فهرست مطالب

Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management - Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2018
  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • D. Pham Van *, M.G. Hoang, S.T. Pham Phu, T. Fujiwara Pages 251-262
    Coming out from the growth kinetics, the Gompertz model has been developed and considered as the best one for simulating the biogas production from anaerobic digestion. However, the model has failed to describe the starting point of the process, and no-sense of lag phase constant has been pointed out. Thus, the goal of this study is to develop a new kinetic model of biogas production with meaningful constants that can alternate the Gompertz model. The kinetic constants of the model were determined by applying the least squares fitting method for experimental data. The experimental data were taken from running seven batch reactors of co-digestion of vegetable, sludge and horse manure under 37oC, pH of 6.7, and total solids of 2.5%. The result of the high coefficient of determination (0.9611-0.9906) demonstrated that the new biogas production kinetic model was feasible to simulate the biogas generation process. This finding has opened a new choice that can deal with simulation of the biogas production. Moreover, co-digestion of vegetable, horse manure, and sludge was also evaluated under strong attention. The biogas potential was in the range of 183-648 Nml/g-VS with the best carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 16. Vegetable waste played a major role in producing the biogas yield while horse manure and sludge contributed to balancing nutrient of the digestion process. Also, the strong correlation between carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and kinetic constants confirmed that the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio was the key factor that influenced biogas generation.
    Keywords: Anaerobic digester, Batch reactor, Co-digestion, Mesophilic digestion, Kinetics
  • S.M. Tajbakhsh, H. Memarian, K. Moradi, A.H. Aghakhani Afshar * Pages 263-280
    The change of land use/land cover has been known as an imperative force in environmental alteration, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This research was mainly aimed to assess the validity of two major types of land change modeling techniques via a three dimensional approach in Birjand urban watershed located in an arid climatic region of Iran. Thus, a Markovian approach based on two suitability and transition potential mappers, i.e. fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and artificial neural network-multi layer perceptron was used to simulate land use map. Validation metrics, quantity disagreement, allocation disagreement and figure of merit in a three-dimensional space were used to perform model validation. Utilizing the fuzzy-analytic hierarchy processsimulation of total landscape in the target point 2015, quantity error, the figure of merit and allocation error were 2%, 18.5% and 8%, respectively. However, Artificial neural network-multi layer perceptron simulation led to a marginal improvement in figure of merit, i.e. 3.25%.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network-multi layer perceptron (ANN-MLP), CA-Markov, Fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy-AHP), Land use change, simulation
  • M. Gul *, A.F. Guneri, M. Baskan Pages 281-298
    As wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources over the globe, need for increasing safety for this type of energy is gaining importance. Although this sector is not suffering an excessive amount of fatal injury accidents, there are many aspects open for improvements in occupational health and safety management. The construction and operation processes of wind turbines include several hazards that must be reduced. This study aims to present a risk assessment for the construction and operation period of wind tribunes using a new fuzzy based method. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, a common used multi criteria decision making method, is applied to assign weights to the parameters of Fine-Kinney risk analysis method. Then, fuzzy VIKOR method is used to prioritize hazards. A case study is carried out for an onshore wind turbine in Turkey by using occupational health and safety experts in weighting risk parameters and evaluating compromised rankings of the hazards. Results reveal the most important hazards both for construction and operation period of the wind tribune. On conclusion of the current study, control measures for those risks and possible corrective-preventive actions for improvement are also provided.
    Keywords: Fine-Kinney method, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), Fuzzy VIKOR (FVIKOR), Multi criteria decision making method (MCDM), Occupational health, safety (OHS), Risk assessment, Wind tribune
  • S.L. Bondarenko *, D.A. Savchuk Pages 299-314
    The present study was focused to examine the combined effects of climate and ultraviolet-B radiation on conifer tree-ring density. Statistical methods were employed to extract tree responses in annual ring density and to identify functional relationship in trees when the level of ultraviolet-B radiation changes regardless of climate variations. In this study, the consideration was given to the series of total ozone content (instead of ultraviolet-B), tree-ring density, and De Martonne aridity index. After the correlation analysis, all trees were divided into two groups: 1) Trees whose correlation between tree ring density and UV-B values in April is significantly positive; 2) Trees whose correlation between tree ring density and aridity index values in March-September is significantly negative. Then, tree-ring series for the Swiss Alps in each group were generalized and decomposed into separate components: long period trends, ultraviolet-B and climatic signals. For the ultraviolet-B-responsive tree group in the period 1932-1974, the correlation coefficient between the density and ultraviolet-B was 0.55 at p
    Keywords: climate change, Conifers, Growth hormones, Principal components, Singular Spectrum Analysis, tree-ring density, Ultraviolet-B radiation
  • M. Samimi *, M. Shahriari Moghadam Pages 315-324
    High concentrations of nitrogen compounds, such as ammonia observed in the petrochemical industry, are the major environmental pollutants. Therefore, effective and inexpensive methods are needed for its treatment. Biological treatment of various pollutants is a low cost and biocompatible replacement for current physico-chemical systems. The use of aquatic plants is an effective way to absorb the nutrient pollutants. In this study, the optimal operating conditions in the biological removal of ammonia from the urea-ammonia wastewater of Kermanshah Petrochemical Company by Lemna gibba were determined using the response surface methodology. Lemna gibba was collected from the ponds around Kermanshah and maintained in a nutrient medium. Effect of the main operational variables such as ammonia concentration, residence time and Lemna gibba to surface ratio on optimal conditions of ammonia removal from wastewater has been analyzed using the Box-Behnken model design of experiments. Model numerical optimization was performed to achieve the maximum amount of ammonia removal from wastewater. The ammonia removal percentage varied from 13% to 88%, but the maximum amount of ammonia removal was determined at ammonia concentration of 5 ppm and Lemna gibba residence time of 11 days in wastewater based on the quadratic model. Lemna gibba to surface ratio of 2:5 was measured at 96.449%. After optimization, validation of ammonia removal was performed under optimum conditions and measured at 92.07%. Based on the experimental design and the predicted under model conditions, the maximum amounts of ammonia removal percentage in the experiments were 82.84% and 88.33% respectively, indicating the high accuracy of the model to determine the optimum conditions for the ammonia removal from wastewater.
    Keywords: Ammonia removal, Lemna gibba, Petrochemical Wastewater, Response surface methodology, Optimization
  • D. Sivakumar *, J. Nouri, T.M. Modhini, K. Deepalakshmi Pages 325-338
    Water is prime requirement for surviving of any living beings. The existence of surface water and groundwater sources are used for domestic, agriculture and industrial purposes in all over the world. Fresh water from both the water sources is highly contaminated in recent years because of rapid population growth, modern agriculture and industrial growth. Among them, contamination of water sources due to industrialization is high and it requires more attention to protect those water sources. In this study, nickel removal from electroplating industry wastewater was done with the help of bamboo activated carbon. The nickel removal from electroplating industry wastewater by bamboo activated carbon was done in this study at various adsorbent dosages (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L), agitation speeds (25, 50, 75 and 100 rpm), particle sizes (2.36, 1.18, 0.6 and 0.3 mm), and concentration dilutions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). The maximum removal percentage of nickel from electroplating industry wastewater using bamboo activated carbon was found to be 98.7 % at an optimum adsorption dosage 1.5 g/L, agitation speed 25 rpm, particle size 0.6 mm and concentration dilution 75 % with 110 min. contact time and 5.5 pH. Functional groups available in a bamboo activated carbon before and after treatment were determined by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis specified that alkanes, carboxylic acids, esters, amides, amines, aromatic compounds, alkyl halides, ethers, alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes functional groups in bamboo activated carbon was contributed for removing nickel from the electroplating industry wastewater. Isotherm models were used to know the adsorption behaviour of bamboo activated carbon for removing nickel from electroplating industry wastewater. Isotherm results revealed that Langmuir model was best suited with the equilibrium data than Freundlich model. Finally, this study concluded that bamboo activated carbon was best suited for removing nickel from electroplating industry wastewater.
    Keywords: Bamboo activated carbon, Nickel removal, Process parameters, Isotherm models, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • M. Ahmadipari, H. Hoveidi, H.R. Jafari, M. Pazoki * Pages 339-350
    Environmental planning and management can have positive effects on development of some land uses including industrial areas that have a major effect on economic, social and environmental conditions. Considering the most important problems associated with modeling, the fundamental methods and functions of site-selection laid inside the geographical information system are not accounted for the multi-purpose experimental programs. The main purpose of this study is to present a systematic pattern for environmental management using genetic algorithm and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in geographical information system in order to reduce uncertainty. Through fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, the weight of criteria was calculated after extracting the criteria by Delphi technique and identifying all the effective criteria and factors involved in site selection. After preparation of intended layers, each map was prepared in the form of raster layers on geographical information system. Information layers were combined after being valued and finally the map of suitable areas was prepared. Finally, the conformity of all the obtained maps was checked out with field conditions. In this study, the genetic algorithm was used as an optimization method applied for natural selection. It was also attempted to find better solutions among others. The results showed the best site for developing industries.
    Keywords: Environmental Management, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), genetic algorithm (GA), Geographical information system (GIS), Industrial site selection
  • D.S. Kumar *, S.H. Bhushan, D.A. Kishore Pages 351-358
    Dispersion modeling approach was applied for the determination of SO2 and NO2 pollution in the ambient air. The model performance has been evaluated by comparing the measured and predicted concentrations of SO2 and NO2. This has been tested to measure the air quality and predicted incremental value of pollutant’s concentrations by using the data available from the industrial and mining cluster for a period of one year covering from March’ 2015 to February’ 2016 where more accuracy and specific result oriented is concerned. The maximum cumulative predicted value of SO2 is 6.99 µg/m3 and NO2 is 15.98 µg/m3. It has been found that the overall resultant concentrations are far below the prescribed standard in all stations. As revealed from the present research that, there is no such pollution impact to the nearby villages where industrial and mining activities are concerned in the study area. This paper can be used as better reference for further and future research in the area, as there is no such study has been carried out before in the specific area.
    Keywords: Ambient air, Atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD), Industrial, mining, Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • M. Rafiei *, P.J. Sturm Pages 359-372
    The aim of this study is to investigate the problems caused by discharge of polluted air from tunnels into the environment with a specific focus on residential areas. In city tunnels, portal or stacks, pollutant management is a big challenge. Nowadays, air quality management, particularly in urban tunnels, is considered as a part of the ventilation system design. The goal is to see the environmental impacts beforehand. From environmental aspects, preventive measures are required either inside or outside the tunnel in some cases. Niayesh tunnel in Tehran is taken as a case for proving the objectives presented in this study. Concentration of carbon monoxide at the vicinity of the portals is calculated using the proper dispersion simulation. The results of dispersion modeling for the assumed worst case of ventilation can help to understand the environmental impact of ventilation. The worst traffic emissions for a congested traffic scenario,are selected as an emission source for dispersion modeling. According to the traffic condition and fleet composition, the crucial emission extracted from the tunnel is carbon monoxide. Therefore, the performed simulation only focuses on carbon monoxide dispersion modeling. From the other side, carbon monoxide is taken as a demonstration pollutant, because it is inert and chemical reactions can be neglected in short-term considerations. A lagrangian model composed of Graz Lagrangian Model and Graz Mesoscale Model is used for flow-field and dispersion calculations.
    Keywords: Dispersion modeling, Graz Lagrangian Model (GRAL), Graz Mesoscale Model (GRAMM), Tunnel ventilation, Tunnel pollutant, Tunnel portal
  • A.S. Deshpande, R. Kumari, A. Prem Rajan * Pages 373-386
    A multitude of microbes are involved in the solubilisation of minerals and metals as this approach offers numerous advantages over traditional methods. This strategy is preferred as it is eco-friendly and economical, thus overcoming the drawbacks of the traditional approach of pyrometallurgy. Many different types of bacteria are employed in the process of Bioleaching, which are collectively grouped under chemolithotrophs, as they derive their energy from inorganic compounds. Bioleaching is the mobilization of metal cations from insoluble ores by microorganisms. All chemolithotropic bacteria are extremophiles since they have the ability to survive in extreme conditions. They carry out the process of Bioleaching through three mechanisms: Indirect, contact/ direct and cooperative bioleaching. This review gives a sneak peek into the different strains of chemolithotrophs which are used in bioleaching, and some recent work in the field. It also gives an insight into the general process and mechanism of Bioleaching, the study of which will pave way for developing better and efficient industrial bioleaching operations.
    Keywords: Acidithiobacillus, Bioleaching, Chemolithotrophs, Leptospirillum, metal recovery mechanism, minerals