فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای زراعی ایران - سال شانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 59، 1397)
  • سال شانزدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 59، 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
|
  • علمی پژوهشی
  • احمد نظامی، سعید خانی نژاد، محمود رضا بهرامی، حامد ظریف کتابی صفحات 1-14
    اندازه گیری فلورسانس کلروفیل روشی سریع و غیر تخریبی است که به عنوان شاخصی مهم برای شناسایی ارقام متحمل به تنش های محیطی ازجمله تنش یخ زدگی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. به منظور بررسی امکان استفاده از پارامترهای فلورسانس کلروفیل در ارزیابی تحمل اکوتیپ های چندساله چاودار به تنش یخ زدگی آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. عامل های مورد مطالعه شامل 10 اکوتیپ چاودار (264، 941، 8425، 15771، 1587، 14947، 591، 1275، 3857 و 12640)، 9 دمای یخ زدگی (0، 3-، 6-، 9-، 12-، 15-، 18-، 21- و 24- درجه سانتی گراد) و چهار مرحله اندازه گیری حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II در دوره ی بازیابی گیاه پس از اعمال تنش یخ زدگی (12، 24، 48 و 96 ساعت) بودند. حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II در گیاهچه های چاودار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اکوتیپ های چاودار تا دمای 18- درجه سانتی گراد از نظر حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II تفاوت معنی داری نداشتند، اما در دماهای 21- و 24- درجه سانتی گراد و با گذشت زمان بازیابی از 12 به 24 ساعت حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II کاهش یافت. از نظر دمای کاهنده 50 درصد حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II بین اکوتیپ های چاودار تفاوت معنی داری وجود داشت، به طوری که در 12 ساعت بعد از اعمال تنش یخ زدگی اکوتیپ 12640 در دمای 8/24- درجه سانتی گراد به 50 درصد کاهش حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II خود رسید و اکوتیپ 264 و 941 نیز به ترتیب با 2/20- و20- درجه سانتی گراد بالاترین دمای کاهنده 50 درصد حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II را دارا بودند. بین حداکثر کارایی فتوسیستم II با درصد نشت الکترولیت ها و درصد بقا همبستگی معنی داری وجود داشت که نشان دهنده پتانسیل مناسب شاخص مذکور برای تشخیص سریع ارقام حساس و متحمل به تنش یخ زدگی در چاودار می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تحمل به سرما، درصد بقا، فلورسانس کلروفیل، نشت الکترولیت ها
  • محمد جواد مصطفوی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، علیرضا کوچکی صفحات 15-34
    به منظور ارزیابی اثر کودهای مختلف زیستی و شیمیایی بر شاخص های رشد و مراحل فنولوژیکی کنجد آزمایشی در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 10 تیمار و سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین (Ni)، بیوفسفر (BP)، بیوسولفور (PS)، ترکیب زیستی دوگانه Ni+BP و سه گانه Ni+BP+BS، کودهای شیمیایی اوره (U)، سوپرفسفات تریپل (P)، ترکیب شیمیایی دوگانه U+P و سه گانه U+P به علاوه گوگرد (S) عنصری (U+P+S) و شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) بود. نتایج این آزمایش نشان دهنده برتری تیمارهای ترکیبی کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی نسبت کاربرد تکی آن کودها بود. بر این اساس تیمارهای ترکیبی دوگانه و سه گانه زیستی و شیمیایی بهترین روند شاخص های رشدی تاثیرگذار بر تولید ماده خشک (شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت رشد محصول) را نسبت به شاهد داشتند که منجر به تجمع بیشتر ماده خشک در این تیمارها گردید. بالاترین نقطه اوج سرعت آسیمیلاسیون خالص نیز در تیمار دوگانه زیستی مشاهده شد. هرچند در این آزمایش در تیمارهای مختلف از نظر شاخص های رشدی تفاوت هایی مشاهده شد و با وجودی که سبز شدن گیاهچه ها در تیمارهای زیستی زودتر اتفاق افتاد، اما تحلیل های آماری نشان داد که مراحل مختلف فنولوژیکی کنجد از هیچ کدام از تیمارهای این آزمایش تاثیر معنی داری نپذیرفت. بنابراین از یافته های این پژوهش چنین نتیجه گیری می شود که کاربرد ترکیبی کودهای زیستی و کودهای شیمیایی در بهبود شرایط رشدی گیاه اثر قابل توجهی داشته و تغییری در فنولوژی گیاه به وجود نمی آورند. نهایتا با توجه به مزایای استفاده از کودهای زیستی، استفاده از ترکیب کودهای زیستی به عنوان بهترین گزینه برای تولید کنجد پیشنهاد می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: اوره، درجه روز رشد، سرعت رشد محصول، شاخص سطح برگ، نیتروکسین
  • فاطمه سلیمانی، گودرز احمدوند، علی اکبر صفری سنجانی صفحات 35-48
    به منظور بررسی اثر رژیم های گوناگون تغذیه ای بر برخی ویژگی های کیفی دانه گیاه روغنی آفتابگردان و همچنین خاک تحت کشت آن، آزمایشی در سال 1394 در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل: عدم کاربرد هر گونه کود شیمیایی و زیستی، کاربرد 100 درصد کود شیمیایی پیشنهاد شده (NP)، 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده بدون کود زیستی، کود آلی ورمی کمپوست، کود زیستی فسفونیتروکارا، کود زیستی بیوسولفور، ورمی کمپوست+ فسفونیتروکارا، ورمی کمپوست+ بیوسولفور، ورمی کمپوست+ 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده، فسفو نیتروکارا+ 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده، بیوسولفور+ 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده، ورمی کمپوست+ فسفونیتروکارا+ 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده، ورمی کمپوست+ بیوسولفور+ 1/2 کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و فسفر پیشنهاد شده بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای تغذیه ای، تمامی صفات به جز درصد روغن دانه و اسیدیته خاک را به طور معنی داری تحت تاثیر قرار دادند. بیشترین غلظت عناصر بررسی شده، روغن و پروتئین دانه در تیمارهای تلفیقی مشاهده شد. همچنین کاربرد تلفیقی کودها بالاترین غلظت نیتروژن، فسفر و سولفات در خاک را به همراه داشت. به طور کلی، چنین به نظر می رسد که کودهای زیستی مورد مطالعه و ورمی کمپوست به همراه کودهای شیمیایی ضمن تولید عملکرد مطلوب آفتابگردان می توانند با بهبود شرایط تغذیه ای خاک، تاثیر مثبتی بر پایداری تولید و کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی داشته باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: عناصر غذایی، کود زیستی، ورمی کمپوست
  • نادر مدافع بهزادی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، محسن جهان صفحات 49-65
    به منظور مطالعه ویژگی های رشد، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و عملکرد ایندیگوکارمین گیاه دارویی وسمه (Indigofera tinctoria L.) در واکنش به کودهای مختلف آلی و شیمیایی و مقادیر آبیاری بر اساس ظرفیت زراعی خاک، آزمایشی به صورت استریپ پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان بم در سال زراعی 92-1391 انجام شد. سه مقدار آبیاری (100، 80 و 60% ظرفیت زراعی خاک) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و پنج منبع تغذیه گیاهی شامل کود زیستی میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices) (200 گرم خاک تلقیح شده در هر متر طولی)، ورمی کمپوست (پنج تن در هکتار)، کود گاوی (30 تن در هکتار) و کود شیمیایی (80، 150 و150 به ترتیب شامل نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) و شاهد به عنوان فاکتور نواری در نظر گرفته شدند. خصوصیات رویشی و عملکرد کیفی در دو چین اندازه گیری شدند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع بوته، قطر کانوپی، تعداد شاخه جانبی، تعداد برگ در بوته، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، عملکرد کل اندام های هوایی، محتوی ایندیگوکارمین در برگ و عملکرد ایندیگوکارمین بودند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش محتوی رطوبتی خاک بر اساس ظرفیت زراعی تاثیر معنی داری (05/0p≤) روی ارتفاع بوته، قطر کانوپی، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، وزن خشک اندام های هوایی و عملکرد ایندیگوکارمین در هر دو چین داشت. در چین اول، وزن خشک برگ در مقدار آبیاری 100، 80 و 60 % ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب 67/806، 680 و 33/589 گرم در متر مربع و در چین دوم به ترتیب 25/820، 21/614 و 78/515 گرم در متر مربع به دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد اندام های هوایی در هر دو چین برای سطح آبیاری 100% ظرفیت زراعی حاصل شد. به طوری که در چین های اول و دوم تیمار 100% ظرفیت زراعی در مقایسه با تیمارهای 80 و 60 % ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب منجر به افزایش 54 و 30 درصد در چین اول و 47 و 23 درصد در چین دوم عملکرد اندام های هوایی شد. بیشترین عملکرد ایندیگوکارمین در چین های اول و دوم برای مقدار آبیاری 100% ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب با 97/4 و 74/3 گرم در متر مربع حاصل شد. بیشترین وزن خشک برگ در چین اول و دوم در تیمار ورمی کمپوست به ترتیب برابر با 11/751 و 24/769 گرم در متر مربع به دست آمد. کاربرد کودهای ورمی کمپوست، دامی، شیمیایی و میکوریزا عملکرد ایندیگوکارمین را به ترتیب 23، 18، 14 و 10 درصد در چین اول نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: ایندیگوکارمین، کود دامی، گیاه دارویی، میکوریزا، ورمی کمپوست
  • عین الله حسامی، محسن جهان، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، روزبه فرهودی صفحات 67-81
    حفظ بقایای گیاهی در سطح خاک و استفاده از نظام کم شخم که از اصول مهم پایداری اکوسیستم های کشاورزی است، در افزایش پایداری عملکرد ذرت می تواند تاثیرگذار باشد. به منظور بررسی حفظ بقایای گیاهان و اختلاط آنها با خاک دو مزرعه دارای بافت متفاوت بر ویژگی های فیزیکی خاک و اجزای عملکرد دانه ذرت رقم NS640، آزمایشی طی سال زراعی 1393-1392 در مزرعه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی شوشتر انجام شد. این به صورت تجزیه مرکب در یکسال و دو مکان در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار بررسی شد و دو مزرعه با خاک لومی رسی و لومی شنی به عنوان مکان و کشت قبل از ذرت شامل کشت باقلا، گندم، کلزا، کلم و آیش در قالب تیمارهای آزمایش بررسی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در عمق 15-0 سانتی متری خاک تیمار دارای بقایای گیاهی گندم در بافت خاک لومی رسی بیشترین میزان کربن آلی (80/0 درصد) را داشت و پس از آن تیمارهای دارای بقایای گیاهی باقلا و کلزا در یک گروه معنی داری قرار گرفتند. تیمار شاهد بدون گیاه در بافت خاک لومی شنی، کمترین میزان کربن آلی خاک (36/0 درصد) را داشت. در عمق 30-15 سانتی متری نیز بیشترین درصد کربن آلی در خاک لومی رسی دارای بقایای گندم با 48/0 درصد وجود داشت و بعد از آن تیمارهای دارای بقایای گیاهی باقلا، کلزا و کلم به ترتیب با 44/0، 42/0 و 39/0 بودند. در بافت لومی رسی میزان رطوبت خاک در تیمارهای برگرداندن گیاه گندم، کلزا و باقلا به ترتیب 3/21، 4/20 و 5/20 درصد بود، در حالی که برگرداندن بقایای کلم در مقایسه با شاهد (9/12 درصد) تاثیر معنی داری بر درصد رطوبت خاک نداشت. در بین تیمارهای برگرداندن بقایای گیاهی در خاک لومی شنی، تیمارهای شاهد و کلم با مقدار 23/0 و 212/0 درصد کربن آلی، کمترین مقدار ماده آلی را داشتند. تیمارهای برگرداندن بقایای گیاهی باقلا در دو نوع بافت خاک لومی رسی و لومی شنی به ترتیب با 6/10128 و 9/9547 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد دانه و تیمار شاهد در بافت لومی شنی با 6111 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین عملکرد دانه ذرت را به دنبال داشتند. به طور کلی، بقایای گیاهی باقلا در زراعت ذرت در هر دو نوع بافت خاک لومی رسی و لومی شنی تاثیر معنی دار بر عملکرد دانه ذرت و همچنین بهبود برخی ویژگی های کیفی خاک داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: جرم مخصوص ظاهری، شاخص برداشت، کربن آلی
  • رشید پاک نیا، فرج الله شهریاری، رضا درویش زاده، سعید ملک زاده صفحات 83-96
    آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) یکی از گیاهان دانه روغنی است. پوسیدگی طوقه یکی از مهمترین بیماری های آفتابگردان در دنیا می باشد که در شرایط محیطی مناسب باعث از بین رفتن کل محصول می شود. در این مطالعه به منظور تجزیه ارتباطی صفات مهم زراعی و مقاومت به قارچ اسکلروتینیا (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) تعداد 100 لاین خالص آفتابگردان روغنی در مزرعه ای در روستای وقاصلوی سفلی از توابع شهرستان ارومیه در قالب طرح لاتیس ساده 10×10 در 2 تکرار کشت شدند. پنج بوته از هر ژنوتیپ در هر تکرار با جدایه قارچی جمع آوری شده از گیاهان آفتابگردان آلوده همان مزرعه در سال قبل تلقیح شدند. صفات درصد پیشرفت آلودگی قارچی بعد از 4، 8 و 12 روز، وزن صد دانه گیاه آلوده نشده، وزن صد دانه گیاه آلوده شده، عملکرد گیاه آلوده نشده، عملکرد گیاه آلوده شده، افت وزن صد دانه و افت عملکرد ارزیابی شدند. از طرفی پروفیل مولکولی جمعیت با 28 آغازگر مبتنی بر رتروترنسپوزن (7 جفت آغازگر IRAP و 7 جفت آغازگر REMAP) تهیه شد. تجزیه ساختار ژنتیکی جمعیت به عنوان پیش نیاز تجزیه ارتباط با روش بیزین منجر به شناسایی 2 زیر جمعیت شد. در تجزیه ارتباط بر اساس مدل خطی مخلوط (MLM)، 27 نشانگر رتروترنسپوزونی مرتبط با صفات مورد مطالعه شناسایی شدند. بیشترین تعداد نشانگر برای صفات درصد پیشرفت آلودگی بعد از 4 روز و عملکرد تک بوته گیاه آلوده شده شناسایی شد. در این مطالعه چندین مکان مشترک برای صفات مورد مطالعه شناسایی شد. وجود نشانگرهای مشترک در میان برخی صفات بررسی شده می تواند ناشی از اثرات پلیوتروپی و یا پیوستگی نواحی ژنومی دخیل در کنترل این صفات باشد. نتایج به دست آمده از این مطالعه اطلاعات ارزشمندی در زمینه مبنای ژنتیکی صفات مورد مطالعه ارائه می دهد که از این اطلاعات می توان در برنامه های مختلف و از جمله انتخاب به کمک نشانگر (MAS) در آفتابگردان استفاده نمود. می توان با توالی یابی مکان هایی که تغییرات قابل توجهی از صفات را توجیه می نمایند، ژن های کدکننده مقاومت به بیماری و صفات مهم زراعی را شناسایی نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: آفتابگردان، ساختار جمعیت، عدم تعادل لینکاژی، نشانگرهای مولکولی، نقشه یابی ارتباطی
  • یحیی فیروزی شاهعلی بگلو، حسن فیضی، اصغر مهربان، مسعود علی پناه صفحات 97-112
    با توجه به کمبود عناصر کم مصرف و نیاز مبرم به غنی سازی زیستی در گیاهان مهم و راهبردی در تغذیه جامعه انسانی همچون گندم، ضرورت ایجاب می کند تا هرگونه راهکاری برای بهینه کردن تولید و کیفیت این محصول مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. از طرف دیگر یکی از راه های ساده برای نیل به خودکفایی و جامعه ای سالم و تندرست، اضافه کردن عناصر کم مصرف به خاک و یا مصرف آن به صورت محلول پاشی می باشد. به منظور بررسی اثرات زمان های مختلف محلول پاشی نانو کلات سوپرپلاس برعملکرد و اجزای آن و درصد پروتئین دانه در ارقام و لاین های گندم دوروم دیم، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در منطقه مغان به صورت اسپیلت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل زمان محلول پاشی کود نانو کلات سوپر پلاس (شرکت بیوزر) با غلظت دو در هزار در چهار زمان (زمان پنجه زنی، خوشه دهی، دانه بندی و شاهد (عدم محلول پاشی)) به عنوان عامل اصلی و رقم و لاین های گندم دوروم در 18 سطح به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. صفات موردبررسی شامل طول بوته، تعداد پنجه و پنجه بارور، طول پدانکل، طول خوشه، تعداد سنبلچه، تعداد دانه در سنبله، وزن دانه در خوشه، وزن کاه، وزن دانه در کل بوته، وزن کل بوته، تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله، تعداد روز تا رسیدن، وزن هزار دانه، درصد پروتئین و عملکرد دانه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که زمان محلول پاشی اثر معنی داری بر صفات مورد ارزیابی داشت. محلول پاشی در زمان پنجه زنی مناسب ترین اثر و عدم محلول پاشی (شاهد) کمترین تاثیر معنی دار بر صفات اندازه گیری شده را داشت. ارقام نیز ازنظر صفات موردبررسی تفاوت معنی داری با هم نشان دادند. هم چنین اثر متقابل زمان محلول پاشی × ارقام مختلف نشان داد که بیشترین درصد پروتئین و عملکرد دانه در محلول پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی در مرحله پنجه زنی به ترتیب در لاین های L5 (23/12 درصد) و L16 (2948 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد. هم چنین کمترین درصد پروتئین در مرحله پنجه زنی در رقم دهدشت (10/9 درصد) و کمترین عملکرد دانه در عدم محلول پاشی در رقم سیمره و مرحله دانه بندی در لاین L7 (70/771 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، پروتئین دانه، محلول پاشی، لاین، غلات
  • مسعود خزاعی، محمد گلوی، مهدی دهمرده، سیدمحسن موسوی نیک، غلامرضا زمانی، نفیسه مهدی نژاد صفحات 113-124
    در شرایط کمبود آب انتقال الگوی کشاورزی به سمت گیاهان سازگار با خشکی می تواند راهکار مناسبی برای مقابله با اثرات کمبود آب باشد. ارزن دم روباهی گیاهی چهار کربنه با سازگاری خوب به نواحی خشک است که در شرایط تنش بسته شدن جزئی روزنه، تعرق را بیشتر از فتوسنتز کاهش داده و درنتیجه کارایی مصرف آب افزایش می یابد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی بر کارایی مصرف آب و اجزای آن آزمایشی در سال های زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بیرجند به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. سطوح تنش خشکی (شامل شاهد، تنش ملایم و شدید به ترتیب با تامین 100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) به عنوان عامل اصلی و ژنوتیپ های kfm5 و kfm20 و رقم باستان به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی کارایی مصرف آب دانه را کاهش داد ولی تاثیر معنی داری بر کاهش کارایی مصرف آب عملکرد بیولوژیک نداشت. در تمام سطوح تنش ژنوتیپ باستان به علت شاخص برداشت بالاتر کارایی مصرف آب بالاتری از دو لاین دیگر در شرایط بدون تنش (817/0 در برابر 627/0) و تنش (563/0 در برابر 415/0 گرم بر کیلوگرم) داشت و برای شرایط تنش مناسب تر است. تحت تاثیر تنش کاهش عملکرد دانه به واسطه کاهش شاخص برداشت و کل ماده خشک بود. کل ماده خشک ژنوتیپ ها اختلافی نداشت و برتری رقم باستان به علت شاخص برداشت بالاتر بود. کارایی مصرف آب بالا در گیاه لازمه مقاومت و سازگاری در شرایط مواجهه با تنش خشکی است و به همراه شاخص برداشت که شاخصی از مقدار محصول قابل استفاده است، می توانند برای شناسایی ژنوتیپ ها و ارقام مناسب برای شرایط خشک و کمبود آب مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص برداشت، عملکرد دانه، کارایی مصرف آب، ماده خشک
  • احمد رمضانی، محمود صلحی، مصلح الدین رضایی صفحات 125-136
    به منظور بررسی اثر محلول پاشی کود روی بر عملکرد دانه و میزان روی دانه برنج رقم سازندگی، آزمایشی بر پایه طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان در سال های 1392 و 1393 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل: نانو اکسید روی با غلظت 150 و300 میلی گرم در لیتر، سولفات روی با غلظت های سه و شش گرم در لیتر، آب مقطر (شاهد اول) و بدون محلول پاشی (شاهد دوم) بود. نتایج نشان داد حداکثر عملکرد دانه (3/8968 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تیمار شش گرم در لیتر سولفات روی به دست آمد که نسبت به شاهد اول 1/10درصد و نسبت به شاهد دوم 8/11درصد بیشتر بود. همچنین حداکثر مقدار روی دانه (8/37 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) در تیمار شش گرم در لیتر سولفات روی به دست آمد که نسبت به شاهد اول 6/16درصد و نسبت به شاهد دوم 5/19درصد بیشتر بود. این در حالی بود که بین مقدار روی دانه دو تیمار سولفات روی و دو تیمار نانو اکسید روی، تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده نشد. بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش محلول پاشی نانو اکسید روی و سولفات روی می تواند سبب افزایش عملکرد و بهبود محتوای روی دانه در راستای غنی سازی زیستی دانه برنج گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: تغذیه برگی، سولفات روی، غنی سازی زیستی، کمبود روی، نانو اکسید روی
  • سمانه لاله، مجید جامی الاحمدی، سهیل پارسا صفحات 137-152
    یکی از نکات مهم در بهبود مدیریت زراعی و تولید گیاهان دارویی، ارزیابی سیستم های مختلف تغذیه گیاه است. جهت بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف کودهای دامی و شیمیایی بر گیاه دارویی شاهدانه، آزمایشی در سال 1394- 1393 به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه ی تحقیقاتی دانشکده ی کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام گرفت. تیمارهای مورد آزمایش شامل کود دامی (صفر، 10، 20 و 30 تن در هکتار کود گاوی پوسیده شده) به عنوان کرت اصلی و کود نیتروژن (صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار از منبع کود اوره) به همراه کود فسفر (صفر و 80 کیلوگرم فسفر خالص در هکتار از منبع کود سوپرفسفات تریپل) به صورت فاکتوریل به عنوان کرت فرعی بودند. نمونه برداری در دو مرحله ی رویشی و زایشی گیاه انجام گرفت. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که اثر کود دامی در مرحله ی رویشی بر ارتفاع و قطر ساقه، وزن خشک ساقه و برگ معنی دار نبود، اما کود شیمیایی نیتروژن اثر معنی داری بر ویژگی های رشد داشت. در سطوح صفر، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی با افزایش سطح کود نیتروژن، عملکرد بیولوژیک و دانه افزایش یافت. با افزایش سطح کود دامی و نیتروژن شاخص برداشت کاهش یافت، به طوری که کاربرد 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن، از طریق افزایش بیشتر رشد رویشی این شاخص را به ترتیب 20/18 و 07/13 درصد کاهش دادند. افزایش سطح کودهای نیتروژن و دامی در کاهش نسبتC/N خاک در مرحله زایشی موثر بود. اضافه نمودن فسفر سبب افزایش معنی دار عملکرد دانه (13درصد)، وزن خشک ساقه (42/6 درصد) و برگ (21/15) در مرحله زایشی شد. بر طبق نتایج آزمایش کاربرد تلفیقی 30 تن در هکتار کود دامی و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن و همچنین 20 تن در هکتار کود دامی و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن سطوح مناسبی برای تغذیه ی شاهدانه هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: اوره، سوپرفسفات تریپل، کود گاوی
  • ابوالفضل درخشان، عبدالمهدی بخشنده، سید عطاالله سیادت، محمدرضا مرادی تلاوت، بهرام اندرزیان صفحات 153-164
    مدل های مبتنی بر مفهوم زمان گرمایی ابزار مفیدی برای توصیف و پیش بینی جوانه زنی و رهایی بذر از خواب در رابطه با زمان و دما هستند. هدف از این مطالعه ارزیابی دقت پیش بینی رهیافت های مختلف زمان گرمایی در توصیف جوانه زنی سه رقم بهاره کلزا (ساری گل، دلگان و RGS003) بود. آزمون جوانه زنی برای هر رقم در 11 دمای ثابت 8، 12، 16، 20، 24، 28، 32، 33، 34، 35 و 36 درجه سانتی گراد و چهار تکرار انجام شد و کل آزمایش سه مرتبه تکرار گردید. معیارهای نکویی برازش (RMSE و AICc) نشان داد که وقتی Tb (دمای پایه) و θTm (زمان گرمایی لازم برای تکمیل جوانه زنی در دماهای بیش بهینه) برای کل جمعیت بذری ثابت فرض شد و توزیع نرمال برای توصیف تنوع θT(g) (زمان گرمایی لازم برای تکمیل جوانه زنی هر کسر بذری معین در دماهای زیر بهینه) در دماهای زیر بهینه و Tm(g) (دمای بیشینه برای هر کسر بذری معین) در دماهای بیش بهینه به کار رفت، مدل برازش بهتر و دقیق تری از دوره های زمانی جوانه زنی هر سه رقم کلزا داشت. Tb برای ارقام ساری گل، دلگان و RGS003 به ترتیب 66/5، 13/7 و 86/5 درجه سانتی گراد برآورد شد. برآورد θTm برای ارقام مختلف بین 62/31 تا 55/34 درجه سانتی گراد ساعت متغیر بود. در رقم ساری گل θT(50) و Tm(50) به ترتیب 27/369 درجه سانتی گراد ساعت و 32/34 درجه سانتی گراد، در رقم دلگان به ترتیب 76/378 درجه سانتی گراد ساعت و 98/33 درجه سانتی گراد و در رقم RGS003 به ترتیب 89/357 درجه سانتی گراد ساعت و 42/34 درجه سانتی گراد پیش بینی شد. دمای بهینه برای درصدهای مختلف جوانه زنی (To(g)) ثابت نبود. To(50) برای ارقام ساری گل، دلگان و RGS003 به ترتیب 85/31، 78/31 و 06/32 درجه سانتی گراد تعیین شد.
    کلیدواژگان: تابع توزیع تجمعی، توزیع نرمال، دمای کاردینال، شاخص آکائیک، واحدهای گرمایی
  • حسین کمایی، حمیدرضا عیسوند، فرهاد نظریان صفحات 165-179
    به‏منظور بررسی اثرات تاریخ کاشت، کود زیستی حاوی باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و محلول‏پاشی عناصر روی و بور بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و زراعی گندم نان (رقم افلاک)، آزمایشی به‏صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 16 تیمار و سه تکرار در سال زراعی 95-1394 در شهرستان رامهرمز اجرا گردید. عامل‏های آزمایشی شامل تاریخ کاشت در دو سطح مناسب (30 آبان) و تاخیری (15 دی) به‏عنوان عامل اصلی و کاربرد کود زیستی حاوی باکتری های حل کننده فسفات در دو سطح عدم بذر مال و بذر مال و محلول‏پاشی عناصر روی و بور در چهار سطح با آب (شاهد)، روی، بور و روی + بور (هر کدام سه لیتر در هکتار) به‏صورت فاکتوریل به‏عنوان عامل‏ فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با تاخیر در کاشت به‏دلیل تنش گرمای انتهایی غیر از میزان پرولین برگ کلیه صفات شاخص کلروفیل برگ (SPAD)، شاخص پایداری غشای سلول، حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II (Fv/Fm)، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت به‏طور معنی‏داری کاهش یافت. اثر متقابل تلقیح بذر با کود زیستی حاوی باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و محلول‏پاشی عناصر روی و بور غیر از شاخص برداشت، صفات شاخص کلروفیل برگ (SPAD)، میزان پرولین برگ، شاخص پایداری غشای سلول، Fv/Fm، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک را به‏ترتیب به‏طور معنی‏داری به‏میزان %37/3، %29/12، %48/6، %02/3، %25/17 و %04/22 تحت تاریخ کاشت تاخیری بهبود بخشید. در این آزمایش مشاهده شد که تیمار تلقیح بذر با کود زیستی حاوی باکتری های حل کننده فسفات نسبت به تیمار محلول‏پاشی عناصر روی و بور و هم‏چنین محلول‏پاشی عنصر روی نسبت به بور تاثیر بیشتری در بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیک و افزایش عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک گندم نان (رقم افلاک) در هر دو تاریخ کاشت مناسب و تاخیری داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش گرما، عناصر ریزمغذی، غلات، کلروفیل
  • امین پسندی پور، حسن فرح بخش صفحات 181-190
    تعیین تراکم بهینه یکی از عوامل مهم برای به دست آوردن حداکثر عملکرد در هر شرایط اقلیمی و هر رقم گیاهی می باشد. حنا با نام علمیLowsonia inermis L. گیاهی چند ساله است که از لحاظ دارا بودن خواص دارویی و کاربردهای صنعتی از ارزش بالایی برخوردار است. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی واکنش های زراعی-فیزیولوژیک اکوتیپ های مختلف گیاه حنا (شهداد، بم و رودبار) به تراکم های مختلف کاشت (25، 33، 50 و 100 بوته در مترمربع) در شرایط آب و هوایی کرمان به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد اکوتیپ های مورد بررسی از لحاظ شاخص های سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی و میزان هدایت روزنه ای تفاوت معنی داری با یکدیگر داشتند و بیشترین میانگین این صفات مربوط به اکوتیپ شهداد بود. بین تراکم های مورد بررسی نیز از لحاظ اکثر صفات اندازه گیری شده اختلاف معنی داری از لحاظ آماری مشاهده شد. نتایج مقایسه میانگین حاکی از حصول بیشترین مقدار شاخص سرعت رشد محصول و کمترین میزان فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه ای و تعرق از تراکم 100 بوته در مترمربع بود. به طور کلی در این تحقیق اگرچه رقم شهداد برتری معنی داری در سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت رشد محصول نسبت به دو اکوتیپ بم و رودبار داشت ولی عملکرد خشک کل و خشک برگ این اکوتیپ ها با یکدیگر تفاوت معنی داری نداشت. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تراکم 100 بوته در مترمربع این گیاه برای سال اول کاشت از نظر عملکردی مناسب تر از سایر تراکم ها بوده ولی برای سال های دوم به بعد با توجه به رشد پیکره گیاه نیاز به تحقیق بیشتر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اکوتیپ، سرعت رشد محصول، عملکرد، فاصله روی ردیف، هدایت روزنه ای
  • هاشم امین پناه، پیمان شریفی، علی اکبر عبادی صفحات 191-202
    مجموعه ای از 18 ژنوتیپ برنج شامل 14 لاین موتانت M5 و چهار رقم والدینی آنها تحت تنش خشکی در مرحله زایشی و بدون تنش در دو آزمایش جداگانه به صورت طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، رشت در سال زراعی 94-1393 مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که اثر خشکی، ژنوتیپ و اثرمتقابل دو فاکتور بر صفات عملکرد دانه، ارتفاع بوته، مساحت برگ پرچم، تعداد پنجه و درصد باروری دانه معنی دار بود. تنش خشکی در مرحله زایشی باعث کاهش عملکرد دانه (47/59%)، درصد باروری دانه (08/19%)، ارتفاع بوته (35/9%)، مساحت برگ پرچم (59/8%) و طول خوشه (61/1%) شد. شاخص تحمل به تنش (STI)، میانگین بهره وری (MP)، میانگین هندسی بهره وری (GMP) و میانگین هارمونیک (HM) به عنوان شاخص های برتر بودند و از آنها برای معرفی ژنوتیپ های مقاوم و یا متحمل به تنش خشکی و با عملکرد بالا در شرایط دارای تنش خشکی و بدون تنش استفاده شد. با توجه به شاخص های مذکور، ژنوتیپ های 1، 2، 3، 4 و 5 (لاین های موتانت M5 از رقم طارم محلی) و (لاین موتانت M5 از رقم هاشمی) متحمل به تنش خشکی و ژنوتیپ های 14 (لاین موتانت از رقم خزر)، 15 (هاشمی)، 16 (خزر) و 17 (طارم) حساس به تنش خشکی شناسایی شدند. بنابراین موتاسیون سبب ایجاد تحمل به تنش خشکی در نتاج شده است و لذا می توان از لاین های فوق در پروژه های معرفی ارقام مقاوم یا متحمل به خشکی استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه مولفه های اصلی، لاین موتانت، عملکرد دانه، مرحله زایشی
  • الیاس آرزمجو، محمد علی بهدانی، سهراب محمودی، بهزاد صادق زاده صفحات 203-216
    روی (Zn) و آهن (Fe) از عناصر ریزمغذی ضروری برای رشد گیاه و انسان هستند و کمبود آن ها در رژیم غذایی، یک مشکل بزرگ تغذیه ای در دنیا به حساب می آید. به منظور بررسی اثر محلول پاشی فرم های مختلف روی و آهن بر اجزای عملکرد، صفات فنولوژیک، مورفولوژیک و عملکرد دانه برخی ارقام گندم در دو منطقه با خصوصیات خاک متفاوت، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و در سال زراعی 95-1394 به اجرا درآمد. عوامل مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از: ارقام گندم (شامل روشن و بک کراس روشن (ارقام قدیمی)، بم و افق (ارقام جدید))، مصرف روی در سه سطح محلول پاشی با آب (شاهد)، سولفات روی و کلات روی و مصرف آهن نیز در سه سطح محلول پاشی با آب (شاهد)، سولفات آهن و کلات آهن (معادل 5/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار). نتایج نشان داد که ارقام جدید از ارتفاع و طول پدانکل کم تر و طول دوره پر شدن دانه، طول سنبله، تعداد دانه در سنبله، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت بیشتری برخوردار بودند. محلول پاشی روی و آهن منجر به بهبود خصوصیات رشدی و عملکرد دانه شد و محلول پاشی سولفات روی و سولفات آهن در هر دو منطقه مورد بررسی (به خصوص در منطقه امیرآباد با شوری و pH بیشتر خاک) نتیجه بهتری در مقایسه با فرم کلاته این عناصر داشت. درنهایت با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، کشت ارقام جدید بم و افق و محلول پاشی فرم های سولفاته روی و آهن برای تولید گندم در شرایط اقلیمی مشابه توصیه می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، شوری، عملکرد دانه، عناصر ریزمغذی
  • زهرا شریفی، سید وحید اسلامی، مجید جامی الاحمدی، سهراب محمودی صفحات 217-228
    به منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد گیاهان پوششی در یک نظام زراعی مبتنی بر گندم و همچنین مطالعه اثر روش های شخم در این نظام، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. سه نوع روش خاک ورزی (شامل عدم خاک ورزی، خاک ورزی کاهشی و خاک ورزی رایج) به عنوان عامل اصلی و گیاهان پوششی در 5 سطح (شامل خلر، منداب، جو ترش، تریتیکاله و عدم کشت گیاه پوششی به عنوان شاهد) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر روش خاک ورزی بر تعداد سنبله در مترمربع، وزن سنبله در مترمربع، عملکرد بیولوژیک و عملکرد دانه معنی دار (P
    کلیدواژگان: شخم کاهشی، عدم شخم، کشاورزی پایدار، کشاورزی حفاظتی
  • عباس نصیری دهسرخی، احمد قنبری، ویدا ورناصری قندعلی صفحات 229-241
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی کلات آهن به فرم های معمول و نانو بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد زیره سبز آزمایشی در سال زراعی 95-1394 در مزرعه ای واقع در شهر اصفهان به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. دور آبیاری به عنوان عامل اصلی شامل فواصل آبیاری پنج، 10 و 15 روز و محلول پاشی کلات آهن به عنوان عامل فرعی در پنج سطح شامل شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب)، 2 گرم در لیتر کلات آهن به فرم معمول، 2 گرم در لیتر نانو کلات آهن، 4 گرم در لیتر کلات آهن به فرم معمول و 4 گرم در لیتر نانو کلات آهن در نظر گرفته شد. بیشترین و کمترین تعداد چتر با مقادیر 6/15 و 4/11 در بوته به ترتیب از دور پنج و 15 روز آبیاری به دست آمد. کمترین ارتفاع بوته به میزان 3/21 سانتی متر در تیمار شاهد (عدم محلول پاشی) مشاهده گردید. کمترین وزن هزار دانه (5/1 گرم)، عملکرد دانه (7/610 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد بیولوژیک (1767 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط عدم محلول پاشی و دور آبیاری 15 روز مشاهده گردید. کاربرد 2 گرم در لیتر نانو کلات آهن توانست به اندازه کاربرد 4 گرم در لیتر کلات آهن به فرم معمول، عملکرد دانه زیره سبز را افزایش دهد. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش حاضر، می توان اظهار داشت در شرایط تنش خشکی، با محلول پاشی کلات آهن به خصوص به فرم نانو می توان تا حد زیادی اثرات سوء ناشی از تنش خشکی را تعدیل و عملکرد دانه گیاه را افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: دور آبیاری، عملکرد بیولوژیک، گیاه دارویی، نانو ذرات
  • علیرضا کوچکی، سرور خرم دل، جواد شباهنگ صفحات 243-261
    این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر کاشت پشته مرتفع و سطوح اوره بر شاخص های کارایی نیتروژن، عملکرد کمی و محتوای نیتروژن گندم در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی سال زراعی 95-1394 انجام شد. دو روش کاشت (مرسوم و پشته مرتفع) و پنج سطح صفر، 100، 200، 300 و 400 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار به ترتیب به عنوان عامل های اصلی و فرعی مدنظر قرار گرفتند. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، محتوی نیتروژن دانه و کاه و شاخص های کارایی نیتروژن (جذب، تبدیل و مصرف) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ساده و متقابل روش کاشت و کود اوره بر عملکرد دانه و بیولوژیک، محتوی نیتروژن دانه و کاه، کارایی جذب، تبدیل و مصرف نیتروژن معنی دار (05/0≥p) بود. بالاترین و پایین ترین کارایی جذب نیتروژن به ترتیب برای تیمار پشته مرتفع و بدون مصرف نیتروژن (45/0 کیلوگرم نیتروژن گیاه بر کیلوگرم نیتروژن خاک) و روش رایج و 400 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار (14/0 کیلوگرم نیتروژن گیاه بر کیلوگرم نیتروژن خاک) به دست آمد. شاخص های کارایی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن در روش پشته مرتفع بالاتر از روش رایج بود. بیشترین و کمترین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن به ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای پشته مرتفع و شاهد (65/36 کیلوگرم نیتروژن دانه بر کیلوگرم نیتروژن گیاه) و روش رایج و 400 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار (63/10 کیلوگرم نیتروژن دانه بر کیلوگرم نیتروژن گیاه) بود. با افزایش مصرف اوره از صفر به 400 کیلوگرم در هکتار، کارایی مصرف نیتروژن 62 درصد کاهش یافت.
    کلیدواژگان: پشته مرتفع، عملکرد دانه، کارایی تبدیل نیتروژن، محتوی نیتروژن
|
  • A. Nezami, S. Khaninejad, M. R. Bahrami, H. Zarif Ketabi Pages 1-14
    IntroductionChlorophyll fluorescence measuring is a quick and undestructive method, which is used as an important index to identify stress tolerant varieties for environmental stresses such as freezing. Rye planting is less prevalent comparing to other cool season cereals, but more investigations are needed because of suitable potentials in this crop for growing in cold area of Iran. In addition, low temperatures decrease physiological functions of plants and results in irreversible damages and disorders in physiological process of plants.
    Material and MethodsIn order to study the possibility of using the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for evaluation of freezing tolerance in perennial rye ecotypes, an experiment was performed using a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications at Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Ten rye ecotypes (264, 941, 8425, 15771, 1587, 14947, 591, 1275, 3857 and 12460) were exposed to nine freezing temperatures (0 (control), -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18, -21 and -24◦C) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (ME of PII) were measured four times (12, 24, 48 and 96 hours) after freezing. Correlation between ME of PII with Electrolyte Leakage percentage (EL %) and survival percentage (SU %) were tested.
    Results and DiscussionThe results indicated that there was a significant difference among rye ecotypes for ME of PII, while ecotype 12640 had the highest ME of PII and the lowest efficiency was observed in ecotype 264. There was no difference in ME of PII among rye ecotypes until to -18 oC, but ME of PII decreased in -21oC and -24oC after 12 to 24 hours recovery period. This efficiency was zero in -24°C during 48 and 96 hours after recovery, while ME of PII did not get to zero in this temperature during 12 and 24 hours after stress. ME of PII impairment by freezing temperatures was similar in 48 and 96 hours and it seems that no changes happened in the efficiency after 48 hours. There was a rapid reduction in slope of efficiency from -15oC to -24oC in 264 and 941 ecotypes than the other ecotypes, while ecotype 12640 had the highest ME of PII than the other ecotypes in mentioned temperature range. In the four measuring times, ME of PII was not reduced until -18°C, but it was severely decreased by temperature reductions to -21oC and -24°C, as ME of PII decreased to the lowest value after 48 hours. Decreasing the ME of PII in rye ecotypes was different due to the ectypes in the times after freezing stress, the most reduction was observed in 264 and 941ecotypes and ecotype 12640 had less decrease in the slope of ME of PII. There were differences among rye ecotypes in reduction temperature for 50% of ME of PII; while ecotype 12640 get reduction temperature for 50% of ME of PSII in -24.8oC 12 hours after freezing stress; and ecotypes 264 and 941 had the highest reduction temperature of 50% ME of PII in -20.2 oC and -20 oC, respectively. Reduction temperature for 50% of ME of PII decreases in 24 hours after freezing stress; at this time, 12640 and 3857 ecotypes showed the lowest reduction temperature for 50% of ME of PII by -22.6°C and -22.2°C, respectively, and 264 ecotype had the highest reduction temperature for 50% of ME of PII by -19.2°C. There were significant correlations between ME of PII, EL% and SU%. Since EL test was conducted 24 hours after freezing stress, it seems that measuring ME of PII in 12 hours after freezing stress increases quickness in test and determining the stress effects rapidly. Higher correlations between plants survival percentage with ME of PII 12 hours after freezing stress, indicate that ME of PII is a non-destructive factor for estimating long term effects of freezing stress on rye plants. In conclusion, the mentioned factors can be used as a quick procedure to identify cold tolerant plants.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll florescence, Electrolyte, Freezing tolerance, Survival percentage
  • M. J. Mostafavi, M. Nassiri Mahallati, A. Koocheki Pages 15-34
    IntroductionNowadays technological innovations, the use of chemical inputs, development of methods and etc., help agriculture to produce food for human. However, some problems such as growth in fertilizer prices and environmental pollution has drawn attentions to sustainable agriculture.
    Sesame as the oldest known oil-seeded plant by mankind has ranked #9 among 30 important oil seeds. Therefore cultivation of this valuable plant should be done based on ecological principles and inputs.
    Growth and phenological aspects of sesame affecting by bio-fertilizers is less known. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the growth and phenology of sesame by application of various biological and chemical nutritional sources.
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications and 10 treatments including Nitroxin® (Ni), Biophosphor® (BP), Biosulfur® (BS; with recommended amount of elemental sulfur), double mixture of Ni, triple mixture of Niӿ, Urea (U), triple super phosphate (P), double mixture of U, triple mixture of U plus the used amount sulfur in BS, and control.
    Sampling was conducted every 7 days and growth indexes including, leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) were studied during growth life of the crop. Phenological stages were recorded then GDD was calculated for different phenological stages. Statistical analysis and drawing of figures were performed using Minitab and MS Excel.
    Results and DiscussionA. Growth Indexes: Changes in LAI, TDM, CGR, RGR, and RGR under all treatments were almost similar. during the early days of growing, LAI increased gradually and then it rose sharply after production of more leaves by the plant in most of the treatment about 35 days after sowing. After the flowering stage, by lowering of increase in LAI, all of the treatments reached to their maximum LAI and then decreased. Control and BS had minimum LAI (2.42 and 2.54) among all treatments. LAI of U㿤 and U were highest LAI (3.42 and 3.32 respectively) and after it, Niӿ (3.03) and Ni (3.01), urea (2.98), Nitroxin (2.85), Biophosphor (2.75), triple superphosphate (2.78) were placed respectively.
    The highest dry matter accumulation occurred in plots that meet higher LAI, resulting in a higher potential for the production and accumulation of dry matter. So, the highest dry matter accumulation was recorded in U㿤 and U, and then Niӿ and Ni and urea.
    Due to the development of leaves and roots, CGR increased and then reached to its highest amount after 52 to 70 days from the sowing. Then, about 100 days from sowing, CGR decreased and this trend continued to the end of plant life. Application of Nitroxin and Biophosphor increased CGR of sesame, but it did not affect CGR of Biosulfur treatment. The double and triple mixture of biofertilizers and chemical fertilizers increased the growth of sesame in comparison to their sole application.
    Numeral amount of RGR was between 0 to 1 that describes the amount of increase in plant dry matter weight in order to its previous dry matter’s weight among a time period.
    In all treatments, NAR at the beginning of the growing season due to low levels of leaves and photosynthesis were low. Gradually in the middle of the growing season, NAR increased, along with the increased growth of plants and their LAI. Because of some reason remobilization and aging of the leaves and reduction of the efficiency of photosynthesis, NAR has an intense reduction. All the treatments had higher NAR comparing to control.
    B. Phenological Stages: Statistical analysis of data showed that the effect of treatments on phenological stages was not significant. But seeds in the treatments of biofertilizers grew 3 days earlier in average. It has been proven that farm managerial decisions that cause faster growing of plants (even one day), can be effective in competitions of crops versus the weeds.
    ConclusionsBased on the results, it can be concluded that although nutrition resources affected the sesame growth indexes, they had no effect on phenological stages of sesame.
    Keywords: CGR, GDD, LAI, Nitroxin, Urea
  • F. Soleymani, G. Ahmadvand, A. A. Safari Sinegani Pages 35-48
    IntroductionTo achieve the high economic yield in crops, supplying enough nutrients for plants is important, that much of it, supplied by chemical fertilizers. But excessive use of chemical fertilizers led to environmental problems that these negative effects have caused attention to healthy and ecological sustainable farming systems. One solution to reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers is application of organic and biological products for plant nutrition. Bio-fertilizers are made from one or more species of beneficial microorganisms with preservatives and or their products. In addition, vermicompost is an organic fertilizer and mixed of very active biological bacteria, enzymes, plant residues, manure and earthworm capsule which leads to continued organic matter decomposition and development of microbial and enzymatic activities in soil. Several experiments have shown that the using of biological and organic fertilizers improve growth and quality of products.
    Materials and MethodsTo investigate the effect of various nutritional regimes on seed quality characteristics of sunflower (Euroflour cv.) and some soil characters, an experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with 3 replications in 2015 at the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University.Treatments included no biological or chemical fertilizer application, 100% of the recommended NP fertilizers (250 kg urea per hectare, 50 kg triple superphosphate per hectare), ½ recomended NP fertilizers, vermicompost (15 ton per hectare mixed with soil), phosphonitrokara (including Bacillus coagulans, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum, 110 ml to inoculate 10 kg seeds), biosulfur (including Thiobacillus,mix 6 kg of fertilizer with 300 kg sulphur for 1 hectare), vermicompost phosphonitrokara, vermicompost biosulfur, vermicompost½ NP fertilizers, phosphonitrokara½ NP fertilizers, biosulfur½ NP fertilizers, vermicompost phosphonitrokara½ NP fertilizers, vermicompost biosulfur½ NP fertilizers. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur of sunflower seeds and soil were measured by standard methods. Moreover, seed oil content was determined. Data processing and graphs were performed with SAS var 9.2 and Excel software.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that nutritional treatments significantly affected all traits except seed oil content and soil pH. The maximum seed sulfur content (0.231%) belonged to biosulfur vermicompost treatment indicating that providing sulfur for sunflower of oxidation in soil increased the concentration of seed sulfur. The highest phosphorous (0.45) obtained from phospho nitro kara vermicompost and biosulfur vermicompost ½ NP fertilizers. Secretion of different enzymes such as phosphatase by rhizobacteria led to solubility and increasing available phosphate. Maximum nitrogen (2.688%) and protein (16.8%) content of seed was observed in phosphonitrokara vermicompost ½ NP fertilizers treatment. It seems that bacteria in the biological and organic fertilizer along to chemical fertilizer by nitrogen fixing provided the necessary substrate for protein synthesis. According to grain yield, the highest oil yield was achieved in chemical fertilizer that there was no significant difference with biosulfur vermicompost ½ NP fertilizers. Likely, the positive effects of thiobacillus on oil seed was related to the appropriate turnover of photosynthesis enzymes, activity improvement of acetyl-CoA and increasing availability of carbon for oil biosynthesis. Maximum total sulphate, available phosphorus and total nitrogen content of soil was observed in biosulfur vermicompost, phosphonitrokara vermicompost ½ NP fertilizers and phosphonitrokara vermicompost ½ NP fertilizers, respectively. In treatments includes vermicompost due to increasing soil organic matter, humus colloids and carbon availability for activity of nitrogen fixing bacteria was occurred less leaching and increased maintenance and fixation of nitrogen in the soil. Soil pH was not affected by treatments. The finding showed that reduction of pH must be done during the process of long term and sulfur to be added to soil plenty and in times.
    ConclusionsIn general, we can suggest that biological (phosphonitrokara andbiosulfur) and organic (vermicompost) fertilizers along with chemical fertilizers by modifying the nutritional conditions of soil and reduce the use of chemical fertilizers can be effective in stability of production and conservation of environmental health.
    Keywords: Biologic fertilizer, Nutritional elements, Vermicompost
  • N. Modafe Behzadi, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, M. Jahan Pages 49-65
    IntroductionMedicinal plants are valuable resources in a wide range that scientific identification, cultivation, development and proper utilization of them can have very important role in community health, employment and non-petrol exports. Quality of medicinal plants is more important than other crops. The impact of environmental factors is significant on quality and quantity of medicinal plants. Among the environmental effective factors, irrigation and manure can be managed. Drought is considered as one of the most important factors that limited plant production in arid and semi-arid areas, where such areas are subjected to a wide range of climate variations. Water deficit stresses, permanent or temporary, limits the growth and distribution of natural vegetation and yield of cultivated plants more than any other environmental factor. Under water limitation conditions, yield of plants depend on water available content and water use efficiency. Indigo carmine is considered as a highly toxic indigoid dye. Indigo blue dye’s main component is indigotine which is extracted from the leaves of indigo. Indigo carmine is also one of the oldest dyes and it is still one of the most used in textile industry. The aims of this study were evaluation of qualitative and quantitative criteria of indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L.) under Bam climatic conditions.
    Materials and MethodsAn experiment was conducted as strip plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bam, Iran, during growing seasons of 2012-2013. Four nutrient resources (such as NPK, cow manure vermicompost, Mycorrhiza and control) and three drought stress levels based on %FC (including 100, 80 and 60 percent) were considered as experimental factors. Plant height, canopy diameter, number of branches, dry weight of leaf, dry weight of, dry yield of shoots (above ground matter), indigocarmin content and indigocarmin yield of indigo were measured and calculated.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that at the first and second cuttings, the highest dry weight of leaf (with 751.11 and 769.24 g m-2, respectively) and indigocarmin yield (with 4.62 and 4.66 g.m-2, respectively) were observed for vermicopmost. Increasing soil water content from 60 to 100% FC at the first and second cuttings caused to increase dry weight of leaf (with 37 and 100%, respectively). Decreasing soil water content caused to reduce the dry matter yield of indigo and these highest yields were obtained in 100% FC with 1589.3 and 1829.3 g m-2, respectively. Also, increasing soil water content from 60 to 100% FC caused that indigocarmin content and indigocarmin yield increased with 36 and 18%, respectively. Relationship between soil nutrients and metabolic processes of medicinal plants causes to change of yield quantity or secondary metabolites contents. Therefore, we determined that the best growth condition for indigo was observed for manure and irrigation based on 80% FC.
    ConclusionsIt was concluded that cow manure could be a good choice for decreasing chemical fertilization application.
    Keywords: Bam, Cow manure, Indigocarmin, Medicinal Plant, Mycorithza, Vermicompost
  • E. Hesami, M. Jahan, M. Nassiri-Mahallati, R. Farhoudi Pages 67-81
    IntroductionThe impact of agronomy on the subsequent product in rotational cropping systems depends on factors such as plant type, duration of crop growth, soil moisture content, tillage type, irrigation method, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, quantity and quality of returned crop residues to the soil. Prior cultivated crops improve the next crop yield by causing different conditions (nitrogen availability, organic matter and volume of available water) in soil. This study was conducted due to importance of corn cultivation in Khuzestan and necessity of increasing the soil organic matter, moisture conservation and in the other hand the lack of sufficient information about the relationship between soil texture, type of preparatory crop in low-tillage condition and some soil characteristics and corn growth habits. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of residue of preparatory crops in low plowing condition in two soil types on corn yield and some soil characteristics.
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was carried out at Shooshtar city located in Khuzestan province. An experiment was performed by combined analysis in randomized complete block design in two fields and in two consecutive years with four replications. Two kinds of soil texture including: clay loam and clay sand. Five preparatory crops including: broad bean, wheat, canola, cabbage and fallow as control assigned as sub plots. SAS Ver. 9.1 statistical software was used for analysis of variance and comparison of means. Graphs were drawn using MS Excel software. All means were compared by Duncan test at 5% probability level.
    Results and DiscussionThe soil texture and the type of preparatory crop influenced the characteristics of the soil and corn grain yield. Returning the broad bean residue into two types of soil caused the highest grain yield of corn 10128.6 and 9547.9 kgha-1, respectively. The control treatment in sandy loam texture had the lowest corn seed yield (6111 kg.ha-1). Therefore, in these conditions, amount of plant residues and soil texture have played an important role in improving the soil quality and corn yield, which would be lead to economic objectives of sustainable and low input and cost production. Treatment of broad bean residues in depth of 0-15 cm resulted to the highest total nitrogen of 0.121% in clay loam soil and 0.122% in loam sand soil. The return of broad bean plant residues in both soil types improved corn grain yield which can be attributed for fixing and increasing the soil nitrogen by broad bean and decrease the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in soil. It seems that the contribution of broad bean residues released nitrogen gradually, particularly at the end of corn growing season.
    The results showed that treatment of wheat residues in clay loam soil had the highest carbon to nitrogen ratio (8.10%), and in sandy loam soil, treatment without plant residues had the lowest ratio of carbon to nitrogen (1.4%). Increased carbon/nitrogen ratio was the result of high ratio of carbon content to nitrogen in wheat. Burying the remains of wheat and canola led to significant decrease in soil nitrogen during growing season and a sudden increase in soil organic carbon.
    Mean comparisons showed that adding wheat residues to clay loam soil had the lowest soil bulk density in depth of 0-15 cm (1.19 gcm-3) and treatment of control (no adding plant residues) to sandy loam soil had the highest soil bulk density (1.54 gcm-3). The lowest soil bulk density was observed in depth of 0-15 cm and with increase in depth, soil bulk density increased, too. It seems that high percentage of the soil moisture can lead to low soil bulk density. Combination of clay loam soil with wheat, canola and broad bean residues caused soil moisture content of 21.3%, 20.4% and 20.5%, respectively, while returning the residue of cabbage did not have a significant influence on soil moisture in comparison with control (12.9%).
    ConclusionsIn general, mixture of broad bean residues with both soil types had the positive effects on corn yield and soil characteristics compared to other crop residue.
    Keywords: Bulk density, Harvest index, Organic carbon
  • R. Paknia, F. Shahriari, R. Darvishzadeh, S. Malekzadeh Pages 83-96
    IntroductionSunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important crops grown mainly for edible oil. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a common and widespread pathogen of sunflower. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in world, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20%. It causes total production loss under favorable environmental conditions. Hence, plant improvement projects must focus on creating of new genotypes with higher resistance against diseases. Resistance to S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary has been described as quantitatively inherited with additive and dominant gene effects. Identification of chromosome regions controlling partial resistance to sclerotinia stem rot can increase understanding about the genetic control of the diseases and developing cultivars with improved partial resistance. In this study, retrotranposon-based molecular markers associated with resistance to disease as well as some important agromorphological traits identified using general and mixed linear models in Tassel software.
    Materials and MethodsA collection of 100 sunflower lines, kindly provided by several research centers in Europe, Iran and the United States, were evaluated using a 1010 simple lattice design with two replications. Each plot comprised 2 lines 5 m long, with a spacing of 65 × 25 cm between lines and plants, respectively. The experiment was conducted in 2015 at a farm in ‘Vaghaslo-e-Sofla’ village on Urmia. Five plants per genotype in each replication were inoculated with a fungal isolate collected from naturally infected sunflower plants of this farm in previous year.Some resistant and agronomical traits including percentage of necrotic area after 4, 8, 12 days inoculation, 100 seeds weight of non contaminated plants, 100 seeds weight of contaminated plants, yield per plant in non contaminated plants, yield per plant in contaminated plants, 100 seeds weight loss, and per plant yield loss were measured. The genetic profile of population was prepared with 28 rerotransposon markers.
    Results and DiscussionBased on molecular marker data, the studied association panel was subdivided into two subpopulations (K=2). Association analysis using mixed linear model (MLM) identified 27 loci significantly (P
    Keywords: Association mapping, Linkage disequilibrium, Molecular marker, Population structure, Sunflower
  • Y. Firoozi, H. Feizi, A. Mehraban, M. Alipanah Pages 97-112
    IntroductionDurum wheat (Triticum turgidum var.durum) because of the high protein content compared to other grain products plays a major role in providing the protein needed by humans. Different crop varieties have different performance potential even a figure from region to region does not have the same performance. Nano slow and controlled release fertilizers because of root elements in a good area, have high efficiency. In Iran, 300 to 400 tons of durum wheat annually produced which 60% is recoverable for production of pasta and other domestic needs is imported. Per capita consumption of pasta in the country is 5 kg per year (about one quarter of Europe) and with regard to nutrients such as gluten and beta-carotene in pasta and very low losses, it is necessary to increase the amount of its consumption. For this purpose, the government has taken incentive policies such as higher rates order of durum wheat (about 6%) compared to bread wheat and prizes export to exporters of this product, to increase its production and exports. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application time of Nano-chelate Super Plus on yield and its components and protein content in durum wheat varieties in Parsabad Moghan area was conducted.
    Materials and MethodsThe study was conducted as the form of randomly split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments include the application of Nano-chelate fertilizer Super Plus (Biozar) with a concentration of two per thousand in four levels, (tilling, flowering, seed and control (no application)) as the main factor and cultivars of durum wheat lines operating in 18 level as were minor. Studied traits including plant height, number of tillers and fertile tillers, peduncle length, ear length, number of spikelets, number of seeds per plant, grain weight, straw weight, total seed weight per plant, total plant weight, number of days to heading, days to maturity, grain weight, protein content and seed yield. Each plot area of 2.7 square meters (6 lines with a length of 6 m and 20 cm spacing) and a total area of 6 square meters plot was harvested. The company proposed application of Biozar at the dose of 2 per thousand, according to the desired level, calculated and prepared and was sprayed every step of the treatments in question. At each plot also a sample of 1.5 kg of grain was sent to the laboratory to determine protein content of each sample. Finally, the obtained data collected using the SPSS and MSTAT-C statistical analysis soft wares for analysis of variance, and Interaction between treatments and figures and data clustering was performed and the results were presented.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that the highest grain yield obtained from spray at tilling stage in L16 (2948 kg ha-1) compared to the control group (771.70 kg ha-1) by 228.01%.Comparition of the interaction of means showed that the highest grain yield in the spray at tilling stage L16 (2948 kg ha-1) as compared to the control group (771.70 kg ha-1) 282.01% increase. Results of mean comparisons of the timing of application × figures also showed the highest protein content in line L5 and the spray at tilling stage (12.23 %) as compared to control 23.54% increase .The lowest percentage of protein in the DEHDASHT and spraying at the seed (9.10%) respectively compared to control (9.53%) 4.73% decreased. So, it seems that the use of Nano-chelate Super plus ZFM (zinc, iron, manganese) which contains micro elements, amino acids as nitrogen source and as a powerful antioxidant ascorbic acid can be very effective to increasing yield and its components and also the protein content of durum wheat in dry land.
    ConclusionsNano-chelated Super Plus foliar application increased grain yield and yield components of durum wheat. According to the results the most appropriate timing of application of Super Plus for Durum Wheat was at the time of tillering and among the highest protein content and yield showed in the tillering stage to arrange in lines L5 (12.23 %) and L16 (2948 kg) respectively. Repeating this study for few years of research as well as in other areas could also be useful in confirming the results.
    Keywords: Cereal, Line, Protein, Spray, Yield components
  • M. Khazaei, M. Galavi, M. Dahmardeh, S. M. Moosavi-Nik, Gh Zamani, N. Mahdi-Nejad Pages 113-124
    IntroductionAccording to NASA reports about atmospheric earth conditions, in the 30 years later, 45 countries will face with severe droughts and Iran is in the fourth place in this list. Water shortage is one of the most important limiting factors of production that affects plants growth by changing physiological conditions. Using adapted plants is a proper strategy to deal with the effects of water shortage on the status of water restrictions. Foxtail millet is a C4 plant with good compatibility to dry areas and it has high water use efficiency. In medium stress partial stomata closure reduces transpiration more than photosynthesis in this plant and as a result, increase water use efficiency.
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was carried out as split-plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand in 2014-2015. The main factor was drought stress in three levels including 100, 75 and 50 percent of plant water requirement (no stress as control, moderate stress and severe stress, respectively) and the sub-factor was millet genotype in three levels (including Bastan, KFM5 and KFM20). At four leaf stage, 75 plants per square meter were maintained and applied stress. Water use efficiency, evapotranspiration efficiency, harvest index for seed and ear, economic and biological yield were measured at maturity. . Data were analyzed with the SAS software ver 9.1 and the means were compared with Tukey’s test.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly decreased with increasing the intensity of drought stress in all three genotypes but not evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE, ratio of total dry matter to water used). Bastan cultivar had higher water use efficiency in all stress levels and was more affected under moderate stress while it was less affected under severe stress (33 and 31 percent compared to the control, respectively). The evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE) was similar in all three genotypes and did not change under stress condition. The water use efficiency was different in two years but drought stress had a similar effect on its. The drought stress reduced seed yield through its impact on water use efficiency, harvest index and total dry matter within two years. The highest and lowest seed yield were observed in control (152 g m-2) and severe stress (171 g m-2), respectively. Significant genotypic variation was observed for WUE (ratio of grain yield to water used), and harvest index (HI, ratio of grain yield to total dry matter). Bastan cultivar had higher WUE than two other lines in well-watered (0.82 vs. 0.63 g kg−1) and drought (0.56 vs. 0.42 g kg−1) field conditions, due mainly to higher HI in well-watered (41.04 vs. 36.01 percent) and drought (26.2 vs.25.5 percent). Drought stress had not a similar effect on harvest index in three genotypes. At all stress levels, water use efficiency, harvest index and dry matter had a higher direct effect on seed yield, respectively. Also, the results showed that the negative correlation between seed yield and evapotranspiration was not significant.
    ConclusionsTotal dry matter was similar in the three genotypes but Bastan cultivar was better than the other lines and it is advisable to drought stress conditions due to higher water use efficiency and harvest index. As respects high crop water use efficiency is necessary for adaptation and resistance to drought stress and harvest index is an indicator of the amount of product to be used, WUE and HI can be used to identify suitable genotypes and cultivars for water shortages and drought conditions.
    Keywords: Dry matter, Evapotranspiration efficiency, Harvest index, Seed yield
  • A. Ramazani, M. Solhi, M. Rezaei Pages 125-136
    IntroductionRice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major staples feeding more than half of the world population. It is grown in more than 100 countries, predominantly in Asia and provides 21% of energy and 15% of protein requirements of human populations globally. Zinc deficiency is one of the important abiotic factors limiting rice productivity worldwide and also a widespread nutritional disorder affecting human health. Chakeralhossein et al., (2009) evaluated the effects of rate, sources and application methods of zinc fertilizer on quantity and quality of rice and reported that, application of zinc fertilizer significantly increased yield and grain Zn content. The greatest yield enhancement (56.9%) was obtained in 3 g L-1 ZnSO4 along with application of 40 kg ha-1 ZnSO4 as soil application methods. In slightly alkaline sandy clay soil with sufficient Zn under flooded conditions, soil and plant Zn concentration were increased 1.8 times with foliar spray of 0.5 %w/v ZnSO4 which was applied at panicle initiation compared to soil application of ZnSO4 at the same stage. In a field experiment during two years in Egypt, the effects of Zn, Fe and Mn as single or combined application in soil and foliar spray to the rice growth and yield were evaluated. The results showed that the single or combine application of Zn, Fe and Mn significantly improved rice growth and yield. According to Zn deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder affecting human health in many countries, especially where people rely on cereal-based food, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foliar application of nano-ZnO and zinc sulfate on yield and grain zinc content of rice.
    Materials and MethodsA field experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at the Isfahan Agricultural Research Center during 2013-2014. Treatments were consisted of six zinc foliar application levels: 150 and 300 mg L-1 nano-ZnO, 3 and 6 g L-1 ZnSO4, distilled water as the first control (Control 1) and no spray as the second control (Control 2). Rice plants were foliar sprayed until runoff using a hand-sprayer, at the tillering and grain milk stages. Nano-zinc oxide had a purity of greater than 99%, average particle diameter of 10-30 nm and specific surface area of > 30 m2 g-1. Also zinc sulfate was used with purity of 99%.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of plant shoot at tillering and grain milk stages, and also grain yield and grain zinc content were significantly affected by zinc foliar application. Foliar application of nano-zinc oxide and zinc sulfate increased zinc concentration of plant shoot at tillering and grain milk stages. The highest shoot zinc concentration of 28.8 and 37.8 mg kg-1 were obtained in 6 mg L-1 zinc sulfate at tillering and grain milk stages, respectively. While the lowest shoot zinc concentration (24.2 and 30.5 mg kg-1) were observed in the first control treatment at tillering stage and in the second control treatment at grain milk stage, respectively. At tillering stage, foliar application of 3 and 6 mg L-1 zinc sulfate and 300 mg L-1 nano-zinc oxide increased shoot zinc concentration, whereas there was no significant difference between 150 mg L-1 nano-zinc oxide and two controls treatments. At grain milk stage, all zinc foliar application treatments increased shoot zinc concentration compared to the control treatments. The maximum grain zinc content (37.8 mg kg-1) was obtained with 6 g L-1 zinc sulfate which was 16.6 and 19.5% higher than first and second control treatments, respectively. Zinc foliar application significantly increased grain yield. Foliar application of nano-zinc oxide and zinc sulfate significantly improved grain yield compared to the control treatments. The highest grain yield was obtained in 6 g L-1 zinc sulfate fallowed by 150 mg L-1 nano zinc oxide, 3 g L-1 zinc sulfate and 300 mg L-1 nano-zinc oxide, respectively. Also, there were no significant difference between first and second controls. Zinc is a structural part of carbonic anhydrase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and RNA polymerase and serves as a cofactor for all 6 classes of enzymes (oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerase and ligases) and auxin synthesis in plants is also controlled by Zn. Adequate zinc in plants increases the synthesis of enzymes and hormones, metabolism of essential elements and stimulates plant growth and yield.
    ConclusionsAccording to rice consumption per capita in Iran is 40 kg (110 g day-1) and the average daily human zinc requirement is 10-15 mg, zinc biofortification of rice and improving zinc of rice grain to 35 mg kg-1 will provide about one third of people’s daily zinc requirement (3.5 mg).
    Keywords: Biofortification, Foliar application, Nano-ZnO, Zinc deficiency, ZnSO4
  • S. Laleh, M. Jami Al-Alhmadi, S. Parsa Pages 137-152
    IntroductionHemp is used in the food, drug, and natural fibers. Assessment of various systems of plant nutrition is one of the ways to improve field management and production of medicinal plants. Nitrogen is considered a necessary element in plant nutrition. Nitrogen uptake as ammonium compounds form, serves as starting material for amino acid biosynthesis and additional N-containing compound such as pyrimidine, purine bases, chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acid, vitamins and other organic compounds, therefore, the higher plants require larger amount of nitrogen. Phosphorus is the second most important nutrient in plants. Studies show that application of animal manure provides different nutrients for plants. Application of animal manure in soil at the optimal level for plant growth provides a opportunities for soil fertility, conservation, sustainability, and protection against degradation but they need time to release their nutrient. Various studies showed that the combined usage the animal manure and chemical fertilizers (like N and P) has positive effects on soil, growth and yield of plant with the aim of protecting the environment. Organic and inorganic fertilizers are effective on soil C/N ratio. Soil C/N ratio is important factor for plant and soil. It is important to study the different stages of plant growth responses to organic and chemical fertilizers for plants production. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of organic amendments enriched with chemical fertilizers of nitrogen and phosphorus and studying changes of soil C/N ratio in vegetative and reproductive stages of hemp.
    Materials and MethodsTo study the effect of different levels of animal manure and chemical fertilizers, a split factorial experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of agriculture, University of Birjand, during the growing season 2013-2014. Experimental factors were animal manure (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton ha-1 well-rotted farmyard manure) as the main plot, and factorial application of three levels of N (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1 as Urea) with two levels of P (0 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 as triple superphosphate) as sub-plot. Hemps were planted on rows 60 cm apart, with 30 cm distance between plants within a row, at the depth of 3-4 cm. In during experiment didn’t use any poison and pesticide. Measurements were performed in both vegetative (11th leaf pair) and reproductive (50% of seeds hard) stages. Measured traits included leaf, shoot weight, shoot height and diameter per square meter in sub-plot for female plants of hemp in vegetative and reproductive stages. Seed weight measured in reproductive stage too. Nitrogen of soil was determined by Kjeldahl method and soil carbon was measured by Walleky & Black method. Finally, all variables were analyzed by SAS software ver 9.1. The means were compared using LSD test at the 0.05 probability level.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the measured traits were not affected by animal manure in the vegetative stage, but nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on growth traits in this growth stage. Using manure and nitrogen fertilizers increased height and shoot diameter, leaf and shoot dry weight in reproductive stage. Biological and seed yield increased with increasing of nitrogen levels in different treatments of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 animal manure. Combined usage of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 decreased biological and seed yields. Combined usage of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 50 kg N ha-1 and 20 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 increased biological and seed yields. Harvest index decreased with increasing rate of animal manure and nitrogen fertilizers. So harvest index decreased 18.20 and 13.07 % in treatments of 30 ton ha-1 animal manure and 100 kg N ha-1 respectively, due to increasing the growth of hemp. Leaf allocation increased with increasing animal manure and nitrogen fertilizer levels. Phosphorus increased seed yield (13%), shoot dry weight (42.6%) and leaf dry weight (15.21%) in the reproductive stage. Soil C/N ratio decreased with increasing growth of hemp. In reproductive stage, using animal manure decreased C/N ratio due to release of nitrogen to the soil.
    ConclusionsCombined usage of manure and chemical fertilizer were more effective than manure alone. Animal manure and nitrogen fertilizer were effective on soil C/N ratio. Results indicated that combined use of animal manure and chemical fertilizers must be done carefully and use of appropriate amounts of animal manure and chemical fertilizer can be effective in reducing the use of chemical fertilizers.
    Keywords: Cow manure, Triple superphosphate, Urea
  • A. Derakhshan, A. Bakhshandeh, S. A. Siadat, M. R. Moraditlavat, B. Andarzian Pages 153-164
    IntroductionIn seed plants, seed germination is one of the important life history events, because it determines the time when a new life cycle is initiated. Temperature (T) is one of the most important environmental determinants of capacity and rate of germination. Base, optimum and ceiling T (cardinal temperatures) characterize the limit of this environmental factor over which the germination of a particular species can occur. The thermal-time approach has been successful in describing germination time courses in response to T, and most models predicting crop phenological development use a thermal-time scale to normalize for T variation over time. A clear understanding of the seed germination patterns is helpful in screening for tolerance of crops and cultivars to either low or high temperatures and in identifying geographical areas where a species or genotype can germinate and establish successfully by using the critical lower and upper temperatures for germination. Information on cardinal temperatures is lacking for germination of spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), as one of the world’s major oilseed crops. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative accuracy of different thermal-time approaches for the description of germination in three cultivars of spring oilseed rape.
    Materials and MethodsGermination responses of three spring oilseed rape cultivars were investigated at different constant temperatures. The seeds were incubated in the dark using germinators with controlled environments at eleven constant T regimes of 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 36 ºC with a range of ±0.2 ºC over a 21-day period. These T regimes cover both the sub- and supra-optimal T ranges. The trial was replicated three times with 4 Petri-dishes in each replication, for a total of 12 Petri-dishes for each cultivar at each T regime. The germinated seeds (criterion, radicle protrusion of > 2 mm) were counted and removed at frequent time intervals (every 4-8 h). Germination counts at each replicate of each T regime were pooled by cultivar across trials for data analysis. Cumulative germination percentage was calculated for every cultivar and T regime for every count-hour. The time taken for cumulative germination to reach subpopulation percentiles of 10, 50 and 90% of maximum in each T regime were calculated by interpolation from the progress of germination (%) versus time curve. Experimentally obtained cumulative-germination curves were used to perform a non-linear regression procedure to assess the relative accuracy of different thermal-germination models in predicting germination response under constant incubation temperatures. Assessment of goodness-of-fit was performed by the Akaike information criterion (AIC).
    Results and DiscussionThe most accurate approach for simulating the thermal-germination response of all three spring oilseed rape cultivars achieved by assuming a normal distribution of both thermal-time required to complete the germination of each given seed fraction in sub-optimal T range (θT(g)) and maximum germination temperatures (Tm(g)), while base T (Tb) or supra-optimal thermal-time (θTm) were considered constant for the entire population. According to this model, the base T for different cultivars ranged from 5.66 (cv. Sarigol) to 7.13 ºC (cv. Dalgan). Estimated θTm varied between 31.62 to 34.55 ºC h for different spring oilseed rape cultivars. A θT(50) of 369.27 ºC h and a Tm(50) of 34.32 ºC were identified for seed population of cv. Sarigol. The θT(50) was estimated to be 378.76 ºC h for cv. Dalgan and 357.89 ºC h for cv. RGS003. The Tm(50) for germination of cv. Dalgan and cv. RGS003 was estimated to be 33.98 and 34.42 ºC, respectively. In all three cultivars, calculated values for optimum T (To) were not constant across subpopulations. The To(50) was estimated to be 31.85 ºC for cv. Sarigol, 31.78 ºC for cv. Dalgan and 32.06 ºC for cv. RGS003. Thermal-time analysis, although an empirical method, is considered by many researchers to have physiologically and ecologically relevant parameters and, in its standard form, provides several useful indices of seed germination behavior in response to T. Despite its popularity, the generality of its assumptions has not been examined systematically. If these assumptions do not hold, at least approximately, in a particular situation, misleading interpretations can easily arise.
    ConclusionsThe thermal thresholds for seed germination identified in this study explain the differences in seed germination detected among populations of different spring oilseed rape cultivars. The thermal-time model described here gave an acceptable explanation of the observed seed germination patterns.
    Keywords: Akaike information criterion, Cardinal temperatures, Cumulative distribution function, Normal distribution, Thermal units
  • H. Kamaei, H. R. Eisvand, F. Nazarian Pages 165-179
    IntroductionWheat, being a major source of human food, occupies a significant portion of cultivated area of globe mostly located in altitude from a few meters to more than 3,000 m above sea level. High temperature resulting from delay in planting date is one major environmental factor limiting growth and productivity of wheat. Plants need phosphorus in relatively large quantities, and its role cannot be played by any other elements. Phosphate bio-fertilizers bacteria such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas increased soil soluble phosphorus by secreting organic acids and phosphatase enzyme. In most of the Iranian soils pH is high and they are also calcareous. In this type of soils, solvability of micronutrients is less and it decreases absorption of micronutrients by plant, finally requirement of plants increases to this elements. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of planting date, Bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria and elements foliar application of zinc and boron on physiological and agronomic traits of bread wheat (Aflakcultivar).
    Materials and MethodsTo study the effects of planting date, bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria and elements foliar application of zinc and boron on physiological and agronomic traits of bread wheat (Aflakcultivar), an experiment was conducted at split factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with 16 treatments and three replications in Ramhormoz city in farming Year 2015-16. The experimental factors were included planting date in two levels (21 November and 5 January) as the main factor and use of bio-fertilizer in two levels of seed non-inoculated and seed inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteriaand elements foliar application of zinc and boron in four levels by water (control), zinc (3 L ha-1), boron (3 L ha-1) and zinc (3 L ha-1) boron (3 L ha-1) to form of factorial as sub factor. Solutions for foliar application were prepared by using Zinc- chelate (7.5%) and Boron (5%). In this experiment, traits measured were involved leaf chlorophyll index (SPAD), leaf proline content, cell membrane stability index, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. To determine leaf chlorophyll index (SPAD), digital chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502) was used. To determine leaf proline content Bates et al., (1973) method was used. To determine cell membrane stability index (CMSI) Luttset al., (1996) method was used and according to equation 1. The Fv/Fm was measured with a portable Photosynthetic Efficiency Analyser PEA (Walz, Germany) and according to equation 2.
    1: CMSI=(1-(EC1/ EC2))×100
    2: Fv/Fm= (Fm-F0)/Fm
    Where in this equation EC1 is primary electrical conductivity, EC2 is secondary electrical conductivity, Fm is the maximum fluorescence, F0 is the minimum fluorescence, and Fv is the variable fluorescence (Fm-F0). Grain yield was estimated after physiological maturity and through total spikes harvested from the level of 1 m-2 per plot and after removing 0.5 m from the beginning and end respective planting rows. To measure the biological yield at maturity, after removing 0.5 m from the beginning and end respective planting rows from the level of 1 m-2 per plot all the plants were harvested and weighted for each plot separately. Harvest index was determined by the equation grain yield/biological yield × 100. Analysis of variance was performed by using general linear model (GLM) procedure of statistical analysis system (SAS version: 9.1). Traits means were compared by LSD test at 5% probability level.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that with delay in planting due to terminal heat stress all traits such as leaf chlorophyll index (SPAD), cell membrane stability index, Fv/Fm, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index except leaf proline content decreased significantly. Seed inoculation with bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria improved significantly all physiological and agronimic traits of bread wheat (Aflakcultivar) except harvest index in both the optimum planting dates and delayed. Between the different levels elements foliar application of zinc and boron, combined application of zinc溊 was more effective on physiological and agronomic traits of bread wheat (Aflakcultivar), and could reduce the harmful effects caused by the delay in planting. The interaction of seed inoculation with bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria and elements foliar application of zinc and boron except harvest index improved significantly harmful effects caused by the delay in planting on traits leaf chlorophyll index (SPAD), leaf proline content, cell membrane stability index, Fv/Fm, grain yield and biological yield to values 3.37%, 12.29%, 6.48%, 3.02%, 17.25% and 24.04%, respectively. Between interaction of bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria and elements foliar application of zinc and boron, the use of zinc nutrient than application of combining it with boron was more effective in reducing the harmful effects resulting from delay in planting.
    ConclusionsIn general it can be concluded that the optimum planting date (21 November), seed inoculation with bio-fertilizer containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria and elements foliar application of zinc and boron especially zinc, is three strategies appropriate management to improve physiological and agronomic traits of bread wheat (Aflakcultivar)in the Ramhormoz city.
    Keywords: Cereals, Chlorophyll, Heat stress, Micronutrients
  • A. Pasandi Pour, H. Farahbakhsh Pages 181-190
    IntroductionOne of the most important factors to obtain the maximum performance or yield in every climatic condition and for each plant varieties is determining the optimum plant density. Henna (Lowsonia inermis L.) is a perennial plant with high value in terms of having medicinal properties and industrial applications. The dye which is derived from green leaves of henna is used for decorating the body with intricate designs and the principle coloring matter is lawsone, 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoqunone. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the agro-physiological reaction of different henna ecotypes to different planting densities in Kerman weather conditions.
    Materials and MethodsThe study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with three replications in Shahid Bahonar University in 2015. The experiment consisted of four plant densities (25, 33, 50 and 100 plants m-2) and three ecotypes (Shahdad, Roodbar and Bam). Due to its small seeds and germination problems the planting method used was transplanting. In this study, growth indices such as leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf weight (SLW), leaf area duration (LAD) and biomass duration (BMD) were calculated. The net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were measured in the middle of growing period by photosynthesis meter (CI-340 model, CID Bio- Science companies, USA). At the end, the results were analyzed using the SAS v. 9.1 and MSTATC software’s and diagrams were drawn by Excel software.
    Results and DiscussionThe results showed that the studied ecotypes were significantly different in terms of CGR, RGR and stomatal conductance. The highest average of CGR belonged to Shahdad ecotype while there was no significant difference between Roodbar and Bam ecotypes in this case. Shahdad ecotype with the RGR of 0.018 g.g.day had the highest average of this trait. This difference could be due to physiological, morphological and chemical factors as well as allocating pattern of photosyntates, all affects the relative growth rate. The maximum value of stomatal conductance was recorded for Shahdad ecotype (234.6 mmol m-2 s-1), that was not significantly different with Bam ecotypes (229.6 mmol m-2 s-1). There are some reports showing that the number of stomata per unit of leaf area may be changed with plant species and varieties. The differences in studied densities were statistically significant for the measured traits. Results showed that the maximum of CGR was recorded for 100 plants m-2 density. Increase in CGR at the higher densities could be due to the increased number of plants per unit area producing a higher leaf area index. In this research LAI increased with increasing in planting density and the highest average of this trait was obtained from 100 plants m-2. LAD and BMD were affected significantly by planting density. The results of mean comparisons showed that average of LAD and BMD decreased with increasing in plant density from 50 to 100 plants m-2. The same result was obtained for net photosynthesis, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Low net photosynthesis in 100 plants m-2 density could be due to high competition between plants for light and food absorption, increase in shading and consequently increasing in respiration. The results showed that total dry yield and leaf dry yield were significantly affected by planting densities. The highest and lowest values of mentioned traits belonged to densities of 100 and 25 plants m-2 respectively.
    ConclusionsGenerally between ecotypes evaluated in terms of performance, there was no difference in Kerman weather conditions. Also the highest yield was belonged to100 plants m-2 density. It should be noted that henna is a perennial plant and this planting density for the first year is economically justified but for more than one year old plants, according to changes in body size of the plant, research on the appropriate density seems to be necessary.
    Keywords: CGR, Ecotype, Row spacing, Stomatal conductance, Yield
  • H. Aminpanah, P. Sharifi, A. A. Ebadi Pages 191-202
    IntroductionDrought is a major problem that limits the adoption of high-yielding rice varieties in drought-prone rainfed rice environments. To improve crop productivity, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of plant responses to drought conditions with the ultimate goal of improving crop performance in the vast areas of the world where rainfall is limiting or unreliable. Safaei Chaeikar et al. (2008) reported that MP, GMP, HM and STI indices, which showed the highest correlation with grain yield under both optimal and stress conditions, can be used as the best indices to introduce drought-tolerant genotypes in rice breeding programs. They also were introduced Nemat, Sepidrood, IR64, IR50 and Bejar genotypes as tolerant varieties. The present study was conducted to determine how drought affects grain yield in rice mutant lines and also to test this hypothesis in order to identify the most suitable indices/genotypes.
    Materials and MethodsA field trial was conducted at Iranian Rice Research Centers in North of Iran, Rasht (latitude 37◦28', longitude 49◦28'E and altitude 7m below the sea level), during the 2014-2015 growing season. The seeds were sown in a nursery on the 10 May and 25 day old seedlings were transplanted to the field. Two separately experiment was carried out under reproductive stage drought stress and controlled conditions based on randomized complete block design with three replications, in four-row plots of three m length. Transplanting was done using 1 seedling per hill; at hill spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm. 18 rice genotypes were consisted 14 M5 mutant lines and their four parental cultivars.
    Results and DiscussionAnalysis of variance indicated significant effects of drought stress, genotype and interaction effects of two factors on grain yield, plant height, flag leaf area, tiller number and grain fertility percentage. Drought stress at reproductive stage caused reduction in grain yield (59.47%), grain fertility percentage (19.08%), plant height (9.35%), flag leaf area (8.59%) and panicle length (1.61%). Different drought indices probably measure similar aspect of drought tolerance/resistance. Significant yield reduction was observed under drought stress in majority of the rice genotypes studied. Drought tolerance indices were varied significantly indicating genotypic variability. Selection based on these stress tolerance indices will results in identification of drought tolerant genotypes for rainfed ecosystems. The stress tolerance index (STI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) were superior in genotype indicating that they can be used as alternative for each other to select drought tolerant genotypes with high yield performance in both stress and non-stress conditions. To determine the most desirable drought tolerance criteria, the correlation coefficients between Yp, Ys and other quantitative indices of drought tolerance were calculated. The results indicated that there were positive and significant correlations among Yp and MP, GMP, STI and HM. There were also significant and positive correlation between Ys and YI,HM,GMP,YSI,STIandMP. In this experiment, the principal component analysis was performed on eight indices and grain yield under stress and non-stress in 18 rice genotypes. Results showed that the first two components explained 82.8% and 17% of total variation, respectively. The relationship between principal components and studied indices showed that the higher values of first and the lower values of second components were related to drought tolerance and sensitivity to stress, respectively. Selection based on a combination of indices may provide a more useful criterion for improving rice drought-tolerant lines; therefore, studies of correlation coefficients are useful in finding out the degree of overall linear association between any two attributes. According to these drought stress indices, G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5 (M5 mutant lines of local lanrace, Tarom) and (M5 mutant line of Hashemi) were as drought tolerant and G14 (mutant lines of Khazar), G15 (Hashemi), G16 (Khazar) and G17 (Tarom) were sensitive to drought stress.
    ConclusionsResults of present study showed that MP, GMP, YI and STI are best indices for selecting and specifying of rice tolerant genotypes in arid areas. The use of mutation caused drought resistant on the progenies and the above lines can be used in a project of introduction of drought tolerant rice varieties.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Mutant line, Principal components analysis, Reproductive stage
  • E. Arazmjoo, M. A. Behdani, S. Mahmoodi, B. Sadeghzadeh Pages 203-216
    IntroductionZinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are essential mineral nutrients for plant and human growth, and dietary Zn and Fe deficiencies are a worldwide nutritional problem. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of Zn and Fe are 15 mg and 10 mg per day for human, respectively. However, micronutrient deficiencies affect more than half of the world’s population, especially women and preschool children. Iron is one of the most important micronutrients, and approximately two billion people suffer from iron deficiency worldwide. Zinc deficiency is also considered to be quite common and affects newborn, children, pregnant women and elderly. Micronutrient malnutrition in human in developing countries is derived from deficiencies of these elements in staple food. It is believed that increasing the micronutrient concentrations in these crops could increase the dietary intake of these elements in these regions significantly. More than 80% of arable soils in Iran are zinc-deficient with an average yield depression of around 50%. It is, therefore, highly important to develop cost-effective and quick solutions to the Zn and Fe deficiency problem.
    Materials and MethodsIn order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of zinc and iron different forms on yield components, phonological and morphological traits and grain yield of some wheat cultivars in two locations with different physico-chemical soil properties, two experiments in factorial arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications conducted during 2015-16 cropping season. Experimental treatments were included: wheat cultivars Roshan, Roshan Back cross (old cultivars), Bam and Ofogh (new cultivars), zinc application in three levels of foliar application of water (control), zinc sulfate and chelated zinc and iron application in three levels of foliar application of water (control), iron sulfate and chelated iron (equivalent to 2.5 kg ha-1). The first experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Birjand University located in Amirabad region which the soil texture was sandy clay loam, with 8.1 pH, 0.15% organic matter, 30 ppm available P and 184 ppm available K. The second experiment was conducted at the South Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center located in Mohammadieh region which the soil texture was loam, with 7.6 pH, 0.54% organic matter, 30 ppm available P and 140 ppm available K. At the end of growth stage wheat traits included days to heading, days to physiological maturity, grain filing period, plant height, spike length, peduncle length, number of grain per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, biomass and harvest index were measured. Data analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SAS 9.1. Means of treatments were compared between locations, cultivars and foliar application of zinc and iron according to protected Least Significance Differences (LSD) test at the 5% level.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that location had a significant effect on all traits except for number of grains per spike. Grain yield and yield components were higher in soil of Mohammadieh against Amirabad. Investigated cultivars also were significantly different in all traits but days to heading and biomass. The higher number of grain per spike, grain yield and harvest index and relatively lower 1000 grains weight were related to new wheat cultivars. New cultivars also possessed less height and peduncle length and more grain filling period and spike length. Zinc foliar application significantly increased plant height, spike length, number of grain per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield and biomass but no significant effects were observed on days to heading and maturity, grain filing period, peduncle length and harvest index. Zinc sulfate treatment increased grain yield and biomass by 9.6 and 8.2 percent and chelated zinc increased these traits by 6.7 and 4.1 percent compared to control treatment, respectively. Iron foliar application significantly increased plant height and grain yield with no significant effects on other measured traits.
    ConclusionsFoliar application of zinc and iron can improve growth traits and grain yield; and foliar application of zinc and iron sulfate had better result contrasting these nutrients chelated forms especially in Amirabad region with higher pH and EC. Finally according to the results of this study, cultivating new cultivars of Bam and Ofogh and foliar application of zinc and iron sulfate in similar climate, especially in saline condition, are suggested for wheat production.
    Keywords: Grain yield components, Micronutrients, Salinity, Yield
  • Z. Sharefee, S. V. Eslami, M. Jami-Al-Ahmadi, S. Mahmoodi Pages 217-228
    IntroductionConservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air) and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature.
    Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region.
    Materials and MethodsA split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage) and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus), rocket salad (Eruca sativa), triticale (X Triticosecale witmack), barley (Hordeum vulgaris) and control (no cover crop)) was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage treatments were applied, seedbed preparation was carried out and wheat Anfarm- 4 (Bam) was planted. At the end of the growing season, yield and yield components of wheat were measured.
    Results and DiscussionThe results indicated that the maximum grain yield, biological yield, and spike.m-2 of wheat were observed with the no-till and reduced tillage treatments. The wheat spike weight significantly increased in the treatment of no-tillage compared with conventional tillage treatment. It seems that increased crop yield under no-till and reduced till systems might be owing to the enhancement of the soil nutrient status, reduced weed populations, improved physical health of the soil improved soil water status and increased efficiency of nutrient usage in these systems comparing with the conventional tillage systems.
    The main effect of cover crop type showed that incorporating chickling pea and rocket salad resulted in the greatest grain yield, thousand-kernal weight, spike weight, and biological yield of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop) and also chickling pea, rocket salad and barley caused the greatest grain. Spike-1 of wheat compared to the control (no cover crop). Although the use of total cover crops improved yield and yield components in wheat. Chickling pea superiority in many traits was evident in comparison with other cover crops. This superiority could be due to the fact that this plant belongs to the legume family and legumes release higher amounts of nitrogen during decomposition compared to grass species. Grasses produce large amounts of carbon and are slowly decomposed. Although rocket salad does not belong to the legume family, due to having deep roots, it is able to absorb nutrients from the deep soil layers and provide the main plant with these nutrients after its decay.
    ConclusionsThe results of this study revealed that employment of conservation tillage systems remarkably affected the yield and yield components of wheat, and the greatest positive influence on crop yield and yield components were observed where chickling pea and rocket salad were sown before wheat cultivation. Thus, cover crops and conservation tillage systems can be used as a promising solution for the development of sustainable agriculture and protecting the health of ecosystems.
    Keywords: Conservation agriculture, Minimum tillage, No tillage, Sustainable agriculture
  • A. Nasiri Dehsorkhi, A. Ghanbari, V. Varnaseri Ghandali Pages 229-241
    IntroductionCumin is a member of Apiaceae family and annual plant which is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid zone. Iran is one of the main producers of this plant. Water deficit is the major limiting factor in crops production. Proper nutrition management under stress conditions could partly help the plant to tolerate different stresses. Various studies were carried out to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of plants. For example, Hong et al. (2005) and Yang et al. (2006) reported that a proper concentration of nano-TiO2 was found to improve the growth of spinach by promoting photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Iran a country with arid and semi-arid climate, always face water deficiency. Thus the aim of this research was investigate the effect of foliar application of chelate iron in common and nanoparticles forms on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) under drought stress conditions.
    Materials and MethodsA field experiment was conducted as a split plot in complete randomized block design with three replications in Esfahan city, during the growing season of 2015-2016. Treatments were included three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days) as main plots and Fe foliar application in four levels (control, 2 g L-1 iron chelate, 2 g L-1 Nano-iron chelate, 4 g L-1 iron chelate, 4 g L-1 nano-iron chelate). Foliar application of Fe chelate on leaves was done two times at before and after flowering stage. The plots were 16 m2 with 4 sowing rows, 4 m long. Seeds were placed at 2 to 4 cm depth in each row. All data collected were subjected of analysis of variance (ANOVA) using MSTATC software. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test.
    Results and DiscussionThe results indicated that drought stress decreased the investigated traits significantly but the effect of irrigation by 15 days interval was more than 10 days. Plots which irrigated by 15 days interval showed minimum height, number of umbels, number of grain per umbel, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yield. Abd El-Kader et al, (2010) reported that decrease in fruit and seed yield of okra occurred by increasing the irrigation interval. Also the results suggested that spraying application of Fe chelate in common and Nano forms increased the yield and yield components on cumin in comparison to control. The maximum and minimum height by 27 and 21.3 cm was observed in 4 g.L-1 Nano-iron chelate and control (no spraying) treatments respectively. The mean comparison of interaction effects showed that the minimum 1000-grain weight (1.5 g), grain
    (610.7 kg ha-1) and biological yield (1767 kg ha-1) was obtained in control × irrigation by 15 days interval. The maximum effects of iron chelate on increasing of traits was found by foliar application of 4 grams per liter Nano iron chelate. Liu et al, (2005) reported that Nano-Fe2O3 promoted the growth and photosynthesis of peanut. Sheykhbaglou et al, (2010) showed that application of Nano-iron oxide particles increased soybean yield. Reduction of particle size results in increased number of particles per unit of weight and specific surface area of a fertilizer that should increase contact of fertilizer with plant leading to increase in nutrient uptake. Nano-particles have high reactivity because of more specific surface area, more density of reactive areas, or increased reactivity of these areas on the particle surfaces. Below 100 nm Nano-particles could make plants use fertilizer more efficiently, reduced pollution and more environmentally friendly, dissolve in water more effectively thus increase their activities.
    ConclusionsOverall, the results showed that water deficit decreased the yield and yield components of cumin but foliar application of Fe chelate in Nano and common forms increased investigated traits. The results indicated that no significant difference was observed in most of the traits between the foliar application of 2 g.L-1 Nano iron chelate and 4 g.L-1 iron chelate. Based on our results can be concluded that foliar application Fe chelate specially Nano-form can reduced stress effects on plant and finally caused increase yield and yield components.
    Keywords: Biologic yield, Irrigation period, Medicinal plant, Nano-particles
  • A. Koocheki, S. Khorramdel, J. Shabahang Pages 243-261
    IntroductionNitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for wheat is only about 30%, but with best management practices it can be improved to higher levels. Optimal nitrogen (N) management is essential for maximum NUE, crop yield and minimum environmental impacts. Applying less N may result in lower grain yields and reduced grain quality. However, higher N application can result in reducing NUE and increasing fertilizer losses. Efficient use of applied N fertilizer improves crop yield and decreases the production cost. N application and recovery efficiencies depend on soil criterias; method and rate of fertilizer application; and planting methods. Improving NUE is one ecological approach for producing higher grain yield. In recent years, some researchers found that suitable management and adoption of appropriate practices could improve agricultural nitrogen use efficiency and crops production would be more efficient. Raised bed planting has shown to improve water distribution and efficiency, fertilizer use efficiency, reduced crop lodging and decreased seed rate without sacrificing yield. Planting methods could also affect the vertical distribution of leaf area index and radiation use efficiency of wheat.
    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of raised bed planting and Urea fertilizer levels on the nitrogen efficiency indices and yield of wheat.
    Materials and MethodsThis experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Field, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2015-2016. The main and sub factors were allocated to planting methods (raised bed and conventional methods) and Urea rates such as 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg Urea ha-1, respectively. Investigated traits were grain yield, biological yield, nitrogen content of grain, nitrogen content of straw, and efficiency indices of nitrogen (nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency and NUE). The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test.
    Results and DiscussionResults showed that the simple and interaction effects of planting methods and Urea rates were significant (p≤0.05) on grain yield, biological yield, grain nitrogen content, straw nitrogen content, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency and NUE of wheat. The maximum and minimum grain yield were observed with raised bed planting and 300 kg Urea ha-1 (7545 kg ha-1) and conventional planting and control (3865 kg ha-1), respectively. The maximum and the minimum amounts of nitrogen uptake efficiency were belonged to raised bed planting and control (0.45 kg N in plant per kg N in soil) conventional planting and 400 kg Urea ha-1 (0.14 kg N in plant per kg N in soil), respectively. The highest and lowest NUE were related to raised bed planting and control (36.65 kg N in grain per kg N in plant) conventional planting and 400 kg Urea ha-1 (10.63 kg N in grain per kg N in plant), respectively. Increasing in Urea rate from 0 to 400 kg ha-1 fertilizer decreased nitrogen use efficiency up to 62 percent.
    ConclusionsResults showed a higher grain yield and biological yield from planting on raised bed compared with the conventional planting, owing to higher nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency. Biological yield was significantly influenced and higher trend was found with higher dose of nitrogen. There was a trend to improve grain yield with the increase of Urea levels. Grain yield increased in raised bed planting method compared with conventional planting mostly due to more fertile topsoil on the raised beds. Enhancing nitrogen fertilizer led to improve in grain yield and a decrease in NUE.
    Keywords: Nitrogen uptake efficiency, Nitrogen use efficiency, Nitrogen utilization efficiency, Raised bed