فهرست مطالب

التیام - سال چهارم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • سال چهارم شماره 1 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Samaneh Ghasemi, Ahmad Reza Raji* Page 5
    The equine skeletal system is comprised of various bones that came together with joints. There are different types of joints but, the synovial joints have an important role in function of skeletal system. Synovial joints are the joints that the ending of articulating surfaces of bones covered with the hyaline cartilage and interconnect with joint capsule. The joint cavity between bones that lined by a synovial membrane contains synovial fluid. The synovial joints are the movable joints with a wide range of movement. The joints of the equine limbs are in this group. The characteristics of joints anatomy and physiology are presented in this article.
    Keywords: Joint, Synovial, Anatomy, Physiology
  • Fariborz Moayer *, Ehsan Lajmiri Page 16
    Osteoarthritis is the most common of joint disease that its resulting lameness is the most important disorders of the musculoskeletal system in athletic horses. Several biochemical and biomechanical factors are contributed to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Among these factors, reduced synthesis and lack of proteoglycans and increased matrix metalloproteinase production and secretion are the main well known agents in osteoarthritis formation and its ongoing destructive effects. Progressive destruction of articular cartilage due to limited capicity of this structure to repair and healing, changes in the subchondral bone, synovitis, capsulitis and damage of regional soft tissues are some important osteoarthritis features. Understanding of the different causes of osteoarthritis has an important role in treatment and prevention of this disorder. The pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and its related changes in joints and articular cartilage repair are described in this article.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Horse, Joint, Pathophysilogy
  • Mohammad Mehdi Oloumi, Kamran Sardari*, Samaneh Ghasemi Page 32
    Lameness related to osteoarthritis is one of the most important causes of decreased athletic performance of horses that occurs generally due to pain arising from this disorder. According to progressive destruction of articular cartilage and limited ability of this structure to repair, its timely diagnosis and treatment have the very important role in prevention of disease progression and success in treatment. In spite of various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis, still the major therapeutic protocols focus on control of clinical signs of osteoarthritis. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of osteoarthritis in horse are presented in this article.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Horse, Lameness, Treatment
  • Saeed Azizi*, Yeganeh Mehrani Page 49
    Septic arthritis is one of the most important causes of chronic of lameness in horse which if not treated early, it progresses and can be life-threatening in horse. So septic arthritis should be as an emergency condition and suitable therapeutic options are performed immediately. Elimination and removal of causative agent and infected tissue, intraarticular joint lavage and debridement, infection control and antibiotic therapy are the most important therapeutic principles after diagnosis of septic arthritis. Causes of septic arthritis, its pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment are presented in this article.
    Keywords: Septic arthritis, Horse, Joint, Bacteria
  • Samaneh Ghasemi, Alireza Raayat Jahromi, Kamran Sardari* Page 65
    In spite of advance in therapeutic techniques for osteoarthritis in recent years, the use of intraarticular injections is still the most common method for pain and lameness relief resulting from osteoarthritis in horse. Also arthrocentesis and intra-articular anesthesia are the most valuable methods for clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis and other joint injuries. Although the application of intra-articular injections with the aim of diagnosis or treatment, needs little equipment but, the correct performing of intra-articular injection approaches requires understanding the anatomy of limbs and joints, personal skills and clinical experiences. Some of the most important approaches of intra-articular injections are presented in this article.
    Keywords: Horse, Joint, Injection, Intra-articular
  • Hadi Esmaily * Page 95
    Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease that affects human and other animal species including horse and causing pain, lameness and decreased joint function. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is an accepted technique that is widely used for treatment of osteoarthritis. are the most important clinical signs of osteoarthritis. Improvement in viscoelastic properties of the synovial fluid and joint function, anti-inflammatory activity, reducing pain and, minimizing articular cartilage destruction are the most important effects of hyaluronic acid application in osteoarthritis treatment. In this article, some of the most important properties of hyaluronic acid is briefly described.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Hyaluronic acid, Intra-articular injection