فهرست مطالب

پژوهه باستان سنجی - سال سوم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • سال سوم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/12/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • یاسین صدقی *، اکبر عابدی، مهدی رازانی، محمد حیدری صفحات 1-14
    کشف اتفاقی محوطه پیش‏ از تاریخی کشیک در شهرستان نیک‏شهر استان سیستان و بلوچستان منجر به شناسایی یک گورستان هزاره سوم ق.م. گردید که دربردارنده آثار ارزشمند سفالی، فلزی و بقایای تدفین بود. در این میان یک خمره سفالی یافت گردید که با توجه به اهمیت و نقوش موجود در سطح آن نیازمند بررسی های علمی جزئی و دقیق‏تری بود. این خمره سفالی بر اساس نحوه تکرار نقوشش، خمره چرخه زیستی نامیده شده است. به‏ منظور بررسی فن ساخت، شرایط پخت و کوره، بومی یا وارداتی بودن آن و همچنین شناسایی رنگدانه‏ های به ‏کار رفته برای ایجاد نقوش با روش ‏های آنالیز پراش پرتوایکس به روش پودری (XRPD)، آنالیز طیف‏ بینی پاشنده انرژی پرتو ایکس کوپل شده به میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی (SEM-EDX) و مطالعه مقطع نازک سفال (OPM) مورد تجزیه ‏و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از روش‏های فوق نشان‏ دهنده‏ ی استفاده از خاک‏ هایی با منشا آبرفتی و منطق ه‏ای رودخانه کشیک دارد که حاکی از منشا محلی و بومی سفال بررسی‏شده در این منطقه است. همچنین در ساخت خمره هیچ‏گونه تنوعی از کانی ها مشاهده نمی‏شود و عمده کانی موجود در آن کوارتز با دانه‏ های ریز رسوبی است.
    در پخت سفال شرایط اکسیداسیون و همچنین احیا را با توجه به حضور پیک کربن (گرافیت) و مغز خاکستری سفال می‏توان اثبات نمود.
    رنگدانه مورداستفاده جهت تزئین نقوش دارای عناصر آهن و منگنز است که به جهت پایداری و پایه معدنی آن‏ها استفاده شده و در ترکیب با یکدیگر، تنالیته‏ای از رنگ قهوه‏ای تا سیاه را ایجاد می‏نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: خمره منسوب به چرخه زیستی، ساختارشناسی سفال، گورستان کشیک نیک شهر بلوچستان، عصر مفرغ، XRPD، SEM، EDX، OPM
  • مرتضی خانی پور *، کمال الدین نیکنامی صفحات 15-29
    طی چند دهه گذشته کاوش‏‏ های متعددی در محوطه‏‏ های نوسنگی فارس صورت گرفته که نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش ‏‏ها منجر به ارائه گاهنگاری‏‏ ها و نظرات مختلفی شده است. بیشتر پژوهش‏‏ های صورت گرفته متمرکز بر حوضه رود کر بوده و با توجه به ویژگی‏‏ های زیست‏‏ محیطی متفاوت فارس، این زیست‏‏ بوم بر شکل‏‏ گیری فرهنگ‏‏ ها در طول دوران مختلف تاثیرگذار بوده است؛ بنابراین جهت درک بهتر فرهنگ‏‏ های پیش‏‏ ازتاریخی نیاز است تا دشت ‏‏ها و دره‏‏ ها موردبررسی و مطالعه قرار گیرند تا بتوان تحلیلی جامع ‏‏تر ارائه نمود. ازاین‏‏رو با توجه به وجود برخی سوالات و ابهامات موجود در شناخت فرهنگ‏‏ های نوسنگی باسفال فارس، محوطه هرمنگان واقع در حوضه رودخانه بوانات مورد کاوش قرار گرفت. طی کاوش صورت گرفته دو فاز استقراری شناسایی شد که به‏‏طور نسبی مواد فرهنگی آن قابل‏‏مقایسه با تل موشکی، جری ب، بشی، کوشک هزار و تپه رحمت‏‏آباد است. در این مقاله سعی بر آن است تا در ابتدا به گاهنگاری نسبی و مطلق این محوطه پرداخته شود و سپس با توجه به گاهنگاری مطلق این محوطه و دیگر محوطه‏‏ های نوسنگی نیمه شمالی فارس و همچنین مقایسه مواد فرهنگی و شناخت شاخصه‏‏ های فرهنگی، ارزیابی توالی فرهنگی دوره نوسنگی در این منطقه صورت گیرد. جهت تاریخ‏‏گذاری محوطه هرمنگان 8 نمونه زغال و استخوان حیوانی به آزمایشگاه دانشگاه توکیو ارسال شد که نتایج نشان می‏‏دهد این محوطه در حدود 6373 ق.م مورد استقرار قرار گرفته و تا حدود 5950 ق.م ادامه داشته است. با توجه به شباهت مواد فرهنگی بشی با محوطه هرمنگان، رحمت‏‏آباد و موشکی و گاهنگاری‏‏ های مطلق این محوطه‏‏ ها در نظر گرفتن فاز بشی چندان منطقی به نظر نمی‏‏ رسد، بنابراین با مقایسه مواد فرهنگی و گاهنگاری‏‏ های مطلق صورت گرفته در دیگر محوطه‏‏ ها می‏‏توان توالی گاهنگاری شامل رحمت‏‏آباد (7500-7000 ق.م)، شکل‏‏ گیری موشکی (7000-6400 ق.م)، موشکی (6400- 6000 ق.م)، جری (6000-5600 ق.م) و شمس ‏‏آباد (5600-5200؟) برای دوره نوسنگی فارس ارائه نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: باستان سنجی، حوزه فرهنگی فارس، دوره نوسنگی، محوطه هرمنگان، تاریخ گذاری کربن 14
  • مهرناز آزادی بویاغچی، علی نعمتی بابایلو *، آزیتا موسوی مجد صفحات 31-44
    وجود لکه‏ های ناشی از تماس دست در اثر تورق کتب تاریخی یکی از مشکلات حفظ و مرمت کاغذهای تاریخی طی فرایند تمیزکاری است. این لکه‏ ها معمولا مقاوم بوده و به ‏راحتی در حلال ‏های معمول حل نمی‏ شوند. بر همین اساس شناخت ساختار آن‏ ها به‏ منظور انتخاب مواد زداینده مناسب لازم و ضروری است. هدف این مقاله بررسی و مطالعه ساختار لکه‏ های ناشی از اثر دست در کاغذهای تاریخی است. این لکه‏ ها با عنوان لکه‏ های چرب در برخی متون معرفی شده ‏اند و بسیاری از آن‏ ها قدمت زیادی داشته و حجم آن در برخی موارد نشانگر میزان استفاده از اثر است.
    بر این اساس این مقاله در پی پاسخ به این سوال است که ساختار شیمیایی لکه ‏های ناشی از تماس دست در کاغذهای تاریخی چیست؟ بدین منظور از طیف‏ سنجی مادون‏ قرمز تبدیل فوریه برای شناسایی ساختار لکه ‏ها در 20 نمونه از آثار کاغذی چاپی و خطی با آهار نشاسته از مجموعه داریوش پبدنی در فولادشهر اصفهان استفاده شد. نتایج بررسی نشان داد که ساختار لکه‏ ها متشکل از پروتئین‏ های گوگرددار بوده و فاقد ساختار چرب است. بر این اساس بررسی تطبیقی نتایج حاصل از طیف‏ سنجی مادون‏ قرمز تبدیل فوریه نمونه های تاریخی با پروتئین‏ های حیوانی نشان‏ دهنده شباهت طیف لکه ‏ها با طیف سریشم و ژلاتین است.
    کلیدواژگان: لکه، کاغذ تاریخی، مجموعه پبدنی، FTIR، پروتئین گوگرددار
  • مهدی رازانی *، فلی مارتینز گونیخرو، مهین منصوری اصفهانی، حکیمه افشاری نژاد صفحات 45-60
    مقاطع نازک با کاهش دادن ضخامت قطعات کوچک نمونه هایی که بر روی سطح شیشه لام میکروسکوپی چسبانده شده ‏اند توسط ماشین‏ های برش و سایش، جهت رسیدن به ضخامت استاندارد (μm30-25) برای میکروسکوپ پلاریزان ساخته می‏ شوند. هنگامی که روش‏های معمول ساخت مقطع نازک برای دیگر مواد نرم، حساس به حرارت و یا آب به کار گرفته می ‏شود، تهیه مقطع نازک به چالش قابل ملاحظه‏ ای برای آزمایشگرها تبدیل می ‏گردد. ازاین ‏رو با هدف تشریح فرآیند تهیه مقاطع نازک برای مطالعات میکروسکوپی در بررسی‏ های باستان‏سنجی مقاله حاضر در 6 مرحله شامل: 1) راهبرد نمونه‏ برداری و آماده ‏سازی نمونه ها، 2) آماده‏ سازی نمونه ها برای عملیات برش‏ 3) بریدن قطعه و تهیه بیسکویت نمونه‏ (انواع مقاوم، پودری و سست)، 4) روش‏ های اشباع با رزین و اتصال بیسکویت نمونه به لام شیشه‏ ای، 5) نازک ‏کاری بیسکویت تا رسیدن به اندازه استاندارد، و در نهایت 6) نگهداری از مقاطع نازک و تجهیزات آزمایشگاه و اضافه کردن پوشش محافظ بر سطح مقطع ارائه شده است. نمونه های این تحقیق مربوط به سنگ توف‏ های اسپانیایی و سنگ توف از روستای کندوان هستند که هر دو گونه دارای ساختاری پودری و ترد بودند که با روش‏ های معمول در طی فرآیند کار به کلی از دست می‏رفتند. نتایج حاصل از یافته های تحقیق نشان‏دهنده آن است که استحکام‏ بخشی و اشباع دو مرحله‏ ای به روش خلا می ‏تواند در موارد بسیاری راهگشای نمونه های سست برای تهیه مقاطع نازک باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: باستان سنجی، تهیه مقطع نازک، ملات های پودری، سفال تاریخی، سنگ نرم و هوازده
  • حمیدرضا بخشنده فرد *، محسن جاوری صفحات 61-79
    سکه بهترین ماده برای تشخیص دوره‏ های تاریخی و فرهنگی و شناسایی ویژگی‏ های دقیق دوره‏ هاست. در سال 1393 کاوش‏هایی توسط هیئت باستان‏ شناسی به سرپرستی نوری و جاوری در محوطه تاریخی فیض‏آباد کاشان انجام شد که علاوه بر به‏ دست آمدن بخش‏ هایی از بافت این روستا، روی کف یکی از آن‏ ها پنجاه عدد سکه مسی در عمق دو و نیم متری به ‏صورت یک‏جا در مساحت حدود یک مترمربع به‏ دست آمد. این سکه‏ ها مهم‏ ترین داده های تاریخ‏دار به‏ دست‏ آمده از کاوش‏ های باستان‏ شناسی از این منطقه است. هدف این پژوهش خوانش خط، شناخت شیوه ساخت و ضرب این سکه‏ ها، شناسایی ترکیب شیمیایی و نوع آلیاژ آن‏ها است که در این راستا از روش ‏های متالوگرافی، میکروسکوپ روبشی (SEM) مجهز به سیستم میکرو آنالیز شیمیایی EDS و رادیوگرافی استفاده گردید. تصاویر میکروسکوپ SEM و همچنین نتایج آنالیز عنصری (EDS) نشان می‏ دهند که سکه‏ های مکشوفه آلیاژی از مس، سرب و قلع دارای ریزساختار دوقلویی مکانیکی هستند. ریزساختار حکاکی شده سکه‏ ها علائمی از تبلور مجدد و همراه با خطوط لغزش باقیمانده از مراحل ضرب سکه را نشان می‏ دهند؛ همچنین خوانش نسبی خط و نقش موجود بر روی برخی از سکه ‏ها و شباهت و تطبیق این سکه‏ ها با سکه‏ های ایلخانی بیان‏گر آن است که این سکه ‏ها احتمالا متعلق به دوره ایلخانیان در ایران است.
    کلیدواژگان: خوردگی، سکه های مسی، محوطه تاریخی فیض آباد کاشان، SEM، EDS، ساختار دوقلویی، دوره ایلخانی
  • بهنام پدرام *، افشین ابراهیمی صفحات 81-102
    ارگ تاریخی بم در شهرستان بم، استان کرمان، در پی قرن‏‏‏‏‏‏ها، روزگاری آبادتر و زنده ‏‏‏‏‏‏تر و روزگاری متروک بر پای خود ایستاده بود که در 5 دی‏‏‏‏‏‏ ماه 1382 زلزله آن را به ویران ه‏‏‏‏‏‏ای تبدیل کرد. در چند دهه ‏‏‏‏‏‏ی اخیر و به‏‏‏‏‏‏ خصوص در دهه کنونی ارگ بم محبوبیت عمومی در جامعه ایرانی یافته است. این شناخت ازآن‏‏‏‏‏‏ جهت حائز اهمیت است که بدون مطالعات همه‏‏‏‏‏‏ جانبه به ‏‏‏‏‏‏ویژه در حوزه مواد و مصالح، کمتر می ‏‏‏‏‏‏توان به مرمت موفق و اصولی موضع در دست تعمیر نائل گردید. ارگ بم به لحاظ کالبدی از توده ‏های معماری انباشته بر روی‏‏‏‏‏‏ هم تشکیل شده است. بخش قابل ‏‏‏‏‏‏توجهی از این توده‏‏‏‏‏‏ ها، الحاقات و پوسته‏‏‏‏‏‏ های تعمیراتی است که در طی قرون متمادی بر شالوده لایه‏‏‏‏‏‏ های باستانی فرسوده شکل گرفته‏‏‏‏‏‏ اند. مطالعات اخیر نشان از چندین ضعف ساختمانی عمده در کالبد غالب خشت ‏‏‏‏‏‏های به‏‏‏‏‏‏ کاررفته در محوطه ارگ بم دارد. استفاده مجدد از چنین خشت‏‏‏‏‏‏ هایی با همان شیوه تولید و کاربرد در مرمت‏‏‏‏‏‏ های پیش‏‏‏‏‏‏رو، با تردید و نگرانی قابل ‏‏‏‏‏‏درکی همراه است و اقدامی چالش ‏‏‏‏‏‏برانگیز می‏‏‏‏‏‏ نماید که بی‏‏‏‏‏‏ توجهی به آن، ارگ را مجددا در مسیر تجربه تلخ گذشته قرار خواهد داد. این حقیقت که ارگ بم در طول دوره حیات خود همواره و به‏‏‏‏‏‏ دفعات موردحمله و غارت قبایل مهاجم و لشکرکشی‏‏‏‏‏‏ ها قرار داشته و لاجرم فرصت اندکی برای ترمیم نواحی آسیب ‏‏‏‏‏‏دیده در اختیار ساکنان قلعه بوده است، طبیعتا مانع می‏‏‏‏‏‏ گردیده که توجه کافی به کیفیت ساخت پاره ای از خشت ‏‏‏‏‏‏ها صورت گیرد. این تحقیق با رویکرد کاربردی به دنبال شناخت ویژگی‏‏‏‏‏‏ های ساختمانی خشت‏‏‏‏‏‏ های به‏‏‏‏‏‏ کاررفته در محوطه و نقاط ضعف و قوت آن‏‏‏‏‏‏ هاست و می‏‏‏‏‏‏ کوشد در قالب استدلال استقرائی (نگاه از جزء به ‏‏‏‏‏‏کل) بر پایه روش ‏‏‏‏‏‏های تجربی و ترکیبی (فیزیکی-مکانیکی و شیمیایی) پاسخگوی سوال اصلی یعنی چیستی عوامل موثر در شکل ‏‏‏‏‏‏دهی به ساختار و بروز تنش‏‏‏‏‏‏ های رفتاری مصالح و چگونگی رفع یا تعدیل معایب شناخته شده باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: باستان سنجی، ارگ بم، معماری خشت و گلی، گونه شناسی، ساختارشناسی
  • یاسر حمزوی * صفحات 103-107
    جهت اجرای لایه آستر (لایه رویی تکیه‏ گاه و لایه زیرین بستر) در آرایه‏ های معماری و به‏ ویژه دیوارنگاره‏ ها (شکل 1؛Fig; 1) بسیاری از مناطق ایران به دلیل شرایط اقلیمی خشک، در دوره‏ های تاریخی از کاه‏گل استفاده ‏شده است. همچنین جهت اجرای لایه بستر، ملات گچ که دارای قابلیت‏ های ویژه ای است، به‏ کار برده ‏شده است. گاهی ضخامت لایه بستر گچی بسیار کم بوده (mm1-2) که در زمان اجرا، این اقدام می‏توانسته نشان ‏دهنده هنر و قدرت دست هنرمند گچ‏کار باشد. نمونه این آثار در شهر یزد قابل‏ مشاهده است. ازجمله بناهای دوره آل‏مظفر (اوایل سده هشتم ه.ق.) که لایه آستر و لایه بستر در آرایه‏ های معماری آن با ویژگی‏ های ذکرشده است، می ‏توان به بقعه سید رکن‏ الدین و بقعه سید شمس ‏الدین در شهر یزد اشاره نمود.
    بقعه سید رکن‏ الدین در زمان ساخت، کاربری مدرسه داشته و پس از وفات صاحب آن، تبدیل به بقعه شده است. در کتب تاریخی یزد اتمام این بنا در سنه خمس و عشرین و سبعمائه (725 ه.ق.) نوشته‏ شده است. این بنا دارای آرایه‏ های معماری متعددی است که ازجمله می‏ توان به آرایه‏ های گچی برجسته، قالبی، فتیله‏ ای، کتیبه ‏های نقاشی، نقاشی‏ های تزیینی، آرایه‏ های طلاکاری و کاشی‏کاری اشاره نمود (شکل 2؛ Fig; 2). آرایه ‏های معماری فضای داخلی گنبدخانه از نظر وسعت، نسبتا حجم زیادی دارد. قطر گنبد حدود m11 و ارتفاع داخلی آن حدود m20 است. لایه آستر در تمامی فضای داخلی این بنا از جنس کاه‏گل و لایه بستر در تمامی سطوح داخلی بنا (به ‏جز ازاره کاشی‏کاری شده) از یک ‏لایه بسیار نازک گچ است.
    مسئله اساسی در رابطه با آرایه ‏های این قبیل ابنیه زمانی رخ می‏ دهد که کاه و الیاف گیاهی موجود در کاه‏گل (لایه آستر) توسط موریانه‏ ها خورده می‏ شود که می ‏توان گفت این مورد، یکی از آسیب ‏های شاخص و متداول بناهای مرکز کشور است. با این اتفاق، لایه آستر انسجام خود را ازدست‏ داده و به‏ صورت پودری و سست درمی ‏آید. زمانی که این آسیب برای لایه آستر به وجود می ‏آید، درواقع انفصال لایه ‏های زیرین در آرایه معماری رخ‏داده است. یک ‏لایه بستر گچی باضخامت بسیار کم وجود دارد که اتصال آن در بسیاری از قسمت‏ ها با زمینه زیرین کاملا از بین می‏رود که با وضعیت موجود، نگه‏دارنده آرایه‏ های دیگری ازجمله: آرایه‏ های گچی، طلاکاری و دیوارنگاره است (شکل 3؛ Fig; 3)...
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  • Yasin Sedghi *, Akbar Abedi, Mehdi Razani, Mohammad Heydari Pages 1-14
    Notwithstanding the existence of such famous sites as Shar-i Sokhta from the Bronze Age, southeastern Iran represents a lacuna in Iranian archaeology. Chance discovery of the prehistoric, third millennium BC, site of Keshik in Nikshahr, Sistan and Baluchistan Province provides an opportunity to study new archaeological finds from this quarter of Iran. The main part of Keshik was a Bronze Age cemetery, which yielded important metal and ceramic objects, not to mention burial remains. The excavated assemblages included a distinct ceramic jar which warranted more detailed systematic observations by virtue of the symbolic motifs ornamenting its exterior surface. The jar has received the designation the Life Cycle because of these figurative designs arranged in six alternative panels which depict round the upper body of the vessel in a symbolic form the life cycle of a goat. The related panels show: 1) the figure of a goat native to Sistan, 2) the mating of goats, 3‒5) the mother goat feeding her baby goat, which gradually grows up from the 3rd to 5th panel, and 6) the baby goat together with its mother. The major archaeological question with regard to this idiosyncratic vessel was its chemical-mineralogical characterization. Hence, a chip specimen was sampled to address such issues as its geological source, manufacturing techniques, firing and kiln conditions, local or foreign provenience, and the nature of pigments involved in the paint. To determine the crystalline constituents, different mineralo-chemical investigations were undertaken. The major phase compositions of the vessel’s body as well as the pigments were determined using quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Also, the the thin-section of the pottery was analyzed by optical microscopy techniques so as to petrographic identification of the minerals. The result of phase identification showed that the sample generally contains quartz, plagioclase, diopside, berlinite calcite, hematite, and enstatite as main crystalline phase constituents. Moreover, mineralo-chemical investigations demonstrated a regional alluvial soil origin related with the Keshik River, suggesting an indigenous provenience for the vessel. Further, the paste lacked any mineral variety. Firing in an oxidizing and reducing atmosphere was also evident given the carbon peaks and the poorly fired gray core of the thin-section. Analyses of the paint used in the decorative designs revealed the presence in the pigment of iron and manganese. The two elements were typically used because of their long-term sustainability and mineral base, and in combination with each other, they created a brown to black tone. In short, the study suggested that the so-called Life Circle jar was locally produced using the local clay on the potter’s wheel, was fired at a temperature of 900-1000 oC in a closed oven under oxidizing and reducing conditions, and was decorated with a paint containing iron and manganese pigments.
    Keywords: Life Cycle Jar, Characterization, Bronze Age, Keshik Cemetery in Sistan, Baluchistan, XRPD, SEM, EDX, OPM
  • Morteza Khanipour *, Kamal Aldin Niknami Pages 15-29
    The number of Neolithic sites in Fars greatly increases in the pottery Neolithic period. How this pattern indicates the high capability of pottery Neolithic period of Fars is not clear yet. Even though a definite path to the growth of indices of Neolithic settlement patterns in Fars during the seventh and sixth millennium B.C. has been recommended which may indeed be true, for this period we cannot solely rely on Kur river basin and its other adjacent regions, rather the settlements which are also located in the valleys between mountains in Fars as well, even though most of the known pottery Neolithic sites are located in Kur river basin. Until now most of the analysis and research performed in the Fars Neolithic period had been focused on Kur river basin and Marvdasht plain in particular. Considering the fact that Fars has a variety of plains and valleys with different environmental features, in order to present a more comprehensive analysis for the Neolithic period of Fars, more surveys and research on the other regions are required. In light of the previous surveys and excavations, it seems that the Neolithic cultures of southern Fars have been different, therefore regions similar to Fasa, Darab or the southern basin of Qareagaj river have had a different pottery culture from Kur river basin and northern Fars. In this article, cultures from the northern half of Fars which have similarities with Kur river basin shall be discussed. Considering the existing problems in Fars cultural zone, Bavnat river went under survey, during which the Hormangan site was discovered and afterward excavated. The excavation in the above-mentioned site was important for several reasons, first because a site outside of Marvdasht plain was going to be excavated, second, this site was located in Fars altitude with a nearly cold weather and with an altitude of 2360 m, which made it the highest Fars Neolithic site in terms of elevation. Third, Hormangan’s simultaneity with Mushki period is a great assistance for the two points of this period’s chronology and livelihood economy in Mushki period. In this work, the existing challenges within the chronology of Fars Neolithic period shall be presented after which an introduction and a presentation of the results from Hormangan excavation and also an absolute chronology of the site is discussed. Finally using a relative comparison between cultural material and absolute chronology from Neolithic sites, Fars chronology is evaluated. In the following article, the goal is to began with absolute chronology of the site and other Neolithic sites located in the northern half of Fars and also, a comparison of cultural materials and understanding cultural characteristics to reach a better understanding regarding the neolithic zone of Fars region. In order to date the Hormangan site, 8 charcoal, and animal bone samples were sent to the University of Tokyo laboratory where the results showed that the zone had been used for settlement from 6373 B.C. which lasted up to 5950 B.C. Taking into account the similarities of Bashi materials with Hormangan, Rahmat Abad, and Mushki regions and the absolute chronology of these regions, consideration of Bashi phase does not seem logical, therefore by comparing the cultural materials and absolute chronology done in other regions, a sequence chronology including Rahmat Abad (7500–7000 B.C), formative Mushki (7000–6400 B.C), Mushki (6400–6000 B.C), Jari (6000–5600 B.C) and Shams Abad (5600–5200 B.C) for the neolithic period of Fars can be presented.
    Keywords: Archaeometry, Fars Cultural Basin, Neolithic Period, Hormangan Site, 14C dating
  • Mehrnaz Azadi Boyaghchi, Ali Nemati Babaylou *, Azita Mosavi Majd Pages 31-44
    The stains caused by hand contact on books are one of the problems in conservation of historical papers during the cleaning process. These stains are usually resistant and not easily soluble in solvents. Accordingly, it is necessary to know their structure in order to select the appropriate solvent and cleaning method. The aim of this article is to study the structure of stains caused by hand contact in historical papers. These stains are referred to as greasy stains in some texts, and many of them are old, and their abundance in some cases indicates the amount of object using. So, this article tries to answer the question of what is the chemical structure of the hand-caused stains on historical papers. For this purpose, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the structure of the stains in 20 samples of paper and paper works of Dariush Pebdeni collection in Foulad Shahr- Iran. Before the analysis, sizing material was identified by the classic methods and analysis carried out on the samples with the starch sizing. The results of this study showed that the structure of the stain is composed of sulfur proteins and does not have a fatty structure. The presence of absorption bands associated with NH and CN and the absence of carbonyl bands associated with carboxylic acids and esters shows that stains have proteinous structure and they are non-fatty stains. The absorption bands of the 700-900 cm-1 region can be attributed to out of plan bending N-H, which is combined in amide and amine samples. The strong bands at 1032 cm-1 and 1222 cm-1 can be due to C-N stretching in aliphatic amines. Also, skeletal vibrations of cycloalkanes can also produce a medium to strong adsorption band in the 1030 cm-1 region. The absorption band of the 1363 cm-1 in these samples is also due to N-O nitro in amines and amides, and the absorption band of the 1114 cm-1 region is probably caused by C-O. Absorption bands related to NH and CN, which is seen in the structure of amides and amines, and two specific absorption bands belonging to sulfur compounds (470 cm-1 resulting from S-S and 2518 cm-1 related to S-H) can indicate the protein's stains. Sulfuric amino acids in proteins include cysteine, cystine and methionine. The cysteine loses its hydrogen and, by forming a bond between the two sulfur atoms in the structure of the proteins, conjuncts the polypeptide chains. The presence of peptide bonds in the stain can be demonstrated by a C-N-C related absorption bands in the range of 1160 cm-1 and 1222 cm-1. Also it should be noted that the presence of adsorption bands related to OH stretching in 3440 cm-1 could indicate the oxidation of the product, which could justify the resistance of stains to conventional organic solvents. This absorption band that is usually strong and broad, is observed in all samples and has overlapping with a stretching NH attraction of about 3300 cm-1. Accordingly, a comparative study of the Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy results of historical samples with animal proteins indicates the similarity of the spectrum of spots with the spectrum of animal glue and gelatin.
    Keywords: Stain, Historical Paper, Pebdeni Collection, FTIR, Sulfur Proteins
  • Mehdi Razani *, Feli Martinez Conejero, Mahin Mansori Isfahani, Hakimeh Afsharinezhad Pages 45-60
    Thin section petrography is a knowledge based on a study of stones and minerals with polarizing light of a transmitting optical microscope, that is a standard scientific method for mineralogy, petrology, geology and etc. Researchers with this method can gain supplementary or fundamental information. Thin section making technique was developed by geologists for the study of rocks. Using the thin section for the study of cultural heritage has more than one century old. Thin sections take into consideration from a basic analysis for use to examine a wide variety of Archaeometry-archaeological survey and also conservation and of historical materials for characterization, determining sources and provenance, pathology and evaluation of the conservation treatment effect on inorganic materials (such as: rocks, historical slags, mud brick, plaster, pottery and ancient mortars).Thin sections use for petrological and mineralogical survey are made in different sizes by using different techniques for curing, polishing and staining small slabs of a rock sample,normally thin sections made by reducing the thickness of small fragments of materials that attaching the flat surface of glass microscope slide (with size of 47×26 mm) by sawing and grinding to standardthickness (25-30µm),at this thickness most mineral s (e.g. silicatestypically quartz is used as the reference to determine standard thickness as it is one of the most abundant minerals) becomes more or less transparent and can then be observed by a microscope using transmitted light and then using the Michel-Lévy interference color chart to recognizing the minerals and their structural aspects (cleavage, fractures, mineral zoning).On one hand when the ordinary methods of making thin sections applied to other materials that are soft, heat sensitive, and/or water sensitive, thin section preparation presents considerable challenges for the technician and On the other hand, according to the limitation of sampling in the case of the cultural heritage of artworks and historical objects, as we know the Archaeometry researcher most be using the minimum sample for answer the questions, Since due to the importance of saving the small and also weak samples from cultural heritage a description of preparing thin sections to Petroghraphic microscopy investigation in Archaeometry is the main purpose of this paper. Samples for this study were a kind of weak Tufa from the regions near the Alcala Del Jucar city of Valencia /Spain and also from the powdered surface of rock-hewn architecture in Kandovan Historical village from Northwest of Iran. All process for preparing the thin sections were in the petrology Lab of Geosciences and environment department from the university of Alicante/SPAIN and petrology laboratory in earth and environmental sciences department from Università degli Studi DI Milano-Bicocca, Italy. This article has been prepared in 6 essential steps, including by: 1) sampling strategy and specimen preparation, 2) preparing the samples for cutting process, 3) cutting of the fragments (consist of: hard, soft and powder materials) and making the slide, 4) impregnation techniques with a resin, and attach the slide to glass, 5) reduce the thickness of slide till standard size with sawing and grinding methods in three phase from cm to µm, and finally 6) decision making to add the protective cover for slide in the stone face plus preserve of thin section, equipments of petrography lab. the results of this study with emphasize to soft materials specialty in cultural heritage and Archaeometry demonstrated that: some steps like sampling and impregnation is very important to make high quality thin sections; consolidation and saturation of fragments with vacuum methods in two steps before any cutting can be a suitable way for materials like soft stone, weathered stone, fragile potteries and historical mortars to preparing a thin sections.
    Keywords: Archaeometry, Thin Section Preparation, Mortars, Pottery, Soft, Weathered Rock
  • Hamidreza Bakhshandehfard *, Mohsen Javeri Pages 61-79
    The coin is the best material for date detection and understanding the historical and cultural period and recognition of characteristic features of historical periods. In 2014, the archaeological excavations carried out under the supervision of Noori and Javeri in Faizabad historical site. In this excavation, they discovered historical architectural texture of historic village. In addition, they found 50 coins in depth of 2.5 meters. These coins are the most important data in this excavation. The aim on this paper is the technical investigation and readings of the coin line drawing and chemical composition diagnostics, type of an alloy and comparative history. For this purpose, analytical techniques such as SEM-EDS and metallographic and X-ray techniques carried out, then line drawing and pattern recognition were done. The results obtained in the light microscopy studies. Coin levels are covered with crude and rough patina, and in some coins the main surface of the coins was completely destroyed and there was no possibility of retrieval of the designs. Fortunately, in some coins, it was possible to restore relative motifs by means of clearing or reading lines and the motifs of coins with other methods (radiography). The results of metallographic studies in the samples show a mechanical twin structure and etch microstructure indicating a re-crystallization and along with the deformation resulting from the coinage process, as well as twinned lines, some of which are slip lines and appearance changes in the microstructure by radiographic studies and the detection of motifs by the methods of restoration on coins, it was possible to read relative lines and motifs. According to visual microscopic and macroscopic examinations as well as radiographs performed from coins 1 to 6, coins 1, 2 and 3, the motifs were found underneath the layers. In coin 1, a little background from the word “al-Hamdullah” can be seen. Coin number 2 was only seen as a marginal role. In coin number 3, its line is more similar to the Ilkhan coins, and the term Muhammad’s Prophet Muhammad is seen on it. During the reign of Sultan Muhammad, Allah, the servant who converted to the Shiite Shīhāṭāṭīn, Ali Valiallah and the name of the twelve Imams on coins. Unfortunately in coins 7 to 12, the motifs and the line have been lost due to corrosion. In coins 13 to 18, the lines containing the note are seen but not fully readable. From coins 19 to 26, it is only in the coin that the 26 words “Allah” appear on one side of the coin and a Religious claim on another coin. In coins 27 to 40, it is only seen in the coin of the 38th word “la ilaha illa ’llah (there is no god but God), and “Muhammad rasul Allah” (Muhammad is the messenger of God). In coins 41 to 50, the motifs and the lines are unclear. The results of the scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the average of the elements in these 30 points was 11.86% oxygen, 1.28% silica, 0.75% sulfur, 30.5% chlorine , 0.33% iron, 29.2% copper, 33.3% tin and 29.07% lead. Therefore, due to the scanning electron microscopy images as well as the elemental analysis (EDS), the linear analysis show that alloy consist of copper, lead, and tin. From the point of view of pathology, it should be noted that the level of all coins covered with corrosion products was dark green and sometimes with red corrosion, and at the surface of some coins, in addition to the corrosion products covered by the layer Sedimentary and soil.
    Keywords: Corrosion, Copper Coins, Historic Site of Faizabad Kashan, SEM, EDS, Twining, Ilkhanid
  • Behnam Pedram *, Afshin Ebrahimi Pages 81-102
    Earthquake in 26th of December 2003 devastated the city of Bam and its magnificent Arg [citadel] and turned it to ruins. The Arg was surviving for centuries in this location. Some time it was more inhabited and once abandoned. During the past decades the Arg gradually becomes well known and it finds a general popularity over the past decade since the Iranian society recognizes it thanks to the efforts of the erudite scholars. This comprehensive recognition especially in the field of the materials is more important for the interventions since it supports any correct and successful conservation measure. Eventually, the structure of the Arg has been composed of several architectural layers constructed over each other. A considerable share of these structures includes repairs and infill constructions created upon the base of archaeological layers over the centuries. However, the recent researches discovered several structural weaknesses in most of the adobes used in Arg-e Bam. Nevertheless, the huge adobes which have been used in the surrounding wall, some parts of the governors sector, and a few significant buildings in the public sector, have a considerable quality and more attention has been paid in their production. Occasionally, weak architectural composition has intensified the structural weakness of the adobes. Accordingly, usage of the same adobe composition with the similar technique in restoration will follow an understandable concern and it sounds a critical measure. Neglecting this important element will direct the Arg in to the similar harsh experience of the past. According to the experiences concerning the structural behavior of the materials used in the Bam citadel, it is certain that any restoration and conservation measure by the same material would not result in any success. If no improvement is conducted on the weaknesses of such a fragile material, then the restoration exercises will encounter major challenges. Having referred to the results of the researches performed of the historical adobes of the Bam citadel, the importance and necessity of such improvement will become more apparent. Arg-e Bam has been frequently invaded the armies and tribes during its long life and the inhabitants had a very limited time for fixing the damaged parts. Consequently, adequate attention has not been paid on the quality of some of the adobes. This research with a functional approach is looking for recognition of the structural properties of the adobes used in the site as well as their strengths and weaknesses. In the frame of inductive reasoning (looking from detail to the whole), based on the experimental system with a compound method (library, laboratory, site investigations), this research tries to respond to the main question that is quiddity of the factors affecting the structure and the material behavior under the tensions as well as improvement and resolving the known weaknesses. Thus, the results of the researches concerning the structural characters of the adobes of the Bam citadel will help us in achieving the materials without or at least with minimum weaknesses comparing to the prior adobes in order to be used for the more reliable restorations. One may even think about production of the new adobes with boosted mechanical behavior. According to our knowledge about the condition of the earthen materials of the Bam citadel, it is possible to improve the characteristics of the new adobes and earthen mortars for the restoration measures by innovations in the production process. This is actually the hypothesis of the research.
    Keywords: Archaeometry, Arg, e Bam, Earthen Architecture, Typology, Characterization
  • Yaseer Hamzavi * Pages 103-107
    With regard to the dry climatic conditions of Iran, cob and gypsum mortars were used in architectural arrays of many regions of Iran, to create the scratch coat (Arriccio) and fine coat (Intonaco) in the historical periods. The thickness of the fine coat was often very low (one-two mm). In this regard, one of the examples is the City of Yazd. One of the buildings made in the eighth century (Islamic calendar) with the mentioned properties in its scratch and fine coats in architectural arrays is the mausoleum of Rokn al-Din in Yazd (1946), which has several architectural arrays, such as: embossed gypsum, mold, painting inscriptions, decorative paintings, gilding arrays and tiling. The most important issue observed in the arrays of this type of buildings is when the straws and vegetable fibers found in cob are consumed by termites, which is recognized as one of the common damages to the buildings in the country center. This phenomenon leads to loss of coherence in the scratch coat, turning it into a weak powder. This damage to the scratch coat is associated with detachment of the underlying layers in the architectural array. There is an extremely thin layer of fine coat, which is completely detached from many parts of the underlying layer. In such conditions, other array holders are gypsum and gilding arrays and wall paintings. In general, it is significantly difficult to maintain this type of architectural arrays. One of the issues that makes restoration more difficult and limits the use of materials and methods to restore a building, is the white background of architectural arrays in these buildings, which makes it impossible to use any strengthening method in these buildings since it leads to the formation of a yellow and dark color on a white background. In addition, filling the empty space behind the gypsum fine coat (without considering the fact that this layer is significantly thin) leads to the separation and collapse of the fine coat and the implemented arrays on the layer (with regard to the gravitational force of the earth). The thin gypsum layer, which is similar to egg shell and is separated from the scratch coat, can be crushed with minimum pressure of the hand. Moreover, the significantly weak attachment of many mold gypsum arrays to the fine coat, the smallest collision, and vibration in that area leads to the separation and collapse of the decorative layer. To eliminate these problems, the soil in the empty space between the fine coat and support was cleaned at first, followed by fixing the upper and lower surface of the fine coat. The sample was created to select the proper material and method, at the end of which the following material and method were selected: fixing the surface with the solution of 6% Acryloid B-72 in ethanol and injecting the mentioned solution to the back of the fine coat. In the next stage, a cavity with the depth of about eight cm was created in parts of the support that experienced breaking or collapsing (brick wall or ceiling). It should be noted that the diameter of the cavity was small on the surface of the support (about two cm), and the more the depth increased, the more the cavity diameter was enlarged. The next phase involved the injection and implementation of gypsum mortar to the lower layers. To this end, the local gypsum of Yazd and eremurus powder were exploited. Injection of the mortar will take a relatively long time and will be carried out in several stages. In each stage, a small amount of mortar is injected into the back of the fine coat and inside the cavity made in the support layer. After each injection phase, two hours is required for complete hardening of gypsum and initiation of the next injection operation. The cavities, along with 10 cm from around the cavity and between the scratch and fine coats, are completely filled with gypsum, which results in the attachment of layers to each other. In addition, this mortar acts like a nail, attaching the gypsum fine coat to the lower layers. In this experiment, the described strengthening method was called gypsum nail. Implementation of gypsum nails with relatively specific distances from each other (50-100 cm) will lead to the fixing of the fine coat and layers attached to its surface without putting pressure on the thin gypsum fine coat.