on agronomic, physiological and quality traits.
    Materials & MethodsThis experiment was performed at agricultural Research Station in Arak, Iran in 2014. The experiment was performed in split plot arangment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factor was irrigation hold at 3 levels: complete irrigation (control), irrigation hold at flowering stage and irrigation hold at pod stage and sub factor was humic acid foliar application in three levels of non humic acid application (control), 1.5 and 3 liters per hectare humic acid 12% at pre flower satage and pod stges applications. In this study the red bean seed was from D81083 cultivar. In this study, biological yield, grain yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, harvest index, seed weight, chlorophyll a, b and a content, RWC, iron, zinc and protein contents in grains and also, leaf electrolyte electrical conductivity were measured. Analysis of data was done with SAS software and comparisons of means were performed with Duncans multiple range test at 0.05 statistically significant level.
    Results & DiscussionMean comparison of irrigation treatment indicated that the highest seed yield was in complete irrigation and hold irrigation at pod stage and lowest rate was for hold irrigation at flowering stage. In this experiment, use of humic acid in normal conditions and in conditions of hold irrigation at flowering and pod stage could be increase the yield. The highest harvest index was in complete irrigation and hold irrigation at pod stage. The results showed that the highest 100 seed weight was from control and hold irrigation at pod stage treatment and the least weight was from hold irrigation at flowering stage which shows the sensitive stage for bean is cut-irrigation at flowering stage and maybe the need for water is low in pod stage. Among yield components, seeds per pod had significant correlation with yield. The highest number of pods per plant during irrigation hold was at flowering stage and control treatment and irrigation hold at pod stage had the lowest rate of pods per plant. Most of seed protein obtained from hold irrigation at flowering stage and the lowest amount of it was in hold irrigation at pod stage. The effect of hold irrigation and the effect of humic acid opplication was as well as the interaction bouth. There were significant differences on levels of iron and zinc in seeds. The highest amount of chlorophyll a, b and a were in hold irrigation at flowering stage. The effect of 3.5 liter per hectare foliar application of humic acid could be increase total chlorophyll. Hold Irrigation treatment also had a significant effect on the leaf relative water content in pod stage.
    ConclusionThe results showed that the irrigation hold had significant effect on all studied traits. Generally, the highest and lowest yield was related to complete irrigation treatment but in some cases the hold irrigation at flowering stage was the same result. The effect of hold irrigation at pod stage was the same as complete irrigation treatment which this point can be used in saving water. Also, Spraying with different amounts of humic acid showed that the humic acid improved the agronomic characteristics and quality of the beans in range of 1.5 litter per ha. Therefore, Using of humic acid may improve agronomic, qualitative and physiological characteristics of red bean.
    Keywords: Deficit irrigation stress, Humic acid, Micro elements, Protein, Red Bean
  • Adel Ghadiry, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Abdolreza Bagheri, Reza Ghorbani, Alireza Beheshti Pages 155-165
    IntroductionLegumes such as Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), in addition to the value of food and proteins production, they are able to fix biological nitrogen and therefore, are desirable for planting in sustainable agricultural systems in order to strengthen and preserve soil fertility. Low input farming systems (LIFS), which are a part of sustainable agricultural systems was defined as a way to optimize the use of ecological inputs and to minimize the use of inputs such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides in every time and every place to reduce the cost of production, reduce pollution of groundwater and surface water, reduce of pesticide residues in food, reduce total risk in agriculture and an increase in short and long term profitability of agriculture. Evaluation and identification of the suitable cropping plant cultivars for planting in low-input agricultural systems has begun three decades ago, in the world. The aim of this study was to identify of pinto bean genotypes suitable for cultivation in low input crop management system and use them in breeding programs and the cultivar release process of this crop.
    Material & MethodsIn order to evaluate Pinto bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in terms of response to low input crop management, 559 Pinto bean genotypes were evaluated using augmented design in both conventional, and low-input crop management conditions. According to grain yield of genotypes in the two conditions, MP, GMP, TOL, STI and SSI were calculated and then, the correlation between the index and the main component analysis was performed. All Statistical analysis, correlation estimates, factor analysis and graphs performed using SPSS software.
    Results & DiscussionAccording to correlation between grain yield in optimal and low input conditions (r=0.34**, n=559), it was found that genotype selection based on grain yield in both conditions can identify genotypes with high yield and stable production. The correlation between grain yield in conventional condition and MP, GMP, STI, SSI and TOL was positive and significant. In addition, the grain yield in low input condition had a positive significant correlation with GMP, MP and STI. Negative significant correlation was shown between grain yield in low input condition and SSI and TOL. According to cluster analysis, the bean genotypes were placed in 5 cluster that genotypes in cluster 2, in term of GMP and STI were 76% and 181% higher than overall average and in term of SSI and TOL were 60% and 48.5% lower than overall average, respectively. Therefore, they were selected as the best genotypes for cultivation in low input conditions. Based on the main component analysis on five indexes and YP and YS in evaluated genotypes, it was observed that two main component explained 97.8 percent of the total variation. The first and two principle components explained 61.8% and 35.9% of total variation, respectively. The highest positive factor in the linear combination of the first component was related to Yp, YS, MP, GMP and STI. Therefore, this component was called as yield component and tolerance to low input conditions. Because of high levels of these indicators are favorable, due to the positive and high values of these component, to select genotypes were acted that have a higher grain yield in both conventional and low input conditions. The highest positive factor in the linear combination of second component was related to SSI, TOL and a little Yp and the highest negative factor was related to Ys. So this component was called as sensitive to low input conditions. The genotypes that had lower values of second component had the least sensitive to low input conditions. According to biplot of two main components, genotypes were classified into four groups. Genotypes that were in the A zone, in terms of the tolerance index to low input conditions (MP, GMP and STI) have higher values than average and in terms of the sensitivity index to low input conditions (SSI) have lower values than average so they were most suitable genotypes.
    ConclusionAccording to grain yield and tolerance indexes to low in put condition, the group 1 genotypes (Ks-21184, Ks-92021, Ks-21119, Ks-21280, Ks-21461, Ks-21362, Ks-92198, Ks-21671, Ks-21673 and Ks-21236) as the best genotypes for cultivation in low input farming systems (LIFS) were identified and selected.
    Keywords: Pinto bean, Seed Yield, Stress Tolerance Index
  • Hassan Makarian, Hassan Shojaei, Ali Damavandi, Abbas Nasiri Dehsorkhi, Ahmad Akhyani Pages 166-180
    IntroductionMungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is an important, environment friendly staple food legume with rich source of proteins, vitamins, and minerals for human. Drought stress is one of the most adverse factors of Mungbean growth and productivity. Proper nutrition under stress conditions could partly help the plant to tolerate different stresses. Zinc plays a key role in the synthesis of proteins, DNA, and RNA. By consumption of zinc, it is possible to improve the growth status of the plant in stress conditions. Various studies were carried out to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of plants. For example, Hong et al. (2005) and Yang et al. (2006) reported that a proper concentration of nano-TiO2 was found to improve the growth of spinach by promoting photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Nano-particles have high reactivity because of more specific surface area, more density of reactive areas, or increased reactivity of these areas on the particle surfaces. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of foliar application of Zno2 in common and nanoparticles forms on growth traits and yield of mungbean (V. radiata L.) under drought stress condition.
    Materials & MethodsExperiment was carried out as a split plot in complete randomized block design with four replications in Shahrood Agricultural Research Center during the growing season of 2011-2012. Water stress at three levels (control, cutting of irrigation in 50% flowering and 50% pod setting stages) were assigned as main plots and zinc oxide foliar application in five levels (control, 5 and 10 gl-1 nano sized zinc oxide and 5 and 10 gl-1 non-nano-scale zinc oxide) were randomized in sub-plots. According to soil analysis experiment results, the soil was loam and having pH=7.8; EC=1.5 (dS/m); 0.4% of organic carbon; 0.08% N; 10, 280 and 1.1 ppm of P, K and Zn respectively. Zinc spraying on leaves was done two times at 40 and 55 day after planting. The plots were 24 m2 with 6 sowing rows, 4 m long. Seeds were placed at 3 to 5 cm depth in each row. Irrigation operations were performed until the emergence once every 7 days. Afterwards at 50% flowering and 50% of pod formation stages, irrigation was disrupted. Intended traits were measured in the end of crop season. All data collected were subjected of analysis of variance (ANOVA) using MSTATC software procedure and the significant treatment means were separated using Duncan's multiple range test.
    Results & DiscussionResults showed that the drought stress at flowering and podding stages decreased the height, number of branches, chlorophyll a, b, grain and biological yield in comparison to control treatment significantly, but the effect of drought stress at podding stage was more than drought stress at flowering. Water deficit in the plant disrupts many cellular and whole plant functions, having a negative impact on plant growth and reproduction. Thus, it is one of the most yield limiting factors as it affects growth and development. Seed protein and proline content increased under drought stress significantly, while there was no significant difference for carotenoid content between treatments. Foliar application of Zinc in common and nanoparticles forms increased the height, proline content, grain and biological yield in comparison to control treatment significantly. The results showed that foliar application of 10 grams per liter nano zinc oxide in normal and drought stress at flowering and podding stages increased the grain yield by 6.6, 3.6 and 5.4 percent in comparison to no spraying treatments respectively. The maximum effects of Zinc on increasing of traits was found by foliar application of 10 grams per liter nano zinc oxide, 10 grams per liter zinc oxide, 5 grams per liter nano zinc oxide and 5 grams per liter zinc oxide respectively. With the completion of Micro-Nutrients consumption through spraying, the growth state of plant can be improved in stress conditions. Liu et al. (2005) reported that nano-Fe2O3 promoted the growth and photosynthesis of peanut. Prasad et al. (2012) reported that nano-scale zinc oxide particles increased stem and root growth and pod yield of peanut as compared with ZnSO4 application. Reduction of particle size results in increased number of particles per unit of weight and specific surface area of a fertilizer that should increase contact of fertilizer with plant leading to increase in nutrient uptake. Nanoparticles have high reactivity because of more specific surface area, more density of reactive areas, or increased reactivity of these areas on the particle surfaces. These features in nano-scale simplify their absorption in plants.
    ConclusionMungbean growth characteristics could positively influence by foliar application of zinc oxide as nano and micro-particles in drought stress conditions. But, the effects of nano-scale zinc oxide particles on plant growth and yield was more in comparison to micro particles zinc oxide in stress and non-stressed conditions.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Proline content, Water deficit stress
  • Edris Choupani, Khadijeh Bagheri, Bahram Maleki Pages 181-191
    IntroductionConstitutive promoters such as CaMV 35S, which is usually widely used in the plant genetic engineering express downstream genes in the all stages of plant life and in all tissues and if a transgene expressed at incorrect tissue and time perhaps unexpected results would be seen in plant growth. To avoid disadvantages of constitutive promoter function identification and isolation of tissue-specific and strong promoters is very important in genetic engineering. Beta phaseolin is one of the strong seed-specific promoters that controls the expression of about 50% bean seed proteins. Extensive studies in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and transgenic tobacco have revealed that the promoter for the beta-phaseolin storage protein gene (phas) is stringently regulated. Expression is very high during embryogenesis and microsporogenesis but is absent in vegetative tissues. The utilization of this promoter to optimize the production of seed proteins in bean sand other recombinant proteins in other plants would be will be useful. According to the above-mentioned advantages about seed specific promoter, this study has been conducted to identify and isolate the beta phaseolin gene promoter from bean (phaseolus vulgaris) and clone it in pBI121 plants vector.
    Materials & MethodsBioinformatic analysis help the prediction of promoter intensity, proper separation and synthesis of artificial promoter. According to bioinformatic analysis, specific primers using gene runner, vector NT and primre 3 softwares were designed and by using these primers, promoter sequence was amplified from bean genomic DNA, Due to the size of amplified fragment, its authenticity was confirmed. In the next step, the desired sequence ligated into the cloning vector pTZ57R /T and by using PCR and digestion reactions was confirmed. The aim of this study was to isolate beta phaseolin of bean and its use in the preparation of gene constructs. For this reason, we subcloned fragment in plant expression vector (pBI121) and cloning was confirmed by colony PCR and digestion.
    Results & DiscussionThe results showed more than 20 factors cis such as ACGTSEED2, opaque-2,E-box, legumin box, endosperm box and etc are in beta phaseolin promoter that play a role in the high expression and specificity. ACGTSEED2 factor that is unique in the phaseolin promoter has major role in the expression of specific genes in the seeds of beans. G-box sequence is one of important cis factors. This factor is of responding to abscisic acid, promoter activity is reduced to 2.6% by removing the G-box. Functional E-site may be necessary to complement the G-box-mediated promoter activation, hence acting as a coupling element. The vicilin core sequence (GCCACCTCA) was initially described as a part of a large vicilin boxThe vicilin box (henceforth, this term refers only to the core sequence) is found in the promoters for many seed storage proteins. There is also three TATA box is activated as the promoter core and Plays an important role in being a strong promoter and high expression. Previous studies and portions of the current study confirm that 295 bp from beta phaseolin promoter is relevant seed-specific expression that consists of three parts; 1- Sequence 68 bp (227 to -295) that known as Seed Specific Enhancer (SSE) 2- The middle part (109 to -127) 3- base promoter ( to -109). SSE, base promoter and the middle part simultaneously causes increase in gene expression. OSE (Organ specific elements) factors are in the legumes promoters like beans, soybeans, alfalfa, etc, and related to the symbiosis of these plants with the Rhizobium bacteria. Therefore, in this study isolated completely sequence of the beta phaseolin promoter were shown. But it is advisable that if there are restrictions on the size of the promoter and the promoter artificial synthesis can be separated 295 bp of the beta phaseolin promoter sequence.
    ConclusionThe promoters are important part of gene constructs and necessary for production of recombinant proteins in genetically modified plants beta phaseolin promoter is a strong and seed-specific promoter, so it has ability for the production of recombinant proteins and building gene constructs.
    Keywords: Bioinformatic analysis, Seed promoter, Specific promoter
  • Ghorbanali Asadi, Sorur Khorramdel, Roshanak Shahriary, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Mahsa Aghhavani Shajari Pages 192-204
    IntroductionConservation agriculture (CA) has been proposed as a set of principles that could help reverse widespread soil degradation in the region and help farmers stabilize yields by mitigating the effects climate variability. Though numerous questions remain on how CA practices might fit in a complex mix grain- grazing farming systems, where limited land, cash and labor impose severe constraints on farmers’ options. Intercropping is a CA approach that has been traditionally practiced in many parts of world and has some advantages over monocultures. One of its obvious advantages may be to increase forage protein, the principle being improvement of forage quality through the complementary effects of two or more crops grown simultaneously on the same area of land. Intercropping supplies efficient resource utilization, reduces risk to the environment and production costs, and provides greater financial stability, making the system more suitable particularly for labor-intensive, small farmers. Morpho-physiological differences and agronomic factors such as the proportion of crops in the mixture and fertilizer application regulate competition between component crops for growth-limiting factors. Greater total uptake of nutrients and other growth factors by the component crops in the intercropping is the primary cause of obtaining intercropping advantage. Intercropping research studies involving a cereal and a legume have not considered the combined effect of fertilizer application and plant population variation. Maize and beans are important food crops, mostly grown by resource- poor farmers in complex and risky farming systems. Morgado & Willey (2003) showed that competitive effect of intercrop beans on maize yields was high at higher plant populations.
    Materials & MethodsIn order to study the production potential and competitiveness of sweet corn and bean varieties, an experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season of 2014-2015. Treatments included different combinations of bean (B) and sweet corn (C): 25%B%C, 50%B%C, 75%B%C and bean varieties and their monoculture. Bean varieties consisted cowpea, white, red, pinto and landrace and chase sweet corn. Studied criteria were yield components (pod number per plant, seed number per pod and 100-seed weight), biological yield, seed yield and harvest index (HI) of bean and biological yield, seed yield and HI of sweet corn and land equivalent ratio (LER).
    Results & DiscussionThe results indicated that effect of intercropping ratios were significant (p≤0.05) on seed yield, biological yield, HI, pod number per plant and seed number per pod and biological yield and seed yield of bean. The highest seed yield of bean was observed in 75%B 25%C with 1675 g.m-2 and the lowest was related to 25%B 75%C with 778 g.m-2. The maximum seed yield was obtained in pinto (2342.33 g.m-2) and the minimum was achieved in landrace (847.75 g.m-2). Seed yield of sweet corn in monoculture was higher than intercropping ratios, but by increasing density in intercropping ratios with bean varieties it significantly enhanced. The highest and the lowest seed yield in intercropping ratios were observed in 75%C 25%B with 7348.1 g.m-2 and 25%C 75%B with 3466 g.m-2, respectively. In all combinations of intercropping ratios LER was higher than 1, that it represents intercropping is better than monoculture. The maximum land equivalent ratio was calculated with 1.47 for 25%B (landrace) 75%C. The results showed that landrace was competitive than other varieties.
    ConclusionThe effect of intercropping ratios of sweet corn with bean landraces were significant (p≤0.05) on seed yield, biological yield, HI and yield components of the crops. The maximum seed yield was obtained in pinto and the minimum was achieved in landrace. Seed yield of sweet corn in monoculture was higher than intercropping ratios, but by increasing density in intercropping ratios with bean varieties it significantly enhanced. According to the results, intercropping of plants of 25%B (landrace) 75%C can be beneficial in term of ecological management.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, Harvest index, Intercropping, Land equivalent ratio
  • Saeed Saeedipour, Zeinab Boali Pages 205-214
    IntroductionBroad bean (Vicia faba, L.) is grown and consumed principally in developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Farmers often consider weeds to be the major biological constraint to growing legume crops successfully. Chemical control of weeds became widespread in the world because it brings about rapid and desirable control of weeds; and today chemical weed control is one of the most popular methods of controlling weeds. Weed interference in dry bean can reduce seed yield as much as 83%. There is limited number of post emergence herbicides available for broad bean production. More research is needed to identify POST herbicides that provide broadleaves weed control in broad beans. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of some broadleaved herbicides applied POST at the proposed manufacturer’s recommended rate and to assess broad bean yield response to these herbicides since no information is available in the literature on these chemicals.
    Materials & MethodsField experiment was conducted in 2011-2012 at the Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran (320 3´ N, 480 50´ E). The experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatment consisted of 1) Basagran (bentazon) SL 48% 1.5 Lha-1 Haloxyfop-R-methyl (super gallant) EC 10.8% 0.6 Lha-1 2) Bentazon SL 48% 1.5 Lha-1 Sethoxydim (nabo-S) OEC 12.5% 1.5 Lha-1 3) Bentazon SL 48% 1.5 Lha-1 Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (whip super) EC 12% 0.7 Lha-1 4) Imazthapyr(pursuit) SL 10% 0.6 Lha-1 5) Pursuit SL 10% 0.4 applied POST, with two control plots weed-free and weed-infested throughout the crop cycle, respectively. Plots were maintained weed free by cultivation and hand hoeing as required to eliminate the confounding effect of weed interference. Bean shoot dry weight was determined by cutting plants at the soil surface from 1m of row per plot. Plants were dried at 75 0C to constant moisture and then weighed. Broad bean height was measured for 10 plants in each plot 5 WAT and averaged. Broad bean was considered mature when 90% of the pods in the untreated control had turned from green to a golden color. Beans were harvested from each plot, weight and seed moisture content were recorded, and seed yields were adjusted to 13% moisture. Data were analyzed as an RCBD using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.2. The comparison of means was conducted by Duncan method at 1 and 5% probability level.
    Results & DiscussionHerbicide treatments applied to broad bean resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in weed biomass and density relative to the untreated control (Table1, 2). The blend of Bentazon㚆S and Pursuit with the dose of 0.6 Lha-1 has been more successful in the control of weed than other treatments, and has decreased the weed biomass by over %98.7 in compare to weedy check. Other studies have found that 50 g ai ha-1 of imazethapyr (pursuit) applied post emergence will provide season-long control of broad leaf weed in pinto beans. There was no statistical difference in weed control between pursuit applied alone or tank-mixed of Bentazon with Nobo-S (Table 3). The least level of control were observed in blend of Bentazon娘 super and pursuit with the dose of 0.4 Lha-1(Table 4). Weed management practitioners must adjust pursuit herbicide doses based on weed species composition. Among experimental treatments there was a significant difference in terms of impact on the density of weed (Table 1). Mean comparison of treatments showed that pursuit with the dose of 0.6 Lha-1 decreased the density of weed by 66.2%. Seed yield was equal in all POST herbicide treatments, and there was no statistical difference in seed yield among herbicide treatments. The lowest and highest seed yield recorded 2403 and 2545 kg ha−1 in tank-mixed of Bentazon䫪 gallant and pursuit with the dose of 0.6 Lha-1, respectively (Table 4). In the weedy treatment seed yield was 1494.9 kg ha−1, and on hoeing treatment it was 3239 kg ha−1 (Table 4). Because the highest yield of herbicide treatments was only 78% of the hoeing treatment, it is likely that more efficient weed management programs can be developed. Higher seed yield in herbicide treated plots in compare to weedy check, may be an outcome of efficient weed control achieved there. These results are in conformation with those of some researchers who reported that herbicides offer sizeable increase in crop productivity corresponding to their weed control spectrum.
    ConclusionsIt is concluded that the most effective herbicide treatment was pursuit with the dose of 0.6 Lha-1, which provided maximum reduction in total weed dry matter. However, all herbicide treatments increased broad bean biological and seed yield as compared with the weedy check.
    Keywords: Imazethapyr herbicide, Seed yield, Weed dry weight