فهرست مطالب

جستارهای باستان شناسی ایران پیش از اسلام - پیاپی 3 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 3 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محسن حیدری دستنایی صفحات 1-14
    بخش لاران در حوزه جنوبی سرشاخه های زاینده رود واقع گردیده است و به سبب شرایط جغرافیایی و ظرفیت های زیست محیطی مناسب و مطلوب زمینه ساز ایجاد استقرارهای انسانی در ادوار مختلف بوده است. مطالعه این بخش از زاگرس،‏ به عنوان یکی از نواحی مهمی که در بین دو منطقه فلات مرکزی و خوزستان واقع شده و نقش محیط طبیعی آن در شکل دهی،‏ تداوم و یا فروپاشی محوطه های باستانی یکی از نیازهای تحقیقاتی است که جای خالی آن در مطالعات این منطقه دیده می شود. در این پژوهش،‏ در مجموع 19 محوطه نوسنگی و مس و سنگی شناسایی شده حاصل از بررسی پیمایشی سال 1389 بخش لاران مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. برای تحلیل و تجزیه محوطه های شناسایی شده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی استفاده شد. به منظور تسهیل و درک بیشتر الگوهای مکانی محوطه ها در ارتباط با عوامل محیطی،‏ از نرم افزارهای Arc GIS استفاده گردید. این نرم افزار،‏ فواصل موجود و داده های حاصل از شرایط محیطی را با موقعیت مکانی محوطه ها تلفیق کرده و آنها را به صورت اعداد در اختیار نگارنده قرار داده و سپس با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و روش تحلیل همبستگی پیرسون به تحلیل ارتباط بین محوطه های باستانی با شرایط محیطی پرداخت. دلایل همبستگی یا عدم همبستگی محوطه های باستانی به چگونگی رابطه انسان با محیط برمی گردد که نوعی خاص از چشم اندازها را به وجود می آورد. در این مطالعه وسعت محوطه های باستانی به عنوان متغیر وابسته و شرایط محیطی مانند،‏ دوری و نزدیکی به منابع آب و مسیرهای ارتباطی،‏ نوع پوشش گیاهی،‏ جهت شیب و درجه شیب و ارتفاع از سطح دریا به عنوان متغیر مستقل در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان می دهد که محوطه های نوسنگی و مس و سنگی بخش لاران وابستگی اندکی به عوامل محیطی دارند و این نشان می دهد که این محوطه ها به صورت فصلی مورد استفاده قرار می گرفته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: نوسنگی و مس و سنگی، بخش لاران، عوامل محیطی، همبستگی پیرسون، حوزه جنوبی زاینده رود
  • حسین کوهستانی، مریم قاسم نژاد صفحات 15-23
    امنیت اجتماعی اصلی ترین هدفی است که هر جامعه متمدن در جهت رسیدن به آن گام بر می دارد و برای تحقق آن اصلی ترین نقش را قوانین حاکم بر آن جامعه ایفا می کنند. قوانین رایج در هر جامعه همواره نقشی اساسی در ایجاد عدالت اجتماعی،‏ پایداری یک حکومت و به طبع سطح رضایت افراد جامعه از حکومت دارند ؛بنا بر این،‏ بررسی آن در حکومت هایی که در طول تاریخ دوام زیادی یافتند اهمیت بسزایی دارد در این راستا قوانین رایج در ایلام باستان نیز به عنوان حکومتی که علی رغم فراز و نشیب های زیاد بیش از دو هزار سال به حیات خود ادامه داد و حتی بر تمامی حکومت های پس از خود در فلات ایران به ویژه هخامنشیان تاثیری بسزا نهاد،‏ بسیار قابل تامل است؛ بنا بر این در این پژوهش نگارندگان در پی آن هستند تا با استفاده از منابع موجود به بررسی قوانین در حکومت های ایلام باستان و همچنین وضعیت اجرای آن بپردازند. نگارندگان با سامان دهی اطلاعات دریافته از اسناد باستان شناسی به ویژه اسناد اکدی یافت شده از شوش و با کمک گرفتن از منابع کتابخانه ای به این مهم دست یافتند که مدارک موجود،‏ سیستم دقیق و قانون مداری را در خصوص مسائل حقوقی ایلام باستان ارائه می دهد که با توجه به دوران مورد استفاده بسیار قابل توجه است. اهمیت سوگند خوردن در قوانین ایلام باستان نیز از جمله موارد مورد توجه در اسناد است که نقشی بسیار فراتر از یک شهادت کلامی داشته است و حتی در مواردی به طور مستقیم و صریح تعیین کننده ی حکم قضاوت نیز بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اسناد اکدی، شوش، ایلام، قوانین
  • حسنعلی عرب، علیرضا هژبری نوبری، ستار خالدیان صفحات 25-36
    فرهنگ معرف سفالهای سیاه و خاکستری دست ساز با آمیزه کانی و نقوش تزئینات شیاری،‏ فرورفته،‏ نقوش کنده حکاکی شده مارپیچی،‏ نقوش هندسی کنده و نقوش تزئینی کنده زیگزاگی در لبه،‏ گستره مکانی وسیعی از قفقاز،‏ جمهوری آذربایجان،‏ ارمنستان،‏ گرجستان،‏ آناتولی،‏ لوانت و ایران را در هزاره های چهارم و سوم ق. م در بر گرفته است. دوره مذکور در این مناطق با نام های گوناگون کورا-ارس (باستان شناسان شوروی سابق) ،‏ ماورای قفقاز،‏ فرهنگ یانیک (دایسون) ،‏ فرهنگ شنگاویت (باستان شناسان ارمنستان) و… یاد شده است. در داخل ایران آثار بدست آمده از این دوره زمانی که بیشتر با نام کوراارس یا یانیک شناخته می شود در مناطقی از شمال،‏ شمال غرب،‏ غرب و نواحی جنوب غربی البرز مشاهده شده است. اخیرا در بررسی انجام گرفته در دشت شازند در استان مرکزی ایران آثار شاخص این فرهنگ شناساسی شده است. آثار تپه های شناسایی شده سوارآباد و سرسختی با 1 و 2 هکتار وسعت،‏ معرف فرهنگ موسوم به ماورای قفقاز قدیم یا کورا-ارس است. چگونگی گسترش فرهنگ کورا ارس همواره یکی از موضوعات بسیار چالش برانگیز در رابطه با چگونگی توسعه جوامع پیچیده اولیه در خاور نزدیک بوده و نیز خواهد بود. در مقاله حاضر سعی شده است علاوه بر معرفی محوطه های فوق،‏ بر اساس داده های سفالی و گونه شناسی،‏ در یک رهیافت مقایسه ای ارتباط این منطقه با نواحی قفقاز و آناتولی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. کشف اخیر این محوطه ها باعث گسترش حوزه نفوذ این فرهنگ تا لبه های جنوب غربی فلات مرکزی و لبه های شرقی زاگرس گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سفال سیاه و خاکستری، فرهنگ ماورای قفقاز قدیم، کورا، ارس، دوره مفرغ
  • مریم ظهوریان، سامان فرزین، محمد امین حاجی زاده صفحات 37-49
    جستجو و کنکاش در آیین های کهن و باستانی در هر قوم و ملتی،‏ منجر به تبیین ویژگی های زیستی،‏ فرهنگی و انسان شناختی آن مردمان شده و نمادشناسی آثار برجای مانده،‏ به تحقق این امر کمک شایانی کرده است. یکی از این نمادها،‏ نمود نقش مار در تمدن اسلام باستان است. عیلام باستان نام سرزمینی است در جنوب غرب ایران که برحسب تقسیمات جغرافیای سیاسی امروز،‏ سرزمین خوزستان،‏ فارس و بخش هایی از استان های کرمان،‏ لرستان و کردستان را در طی هزاره های سوم تا اول پیش از میلاد در بر میگیرد. یکی از این ویژگی های عیلامیان،‏ احترام ویژه به عنصر زن و اختصاص جایگاه خاص به آن در میان خدایان بود،‏ این تفوق تا جایی است که الهه ها معمولا در فهرست خدایان مقام های برتر را از آن خود کرده و در امور سیاسی و اجتماعی نیز زنان امکان اختیار مقام های برتر حتی مقام پادشاهی را داشتند؛ آنچنانکه جامعه عیلام باستان را باید جامعه ای زن سالار دانست. یکی از این ویژگی ها احترام خاصی بود که عیلامی ها همواره برای سحر و جادو،‏ نیروهای جهان زیرین و عنصر زن قائل بودند و ویژگی دیگر پرستش مار بوده است. در این میان نماد مار اگرچه در بسیاری از فرهنگ ها سمبلی از اغواگری و فریب مطرح می گردد اما نمی توان جنبه مثبت مار به عنوان سمبل بی مرگی و حاصلخیزی را نادیده گرفت چرا که در برخی از تمدن ها جنبه مثبت مار تا حد خدایی نیز بوده است.
    در این میان عیلام باستان از تمدن هایی می باشد که علاوه بر نقش و نماد زن،‏ نقش و نماد مار به کررات در آثار آن ها یافت می-شود. در این راستا پژوهش مورد نظر در تلاش است که هویت و جایگاه مار در بستر فرهنگی و مذهبی عیلامیان با توجه به مدارک باستان شناسی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار دهد که بر این اساس می توان دریافت عنصر مار در جنبه مثبت از حفاظت و نگهبانی تا پرستش به عنوان خدا در عیلام مطرح بوده است و با عنصر مونث نیز در راتباط می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سمبل، زن سالاری، نقش مار، عیلام باستان، زنانگی
  • حسین توفیقیان، مسعود صادقی راد صفحات 51-74
    ششمین فصل از کاوش های باستان شناختی تپه ی پاتپه (گونسپان تپه) ،‏ واپسین تلاش های بود که با هدف نجات-بخشی این تپه،‏ قبل از آبگیری کامل سد کلان به انجام رسید. پاتپه دربر دارنده ی آثاری از دوره ی مفرغ قدیم (یانیق) تا دوره ی صفویه است. طی فصل ششم علاوه بر کاوش بقایایی از معماری مربوط به دوره ی اسلامی و دوره ی اشکانی به جا مانده از کاوش های پیشین،‏ بقایایی از یک معماری عظیم نیز نمایان گردید. این معماری متعلق به بقایای یک دژ از دوره ی آهن III و یا ماد بود که بخش هایی از آن طی فصول چهارم و پنجم،‏ کاوش گردیده بود. مهم ترین دلایل انتساب این دژ به مادها،‏ وجود تشابهات در سبک معماری و یافته های فرهنگی موجود در آن با دیگر ساختارهای منسوب به ماد همچون نوشیجان،‏ باباجان و گودین است. آثار این دوره شامل دیوارهای عریض خشتی است که تالارهای مستطیلی را پدید آورده اند. از دوره ی اشکانی نیز آثاری از دیوارهای خشتی و پی های سنگ چین به دست آمد. دیوارها و کف برخی از فضاهای مربوط به این دوره گچ اندود شده بود. آثار دوره ی اسلامی نیز بقایایی از دیوارها سنگ چین و چاه های آب و فاضلاب را شامل می شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فصل ششم، اشکانی، پاتپه، کاوش باستان شناختی
  • مطالعه تطبیقی گچبری های نویافته تپه قزل قلعه فراهان
    جواد علایی مقدم، سید رسول موسوی حاجی، رضا مهرآفرین صفحات 75-88
    گچ از مصالح ساختمانی مورد استفاده بشر است که قدمت استفاده از آن در ایران به عنوان یکی از مصالح ساختمانی به دوران ایلام میانه می رسد. پس از این دوران از گچ در تزیینات بناهای مختلف استفاده گردید به نحوی که نمونه های منحصر به فرد آن از دوران مختلف هخامنشی،‏ اشکانی،‏ ساسانی و دوران اسلامی به دست آمده است. در سال های اخیر،‏ ضمن بررسی باستان شناختی دشت فراهان،‏ محوطه ای باستانی به ابعاد 700× 400 متر شناسایی شد که بر اثر حفاری های غیر مجاز و خاکبرداری گسترده،‏ به شدت آشفته شده است. در این محوطه که به تپه قزل قلعه شهرت دارد،‏ علاوه بر بقایای اندک معماری و قطعات سفال های سطحی،‏ تعدادی گچ بری به دست آمد که تا کنون نمونه مشابه آن ها در منطقه یافت نگردیده است. این گچ بری ها شامل نقوشی همچون بخشی از بال موجود اساطیری (اغلب سیمرغ) ،‏ ستاره 12 پر،‏ نقش گیاهان انتزاعی و حاشیه قاب بندی های تکی و چندتایی می شود. اهمیت موضوع از آن جهت است که این گچ بری ها یکی از اولین نمونه های شناسایی شده در منطقه می باشند،‏ از این رو با استفاده از روش مطالعات تطبیقی و از دو طریق مقایسه گونه شناختی نمونه سفال های سطحی محوطه و مقایسه گونه شناختی نمونه های گچ بری یافت شده،‏ با نمونه های تاریخ دار مشخص،‏ اقدام به مطالعه و پژوهش گردید. نتایج دربردارنده آن است که نمونه گچ بری های قزل قلعه فراهان قابل مقایسه با نمونه های یافت شده از بیشاپور،‏ حصار دامغان،‏ چال ترخان و تپه میل ری،‏ قلعه یزدگرد کرمانشاه،‏ قلعه ضحاک،‏ قلاگوری رماوند،‏ شوش،‏ تیسفون و قلعه هزار در لرستان مربوط به دوران ساسانی است و گاه نگاری نسبی محوطه از طریق نمونه های سفالی نیز تایید کننده این نتیجه است. در پایان می توان چنین بیان کرد که تپه قزل قلعه فراهان،‏ بقایایی از یک بنای ساسانی احتمالا متعلق به یکی از امرای محلی است که در آن از هنر تزییناتی گچ بری با موتیف-های ساسانی استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر ساسانی، دشت فراهان، بررسی باستان شناختی، مطالعات تطبیقی، تزیینات گچبری، تپه قزل قلعه
  • مطالعه نقش عوامل محیطی در شکل گیری و پراکنش محوطه های اشکانی دشت رومشگان (لرستان)
    فرشاد میری، علیرضا خسروزاده، ناصر نوروززاده چگینی صفحات 89-102
    دشت میان کوهی رومشگان واقع در جنوب غرب استان لرستان،‏ با ویژگی ها و قابلیت های جغرافیایی و زیست محیطی مناسب به لحاظ دارا بودن منابع آب زیرزمینی،‏ خاک حاصلخیز و پوشش گیاهی مناسب شرایط مناسبی برای زیست جوامع انسانی طی اعصار گذشته،‏ به ویژه دوره ی اشکانی فراهم کرده است. موقعیت ارتباطی استراتژیک این دشت بر سر راه ها و گذرگاه های غرب،‏ جنوب غرب و فلات مرکزی و امکان برقراری روابط درون و برون منطقه ای اهمیت آنرا برای جوامع اشکانی ساکن در آن دوچندان کرده است. به دلیل کمبود مطالعات منسجم و بررسی های هدفمند باستان شناختی در دشت رومشگان،‏ وضعیت کلی این منطقه در دوران تاریخی و به ویژه دوره ی اشکانی چندان روشن نیست. از این رو شناخت ویژگی های استقرارگاه های دوره ی اشکانی این منطقه،‏ نوع استقرارها،‏ الگوهای استقراری و زیستگاهی،‏ تاثیر محیط بر چگونگی شکل گیری و پراکندگی استقرارهای آن ضروری به نظر می رسد. در این نوشتار با اتکاء بر بررسی باستان شناسی دشت رومشگان،‏ الگوهای استقراری محوطه ها بر اساس شاخص های محیطی و جغرافیایی شامل ارتفاع از سطح دریا،‏ پوشش گیاهی،‏ درصد شیب زمین،‏ دوری و نردیکی به رودخانه،‏ فاصله از راه ها و مسیرهای ارتباطی،‏ دوری و نزدیکی به روستاهای امروزی با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار می گیرد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که پراکنش محوطه ها و الگوهای استقراری این دشت طی دوره ی اشکانی به میزان زیادی به منابع زیست محیطی به ویژه منابع آب زیرزمینی،‏ خاک حاصلخیز و موقعیت ارتباطی مناسب وابسته بوده است. همچنین دو نوع الگوی استقرار موقت و یکجانشین در منطقه ی مورد مطالعه شناسایی شد که غالب استقرارها را محوطه های کوچ نشینی که اغلب نهشته ی باستانی ضخیم ندارند،‏ تشکیل می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی استقرار، اشکانی، بررسی باستان شناختی.، رومشگان
  • انیسه خاکباز، عابد تقوی صفحات 103-119
    بر اساس منابع تاریخی شهر فریم در ولایت طبرستان در دوران ساسانی و قرون اولیه اسلامی،‏ از جمله مراکز شهری بوده که نقشی فعال در تحولات پهنه فرهنگی طبرستان داشته است. این شهر مقر اصلی دو خاندان محلی طبرستان به نام های آل قارن و آل باوند بوده است. محوطه شاه نشین به عنوان بخشی کوچک از شهر تاریخی فریم،‏ طی سال های 1385،‏ 1387 و 1388ه. ش. کاوش باستان شناسانه شد. حاصل این کاوش ها کشف آثار معماری،‏ سفالی و دیگر یافته های فرهنگی بود. ضرورت مطالعه روی آثار سفالین این شهر،‏ بیشتر به دلیل شناخت هرچه بیشتر از توالی گاه نگاری و مطالعه گونه های شاخص سفالی در قرون اولیه اسلامی این منطقه انجام گرفت؛زیرا علی رغم وجود محوطه های قرون اولیه اسلامی،‏ تاکنون مطالعه علمی روی محوطه-های اسلامی مازندران با تمرکز بر طبقه بندی،‏گونه شناسی و مقایسه تطبیقی سفالینه های حاصل از کاوش،‏ صورت نپذیرفته-است. این پژوهش با بهره گیری از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت اسنادی و مطالعات میدانی،‏ درصدد ارایه گاه نگاری نسبی محوطه شاه نشین بر اساس یافته های سفالی است. براساس مطالعات گونه شناسی و تحلیل آماری سفال های شاخص مجموعه و نیز بهره گیری قراین تاریخی،‏ استقرار در محوطه شاه نشین فریم،‏ از اواخر عصر ساسانی آغاز گردید و در اواخر قرن پنجم هجری قمری رو به افول نهاد. دوره شکوفایی این محوطه مربوط به قرون سوم و چهارم هجری-قمری است. نتایج مطالعه روی سفالینه های شاخص مکشوفه از سه فصل کاوش محوطه شاه نشین فریم نشان می دهدکه دوگونه اصلی سفال های بدون لعاب و لعابدار به ترتیب به دوازده و چهار زیرگونه سفالی تقسیم شدند. مهم ترین نقوش تزیینی سفالینه ها شامل نقش کنده و اسگرافیاتو بوده است. با مطالعه تطبیقی گونه سفالی مکشوفه و دیگر مراکز شهری در ایران،‏ وجوه اشتراک زیادی در نقش،‏ نوع پوشش،‏ اشکال رایج میان محوطه شاه نشین و شهرهای نیشابور،‏ بیشاپور،‏ گور،‏ دارابگرد،‏ سرمشهد،‏ جرجان،‏ سیستان،‏ مالین باخرز،‏ دقیانوس،‏ سرخ قلعه و سیمره وجود دارد. گاه نگاری نسبی قابل اریه برای این محوطه،‏ دامنه ی زمانی اواخر ساسانی تا قرن پنجم هجری قمری است. بر اساس شواهد تاریخی و مطالعات باستان شناختی،‏ دوره بالندگی و پویایی محوطه شاه نشین به عنوان بخشی از شهر تاریخی فریم،‏ قرون سوم و چهارم هجری قمری است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر تاریخی فریم، طبرستان، محوطه شاه نشین، کاوش های باستان شناختی، سفال اسلامی
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  • Mohsen Heydari Dastenaei Pages 1-14
    One of the important purposes of Archaeology, is studying the interaction of humans with the environment: This paper is trying to focus on and analyze the role of natural, geographical, and environmental factors in the appearance of human settlements in Neolithic and Chalcolithic, of Laran County. Laran County is located in the Southern branch of the Zayandeh- Rud Rive and Due to the potential environmental and geographical conditions has caused appropriate human settlements are formed in different periods. Because of this area is located in a mountainous area, has a cold weather, with abundant rainfall and for this reason, landscape is causing many environmental constraints. Subsistence ways of the people in this region are agriculture and livestock. This area is now the number of Bakhtiari nomad's countryside come to this area in summer.
    The study of this part of the Zagros, as one of the important areas is located in the between two central plateau region of Khuzestan, And the natural environment role in shape, continuity or the collapse of archaeological sites is one of the gaps that needs to research in the studies of this area. Therefore, our records of the changes of the region in different periods of prehistory and its mode of relationship with other environment are incomplete. In this study, is used a total of 19 Neolithic and chalcolithic sites have been identified of the 2010 survey in the Laran county. Identify sites in the study were analyzed by using descriptive and analytical methods and by using GIS and SPSS software. In this study, the extent of the archaeological sites as the dependent variable And environmental conditions, such as distance and proximity to water resources and communication paths, vegetation type, slope direction, slope degree and altitude were considered as independent variables. The reasons for the lack of Correlation or correlation archaeological sites back to the relationship between man and environment that creates a special kind of the landscape. According to the results of the correlation is determined that the height above sea level, the seasonal water and vegetation resources have more impact as compared to other factors And others factors such as slope direction, slope degree, distance from communication routes and Permanent sources of water are very low. The overall results of this study suggest that Neolithic and chalcolithic sites in the Laran County are Low depended to environmental factors and this suggests that these sites are used seasonally.This area is high and has a cool climate and these factors have created special and different conditions, forming human settlements similar to other areas in Zagros Highland. According to the above, we must ask which one life style is that the height, seasonal water sources and pasture vegetation plays an important role for human life. What characterized that in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic period, way of life in the region is similar to todays and life style has been nomadic pastoralist that is still ongoing.
    Key Word: Neolithic and Chalcolithic, Zayandeh- Rud Southern area, Laran County, Pearson correlation, environmental factors
    Keywords: Pearson correlation, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Laran County, environmental factors., Zayandeh- Rud Southern area
  • Hossein Koohestani, Maryam Ghasemnezhad Pages 15-23
    Social security is the most important objective that each civilized society tries to achieve and for this purpose, the main role is played by the rules governing the society. Common rules in each society create social justice, sustainability of the government, and satisfaction of people. Therefore, this aspect is very important in governments that have shown durability over history. In this regard, common rules in ancient Elam deserve investigation like a government that despite fluctuations over more than two thousand years continued its life and influenced next governments in Iranian plateau, especially Achaemenid dynasty. The Elam land was a connector between prehistoric era and historic era of Iran’s land, which has more than 2000 years’ history and old culture. Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far West and Southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. More than two thousand years of civilization in the ancient, middle and new kingdom of Elam, they stood in front of the invasions of Mesopotamian’s and finally destroyed by the Assyrians. This study aimed to investigate the rules in ancient Elam using the available documents. Organizing the information found from archeological documents and Akkadian documents From Sukkal-mah period (Sukkal-mah is a Sumerian term that may be literally translated “grand vizier,” was the title borne by the highest official of the empire under the Third Dynasty of Ur) found in Susa, As well as using library sources, it was found that the available documents present an accurate system about legal issues in ancient Elam that according to the area of interest, it is significant. Akkadian documents of Susa, despite limited sources about Elam, present direct and clear image of social life in this region. By investigating the contracts in ancient Elam including commercial contracts and marriage contracts, it was found that witness had an important role and except in certain cases, the presence of two witnesses was necessary and in some contracts, 40 witnesses were required. Contract confirmation sign was nail sign that was functioning as signature. With studies on Elamite rules and comparing them with the Code of Hammurabi (Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC and the code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC), differences were observed that have different reasons, but there are similarities between them where we can point to giving value to swearing as an instrument to investigate verification of claims. Crucify was among the sentences in ancient Elam and existed in different periods. Elamite gods had important roles in legal issues and sentences and documents and contracts were accompanied by their names. The legacy law in Elam gives a special position to women; the Elamite men have paid attention their own women. No evidence is found regarding the existence of prisons in ancient Elam.
    Keywords: Elam, Susa, rules, Akkadian Documents
  • Hasanali Arab, Alireza Hejebri Nobari, Sattar Khaledian Pages 25-36
    One of the most important features of the Iran Early Bronze Age which shows the late 4th and first half of the 3rd millenniums-upon 5 Carbon 14 samples- according to the investigated ancient areas, is Yanik Tepe (Voigt and Dyson, 1992: 122- 178) associated to the field of pottery, due to the presence and promotion of grey and black pottery in extensive locations thereof (Talaei, 2006: 49).
    The other regions where the impact and development of Transcaucasia (Kura- Araxes) culture has been observed is the Shazand plain(Savar Abad and Sarsakhti 3 Tepes), which is located between central Zagros (Lorestan) at west and plateau of central Iran at the east and is of the set of the plains located at the south of the main road of the plateau of Iran. The surface survey of the Tepe Savar Abad has identified a number of ceramics belonging to Chalcolithic, early and new bronze, iron periods and historical and Islamic periods. Fragment of ceramics belonging to Kura-Araxes have been found in the Tepe and the technique of these fragments is handmade and in some cases the surface of the ceramics has been polished by some sort of instrumental (sample 5 and 7), and the temper of all fragments is mineral. Two cases of these samples have external decoration, sample one (No: 2) has three rows of equilateral triangles. The upper row is placed on a horizontal line with sharp points directed down ward. The middle row and the lower row are placed mix to each other. Sample No 4 also has some decorated patterns with a special technique, a horizontal strip in lower part with equilateral triangle connected to each other, but the triangles are not carved, only the margins are carved and the triangles are at the level of the surface. The sizes of the triangles get gradually bigger from left to right. In the archaeological survey recognized Tepe Sarsakhti-3(Shz:154). The surface survey of the Tepe has identified a number of ceramics belonging to Chalcolithic, bronze and historical and Islamic periods. The technology used to produce all Yanik fragments are handmade and the inside and outside surface have been carefully polished (8, 9, 11, 15). Regarding the form, they are bowl -like shapes with open- mouth in the body. Comparisons have been made between the varieties of genres of ceramic objects in Sarsakhti Tepe with other samples in Godin in Kangavar plain (Henricson; 1991) and Yanik Tepe (Burny; 1969) are highly remarkable (table1). We could not find any ordinary decorated ceramic object in Yanik Tepe. The manner of development of Kura- Araxes culture has always been a challenging issue related to the development of early complicated communities in the near east. Archaeological surveys have been going on widely for many kilometers after Tepe Sarsakhti to east, but no clue has been found yet to verify the existence of a highly advanced culture in east, north or south. Further studies in neighboring area have not lead to any acceptable result either (Fig.7). Therefore, the area can be called the connective hinterland of Kura- Araxes culture. The comparison of ceramic genres in these two regions with other samples show that they have some sort of similarity with samples found in Godin Tepe in Kangavar plain (Young; 1969, 1974 & Henrickson; 1991) and the ceramic genres belonging to ancient Bronze age in Yanik Tepe (Burney; 1961) located in the east of the Urmia Lake in Azarbaijan area have some sort of similarities in form.
    Keywords: Burnished Grey Ware, Bronze Age, Shazand plain, Early Transcaucasia, Kura–Araxes
  • Maryam Zohoriyan, Saman Farzin, Mohammad Amin Haji Zadeh Pages 37-49
    Elam was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far West and Southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East in classical literature, Elam was also known as Susiana, which is a name derived from its capital, Susa.
    Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age). The emergence of written records from around 3000 BC also parallels Sumerian history, where slightly earlier records have been found. In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age), Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. Elamite is generally considered a language isolate unrelated to the much later arriving Persian and Iranic languages. In accordance with geographical and archaeological matches, some historians argue that the Elamites comprise a large portion of the ancestors of the modern day Lurs, whose language, Luri, split from Middle Persian.
    The Elamites practiced polytheism. Knowledge about their religion is scant, but, according to Cambridge Ancient History, at one time they had a pantheon headed by the goddess Kiririsha/Pinikir.Other deities included In-shushinak and Jabru, lord of the underworld. According to Cambridge Ancient History, "this predominance of a supreme goddess is probably a reflexion from the practice of matriarchy which at all times characterized Elamite civilization to a greater or lesser degree.
    Searching and exploring ancient and ancient religions in every nation and has led to the explanation of the biological, cultural and anthropological characteristics of those peoples, and the symbolism of the remaining works has contributed greatly to this. One of these symbols is the role of the snake in the ancient Islamic civilization. The ancient Elam is a land name in the southwest of Iran, which covers the Khuzestan, Fars, and parts of Kerman, Lorestan and Kurdistan provinces during the third to the first millennium BC, according to the geopolitical divisions. One of these characteristics of the Elamites was the special respect for the female element and the assignment of a special place among the gods, this superiority to the extent that the goddesses usually rank top in the list of gods and in political and social affairs Women also had the opportunity to have high ranking officials, even royalties, as the ancient Elamite community should be considered as a female-dominated society. One of these characteristics was the particular respect that the Elamites always had for the magic, the forces of the underworld and the female element, and another feature of the worship of the snake. It can be said that in addition to its positive aspect, which is known as the symbol of fertility, the snake has a negative aspect and a symbol of incapacity and seduction. In this article, we try to clarify the nature and identity of the serpent in the culture and religion of Elam by introducing the remains of this ancient civilization, such as inscriptions, figurines, dramatic designs and ... having a role of the serpent.
    Keywords: Femininity., Snake, Symbol, Ancient Elam, Femininity
  • Hossein Tofighian, Masuod Sadeghi Rad Pages 51-74
    The sixth chapter of the archaeological excavations of the Patapeh Site (Gonespan Hill), was the last effort to save this hill, before the full dive of the dam was completed. Patapeh contains works from the Bronze Age (Yanigh) to the Safavid period. During the sixth season, in addition to exploring the remnants of the architecture of the Islamic period and the Parthian period left behind by previous excavations, Remains of a huge architecture also appeared.
    This architecture belongs to the remnants of a castle from the Iron III or Median period, parts of which were explored in the fourth and fifth chapters. The most important reasons for assigning this castle to the Medes are the similarities in the architectural style and the cultural foundations in it with other structures related to Median such as Noshijan, Babajan and Godin. The works of this period include wavy walls that have created rectangular halls. From the Parthian period, there were also works of brick and stone walls. The walls and floor of some of the spaces related to this period were plastered. The works of the Islamic period also included remains of stone walls and wells of water and sewage.
    The history of the archeological activities of the Patapeh Hill dates back to 1381; When during the Malayer archaeological surveys, the hill was identified and introduced and The beginning of the construction of the Kalan Dam has brought a new season for Patapeh's archeological activities. For the first time in 2002, Ali Khaksar supervised the first chapter of the archaeological excavations of Patapeh, The excavation that led to the identification of the establishment of the Safavid period and the effects of an earlier settlement that probably belonged to the Seljuk period. The second chapter of the Patapeh archaeological excavations continued under the supervision of Hasan Rezvani in 2007; Exploring the layers of the Islamic era and finding remnants of a Parthian fortress with stone walls and buried bricks under the Islamic layer was the achievement of this chapter of exploration.
    In the direction of the excavations of the previous seasons, signs of the presence of older cultures, especially the Iron Age, became apparent, the most important goal of the third chapter of the archaeological excavation of this hill. In this chapter, the exploration of Patapeh under the supervision of Mehrdad Malekzadeh in 2008 revealed evidence of an architectural structure that dates back to the Iron Age III. The fourth and fifth chapters of the archaeological exploration of Patapeh were conducted by Reza Naseri in 2009 to liberate the remains of median architecture.
    The exploration results of these two seasons led to the liberation of several architectural spaces from the median fortress. Identifying part of an architecture of the Iron Age III era in the fourth and fifth seasons of patapeh exploration and its similarity to the well-known buildings of the Iron Age III, known as median fortresses, increased the importance of continuing to explore the site.
    Hence the search for rescue on a large scale, in order to remove the remains of the architecture, especially the structure, before the waterfall of the dam and the burial ground in the lake water, was the first and most important target of this chapter.
    Keywords: Parthian, Archaeological excavation, sixth chapter, Patpeh
  • A Comparative Study of the Newly-Discovered Stuccos on Qezel Qala Mound in Farahan
    Javad Alaei Moghadam, Seyed Rasoul Mousavi Haji, Reza Mehrafarin Pages 75-88
    Plaster is among the building materials used by human whose extraction and application date back to several thousand years ago. The use of plaster in Iran, as one of the building materials, dates back to the middle Elamite period when it has been used in construction of Tabpti Ahar tomb on Haft Tappeh in Khuzestan where plaster coating has been applied in the crescent brick arches and the brick floor of the complex. It was after these eras that plaster was applied in decorations of different buildings so that some of its unique examples have been obtained from various periods including Achaemanian, Parthian, Sassanid, and Islamic eras. In archaeological survey of the large plain of Farahan which resulted in identification of 765 ancient sites related to a time period expanding from the late Neolithic to the Qajar periods, in one of these sites called Tappeh Qezel Qala remains of stucco art were found.
    The ancient mound Qezel Qala is located on a natural hill with a northwest-south-easterly direction with dimensions of 700 to 400 meters that about a few dozen meters from it there are the remains of two seasonal rivers; however, determining the original boundaries and limits of these rivers is impossible according to the current situation and without scientific archaeological speculations. Unfortunately, a large part of this site has been destroyed during the last years due to unauthorized excavations and extensive diggings. In addition to the few architectural remains and surface pottery pieces, a number of broken and crushed pieces were discovered that some of them have remarkable patterns. According to the significance of these stuccos, as one of the first examples identified in the region, an independent research was considered aiming at the chronology of these remains, as well as the classification, typology, and comparative study of these samples that the obtained results are presented in the present paper. In the current paper, which relies on the studies resulted from archeological excavations, while documenting, introducing, and describing the stucco samples, using a comparative study method through the typological comparison of the obtained stucco samples and typological comparison of the surface pottery samples collected from the site in a systematic manner, the settlement period of the site was identified and scientific chronology (dating) for the stuccos was provided. The results of the performed research, indicate that the Tappeh Qezel site of Farahan plain is among the important Sassanid sites of the region, and the stuccos obtained from this site which contain various patterns including the wing figure of a mythical beast, twelve-pointed star, abstract figure of floras, and single and multiple panels are among the Sassanid representative identified sites, such as Bishapur in Fars, Hesar in Damghan, Chal Tarkhan and Tape Mill in Rey, Qala Yazdgerd in Kermanshah, Qala Zohak, Qala Gouri of Ramavand, Susa, Tesiphon, Qala Hezardar in Lorestan, etc. Although these stucco samples have been executed through molding, casting and pre-fabricated methods, most of the decorative panels are made of plaster produced using a molding method.
    Keywords: Sassanid Art, Stucco Decorations, Farahn Plain, Comparative Studies, Archeological Survey
  • Study Role of Environmental Factors in the formation and distribution of Partian sites in Romashgan Plain (lorestan)
    Farshad Miri, Alireza Khosrowzadeh, Naser Norzadeh Chegini Pages 89-102
    Romashgan plain located in southwest of Lorestan province. This plain has been interested to human populations from prehistoric to Islamic periods. The archaeological survey of this plain was carried out by writers in 2012. One of the main goals of this survey was the identification of Parthian settlement patterns in this geographical area. In the survey of this plain 31 sites was founded that 21 sites of them belonged to Parthian period. These sites are divided into groups including mounds, enclosures, cemeteries and military structures. Cultural materials collected from these sites are unique to shreds and no other cultural material related to this period was found. Immovable works on surface of these settlements include architectural works such as grays and walls that was built with plain stones and Gypsum mortar. These sites were studied in terms of geographic features. Research Method is use of Geographical Information System (GIS) and in this method after identifying each site and documenting it, first, all the data of the identified areas were studied. Then geographic coordinates of the sites were entered into the GIS software and data processing was performed. At the end, the data were analyzed by statistical analysis. Romeshgan plain had been one of the most important Mountain plains in Cultural sphere of Central Zagros duo to geographical features, capacities and proper ecology because of having underground water resources, enrich soil, appropriate vegetation, As well as its strategic position on the communication routes and crossings from the West, South-West and Central Plateau, set an appropriate conditions for human life and provided intra- and inter-regional relations in the past and especially the Parthian period. Proper environmental and human communities inside and outside the regional relations in the past and in particular the Parthian period provided. However, due to the lack of coherent and purposeful archaeological surveys about Romeshgan plain overall situation of the region especially in the history of the Parthian period is in vogue. So identifying characteristics of the settlement of the Parthian period in this region, type of settlement, settlement patterns and habitats, and effect of the environment on the formation and dispersal of settlements seems necessary. In this study, settlement patterns and geographic areas analyzed based on environmental factors such as altitude, vegetation, slope of terrain, remoteness and proximity to the river, distance from roads and communication routes, distance and proximity to villages, using modern information systems and geographical analysis. Formation of urbanization in this region. Lack of a city and large centers of establishment in the area could be due to low area and environmental constraints. More than half of the identified sites are located on older settlements. The sites of the Sassanid and Islamic periods have followed the pattern Parthian sites. About 53% of the sites are located in 500 meters distance from the main communication road and this illustrates the important role of communication paths in shaping and expanding of settlements. Other areas are also formed near ways. Considering the pattern of placement on the roads can be seen that the trails of today are to a great extent along the paths of the historical period. Land distribution and settlement patterns of this plain during the Parthian period were dependent on environmental resources, especially groundwater resources, fertile soil and good communication situation. Also two types of temporary and sedentary pattern was identified in this case that major settlement areas are nomadic. The lack of permanent water resources and a very low number of permanent springs of water in Romashgan has caused to most of the Parthian period settlements to be seasonal and temporary.
    Keywords: Parthian, Romeshgan, settlement pattern, archaeological survey
  • Encyeh Khakbaz, Abed Taghavi Pages 103-119
    According to historical sources, Frime city has been in Tabaristan province, during the Sassanid and early Islamic centuries, including urban centers, which have an active role in the development of cultural Tabaristan. This city, the headquarters of the Tabaristan local dynasty that so called;Al-e Qaren and Al-e Bavand Predominantly as a small area of the historical town of Frimes , during the years 1385, 1387 and 1388 were archaeological excavations. The result of this excavations have been architecture, potteries and other cultural findings. The need to study the works of ceramics in the city , mostly due to further understanding of the chronology and sequence of indicator species were babies in the early centuries of the region, because despite the early centuries of Islamic sites ever scientific study on Islamic sites Mazandaran focused on classification, typology and comparative potteries from excavations took place.
    According to historical sources, historical city of Ferim has been local capital of Al-e- Bavand and Al-e-Qaren. This city located one of the mountainous cities in Tabaristan Province. Based on Documentary evidences, Ferim has been important role in economic and social changes in early Islamic Period. Results of this research show that indicator potteries from Ferim that this site has been two major type of potteries: unglazed potsherds and glazed potsherds. Also, there is 12 subgroup from two main type. Most important motives from these types included carved and graffito motives. These motives respectively 87 % and 56 %. These motives used in early Islamic era. One of the indicator characteristic in early Islamic potteries has been Lack of intensity motives in centers of vessels and monochrome and opaque potsherds. Lack of lusterware and Minaei wares in Shahneshin site and extra production monochrome vessels will assign as middle class society without political and economic elite class. Majority of these potsherds included from sand and with high quality baking. This case show that society be aware to numerous production potteries. Comparative studies pottery types discovered from others urban centers there are similarity aspect between motives, coveting, in urban centers such as: Nishbour, bishapur, Gour, Darabgerd, Sarmashad, Jurjan, Sistan, Malin Bakharz, Daghyanoos, Sorkh Qale and Seymareh. Relative Chronology based on potteries evidence including to late Sasanid era until 5 century A.D. according to historical text and archaeological evidence has assigned as dynamic urban spaces such as Shahneshin site in Tabaristan province in 3 and 4 century A.D.
    This study utilizes a descriptive analytical method and data collection documentary and field studies. Intended to provide relative chronology Shahneshin area is predominantly based on finding. Based on typological and statistical analysis of indicators and to making pottery historical context, established predominantly in the area of Shahneshin Frime , from the late Sassanid era began in the late fifth century AH. Glory period in this area has been third and fourth century AH.
    Keywords: Shahneshin area, Islamic pottery., The Historical city of Frime, Archaeological excavations, Tabarestan