فهرست مطالب

Nanomedicine Journal - Volume:5 Issue:3, 2018
  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Nazila Akbarianrad, Fateme Mohammadian, Mohammad Alhuyi Nazari *, Behnam Rahbani Nobar Pages 121-126
    Owing to its favorable impacts on the properties of materials, nanotechnology is rapidly growing. Adding nano particles to a material can significantly affect its mechanical and physical properties. In recent years, nanotechnology has been applied in the field of medical sciences in order to enhance the quality of treatment procedures. This technology can be used in various aspects of dentistry. In the present study, a comprehensive literature review is conducted on the applications of nanotechnology in endodontics. It was concluded that nanotechnology can be utilized in fillers, irrigants and photodynamic therapy to achieve more beneficial results. Based on the reviewed studies, it is well acknowledged that antibacterial nano particles can be used for disinfection and have shown acceptable efficacy in elimination of bacterial cells. Moreover, nanotechnology is applicable to sealers used in endodontics. By using nano-sized materials, anti-leakage property of the sealer can be enhanced. In addition, nanotechnology can be applied in photodynamic therapy in endodontics. By using nanotechnology, it is possible to enhance the efficacy of this method.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology, Dentistry, Endodontic, Irrigant
  • Ali Akbar Karimi Zarchi, Seyed Mohammad Amini *, Zohreh Jomehfarsangi, Elham Mohammadi, Zahra Moosavi, Parisa Ghadiri Harrati Pages 127-137
    Physical drug delivery through smart nanocarrier and external stimulus could lead to significant improvements of drug potency as well as noticeable decrease in unwanted side effects. Currently, many external energy sources such as light, magnetic fields, ultrasound, ..., are under investigation as external stimulus for physical drug delivery. The purpose of this paper is to review most recent developments of triggered release of drugs and biomolecules under external ultrasound exposure. A special attention has also been paid to the metal nanostructures for ultrasound mediated drug delivery and also, other nanostructures were also considered. We briefly introduced ultrasound regulation and safety consideration. Further it is concluded that the use of nanostructures for delivery of active biomolecules in combination with ultrasound as a stimulus to trigger drug release from the nanocarriers and increased drug penetration has gained much attention for effective drug delivery and overcoming difficulties of multi-drug resistance of cancer.
    Keywords: Drug Nanocarriers, Ultrasound, External Trigger Release, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Ultrasound Safety
  • Amir Rashidian, Homanaz Ghafari, Mohsen Chamanara, Ahmadreza Dehpour, Ahad Muhammadnejad, Reyhaneh Akbarian, Seyyedeh Elaheh Mousavi, Seyedmahdi Rezayat* Pages 138-143
    Objective(s)
    The objective of the present study is to explore whether Nanocurcumin improves pancreatic inflammation through the inhibition of the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.
    Methods
    Acute pancreatitis was induced by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1h intervals. Vehicle and nanocurcumin (100mg/kg/day) were given to the animals by oral gavage six days before the induction of pancreatitis. The last dose was administered 1 hour before pancreatitis induction. The serum level of amylase and lipase and the tissue level of MPO enzymes were assessed by biochemical analysis. Microscopic lesions were examined. In addition, the expression level of TLR4, NF-kB p65 and TNF-α proteins were measured by western blotting analysis.
    Results
    Nanocurcumin reduced the microscopic lesions. In addition, the drug decreased the level of amylase, lipase and MPO enzymes. Furthermore, nanocurcumin inhibited the cerulein-induced expression of TLR4, NF-kB p65 and TNF-α proteins.
    Conclusion
    It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory effect of nanocurcumin on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis may involve the inhibition of the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway.
    Keywords: Nanocurcumin, Acute pancreatitis, Cerulein, TLR4-NF-kB pathway
  • Roopngam Evelyn Piyachat *, Piyachat Evelyn Roopngam Pages 144-151
    Objective(s)
    In the current work, poly D, L lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) particles were applied for a viral vaccine for the delivery of antigens in cytosolic pathway by increasing the antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes.
    HPV-E7 protein with PLGA particles has been reported as a potent adjuvant for HPV vaccine by encapsulating protein into the PLGA particles. Polysaccharide from Pleurotus sajor-caju was also applied as a potent immunomodulator.
    Materials And Methods
    HPV-E7 protein and Pleurotus sajor-caju polysaccharides (PSC) were encapsulated into PLGA nanoparticles. This combination comprised a strategy to induce helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) expansion. Mice antibodies and T-lymphocyte expansion were investigated in comparison between encapsulated E7 protein into PLGA nanoparticles (E7PLGA) and E7 protein with PSC encapsulated into PLGA nanoparticles (PSC-E7PLGA).
    Results
    The results showed that E7PLGA and PSC-E7PLGA could induce antibody response to HPV. The PSC-E7PLGA could increase the level of viral antigen-specific IgG antibodies. The cellular immune responses are also significantly enhanced by expansion of helper T-lymphocytes and CTL. PSC-E7PLGA was shown to be significantly higher in immunomodulating activity than E7PLGA.
    Conclusion
    Thus, the encapsulation of polysaccharide and HPV-E7 antigen into PLGA nanoparticles is a strategy for development of HPV vaccine.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Cytotoxic T-Cells, HPV, Vaccination, Nanoparticles
  • Abraham Heriberto Garcia Campoy, Fernando Felipe Martinez Jeronimo *, Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Alethia Martinez Ramirez Pages 152-162
    Objective(s)
    In this study, we desvcribe a simple eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of a potent, stable and benign silver nanoparticles to carry and deliver chalcones and dihydrochalcones present in a methanol extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP).
    Materials And Methods
    In this process silver nanoparticles carring EP compounds (EP/AgNPs) are synthesized in a single step by eliminating the additional handling associated with incorporating EP compounds. The resulting nanoparticles (EP/AgNPs) were characterized using several physicochemical techniques. Cell viability was measured in vitro with RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. In addition, we evaluated the ability of EP and EP/AgNPs to protect against glucose-induced oxidative in vivo stress using zebrafish embryos.
    Results
    The synthesized EP/AgNPs showed an absorption peak at 413 nm on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), revealing the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that most of the particles were spherical with a diameter of 10 to 12 nm, a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.197 and a zeta potential of –32.25 mV, suggesting high stability of these nanoparticles. This study also demonstrated the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles when tested in RAW264.7 cells and its protective efficacy against oxidative stress induced by the exposure of zebrafish embryos to high glucose concentrations. Treatment with EP/AgNPs increased the activity of anti-stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and total soluble protein. Exposure of the embryos to EP/AgNPs significantly (P
    Conclusion
    EP/AgNPs synthesized from E. polystachya extract provide an effective defense against oxidative stress in zebrafish embryos.
    Keywords: Eysenhardtia polystachya, chalcones, dihydrochalcones, silver nanoparticles, Oxidative Stress, zebrash
  • Amir Hussein Montazeran, Saeed Saber Samandari, Amirsalar Khandan* Pages 163-171
    Objective(s)
    Bioactive silicate ceramics have favorable features for applying as off-the-shelf bone and artificial tissue. Calcium silicate can enhance the generation of an immediate bond with host bone without an intervening rough surface in the bone layer. However, the silicate bioceramics have some drawback regarding their mechanical properties and chemical stabilities.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) as reinforcement were added to the three silicate bioceramics to investigate the physical and mechanical properties as well as their magnetic behavior as a case study and compare with other calcium silicate nanocomposite which are excellent candidates for hyperthermia applications. Then the artificial neural network (ANN) applied to the previous data to predict the mechanical and biological behavior of the bio-nanocomposite as output parameters. A predicted model was enhanced using ANN to measure the optimum size and reinforcement amount of the magnetite bio-nanocomposite. The results of the fabricated bio-nanocomposite were extracted experimentally corresponding to different MNPs weight fractions compared to the predicted model.
    Results
    The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) technique were used to compare the porosity and porous tissue microstructure. Thereafter, an analytical solution is presented to express explicitly the physical and mechanical responses of the bulk/scaffold bio-nanocomposite.
    Conclusion
    The obtained results showed the potential application of these calculations and analyses in a wide range of numerical studies. The comparison presented within the test and predicted values showed that the modeling outcomes were close to testing values.
    Keywords: Magnetite nanoparticle, Nanocomposite, Artificial neural network, Biomedicine, Tissue engineering
  • Mona Fazel-Ghaziyani, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei *, Mohammad Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Behzad Baradaran, Mostafa Ghavami Pages 172-179
    Objective(s)
    The central role of molecular imaging modalities in cancer management is an undeniable fact that could help to diagnose cancer tumors in early stages. The main aim of this study is to prepare a novel targeted molecular imaging nanoprobe of CD24-PEGylated Au NPs to improve the ability of Computed tomography scanning (CT scan) outputs for both in vitro and in vivo detection of breast cancer (4T1) cells.
    Materials And Methods
    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains in order to improve the stability of the Au NPs and to provide bio modification points for antibody immobilization. The synthesized nanoprobe was used for both in vitro and in vivo targeted CT imaging breast cancer cells (4T1) and the xenograft tumor model.
    Results
    Findings showed that the attenuation coefficient of 4T1 cells that were targeted by CD24-PEGylated Au NPs is calculated to be over two times higher than the untargeted 4T1 cells (15 HU vs 39 HU, respectively). Indeed, the results clearly reveal that the developed CD24-PEGylated Au NPs showed the tumor CT enhancement was higher than that of Omnipaqe which used as control.
    Also, the CT number values of the tumor area at different time points gradually increased after 60 min post injection and was significantly higher than before injection.
    Conclusions
    Results showed the introduced CT imaging nanoprobe (Au NPs-PEGylated) could be useful for CT imaging of breast tumors under in vivo condition. Overall, it is concluded that Au NPs-PEGylated contrast media is able to detect breast cancer (4T1) cells and is more effective compared with other casual methods.
    Keywords: Gold nanoparticle, Polyethylene glycol (PEG), CD24 antibody, Computed tomography, 4T1, Cancer detection
  • Ayoob Karimizade, Sakine Takallu, Esmaeil Mirzaei * Pages 180-185
    Objective(s)
    One of the main constraints of collagen hydrogel scaffolds for using in tissue engineering is mechanical weakness. Plastic compression (PC) is a physical method to overcome the mechanical limitation of collagen hydrogel.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, the effects of pH on mechanical and biological properties of PC hydrogels were investigated. Collagen hydrogels were fabricated at neutral (pH=7.4) and alkaline pH (pH=8.5), and then underwent plastic compression to prepare final hydrogels. The stability, mechanical properties, morphology and cell compatibility of hydrogels were investigated.
    Results
    The results illustrated that increasing in polymerization pH was associated with improvement in both tensile strength and elastic modulus of hydrogels. Furthermore, cell viability assay confirmed cell survival in both hydrogels prepared at alkaline and neutral pH.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that a slightly basic pH during hydrogel production is an appropriate approach to construct PC collagen hydrogels with an enhanced stability and mechanical properties as well as better handling before PC process.
    Keywords: Collagen, Hydrogel, pH, Plastic compression, Mechanical properties