فهرست مطالب

Wildlife and Biodiversity - Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2018
  • Volume:2 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Mohammad Mazbah Uddin *, Mohammad Farid Ahsan Pages 1-5
    Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were studied in the Rampur Village of Narsingdi District in Bangladesh. The village supports good homestead vegetations where three troops of Rhesus monkeys are living. Monkeys consumed plant parts of 10 species. Betel leaf vein (Piper betel), an unpalatable plant species of the monkey, was greatly damaged by them in this area but it is the main economic source for the local people. As a result, it is the major issue for human-Rhesus conflicts in this area. Local people are aggressive towards monkeys for damaging their major economic crops. For mitigating conflicts with monkeys, 60% people opined to strike them with stick and 30% preached to throw stones towards them. From this study, it indicates that unpalatable crops are not only damaged by Rhesus monkeys but also monkeys are injured during human-Rhesus conflicts. Scarcity of food and human aggression influence monkeys to invade and damage unpalatable crop of human settlements areas.
    Keywords: Human-Rhesus monkey conflict, unpalatable ?crops, Bangladesh
  • Kordiyeh Hamidi *, Jamshid Darvish, Maryam M. Matin Pages 6-14
    Rodents (mainly mice and rats) are the most commonly used animal models for studies of cancer biology, immunology, genetics, developmental biology and also embryo transfer techniques in domestic and endangered animal species, and even in humans. Herein, we aimed to evaluate Goodwin’s brush-tailed mouse (Calomyscus elburzensis) as a suggested model species for evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) studies. Trapping procedure was performed in Khaje-Morad rocky region, south center of Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan province, Iran between April and September 2014. Breeding procedure for 15 adult females and 12 adult males was conducted in captivity between 2014 and 2017. Brother × sister mating in each generation was used as laboratory rearing method for breeding three generations (F1-F3). The average of pregnancy period and the differences in the sex of newborns in different parturition were measured using descriptive statistical analyses (independent-sample t-test). We observed that Goodwin’s brush-tailed mice were relatively social rodents, and due to their high level of tolerance in harsh conditions, no hibernation, low cost, small size, the potential to be bred all round the year, nearly short pregnancy period (about 4.5 weeks) and long lifespan in captivity (generally between 4 to 5 years) have the potential to be bred and used in different fields of evolutionary studies. However, low reproductive output (known up to five till now) and late sexual maturity (at about four months) as compared with Mus and Rattus, are some drawbacks associated with Calomyscus, which might be improved by gradual genetic changes and artificial selection.
    Keywords: Laboratory models, Rodentia, Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Breeding strain, Iran
  • Yousef Taghimollaei *, Abdolali Karamshahi, Seyyed Yousef Erfanifard Pages 15-29
    In Iran's forests, forest inventory information is essential for land management, as less than 10% of Iran's forest is formed. So forest information is necessary, such as calculating the number, diameter, and volume for forest management. While traditional data is obtained using labor costs and time for ground measurements. New technologies, such as remote sensing, provide us with up-to-date information. Although many sensors extract the forest data for us, the WV-2 has very high resolution images. In the present study, we evaluated forest parameters estimation by focusing on single tree extraction by two decision tree methods and Support Vector Machines with complex matrix evaluation and AUC method with the aid of 4th UAV phantom birds in two distinct regions. The support vector classification has the highest accuracy in estimating the parameters of the single trees and then the tree is decided. This study confirms that using WV-2 data we can extract the parameters of single trees in the forest.
    Keywords: Separate single trees, Canopy, Remote Sensing, Classifiers, Haft-Bim Shiraz
  • Mozafar Sharifi, Hossein? Javanbakht * Pages 30-36
    Three Capaccinii’s bats (Myotis capaccinii) which were born and reared in a flight cage were subjected to a postnatal study. Length of forearm, body mass and length of the total gap at the fourth metacarpal- phalangeal joint of the neonats were measured in order to develop empirical growth curves and their derivatives. The pups at birth had a mean birth body mass of 2.6gr0.1 and forearm length of 18mm±1.5. At 54 days, mean body mass was 82.71% of adult mass (6.7gr ± 0.2) and mean forearm length was 80.37% of adult length (34.56mm ± 0.4). The length of forearm and body mass increased linearly during first, three weeks, and thereafter maintained in an apparent stability. The epiphyseal gap of the fourth metacarpal- phalangeal joint increased until 12 days, then decreased linearly until 50 days and thereafter fused. The rate of body mass gain and forearm growth during the first 24 days was 0.09 g/d and 0.6 mm/d, respectively.
    Keywords: Capaccinii's bats, postnatal, neonate, Iran?
  • Hassan Rajabi-Maham *, Taghi Ghasemi, Shahrokh Pashaei-Rad Pages 37-46
    Using eight microsatellite markers and PCR method, the polymorphisms of three Persian honeybee, Apis mellifera meda, populations in North West of Iran (Ardabil, Azarbaijan-e sharqi and Azarbaijan-e gharbi) investigated and the genetic structure and diversity of populations explored. Total genomic DNA was extracted from thoraces of honeybees. PCR was conducted using eight pairs of microsatellite primers and its products were detected on 4% Nusieve/agarose. In total, seven, five and four microsatellite polymorphic loci were found in Ardabil, A. sharqi and A. gharbi populations, respectively and 42 alleles observed in 30 analyzed samples. A. sh honeybees showed high level of heterozygosity (0.563) and the lowest estimate was 0.438 for A. gh honeybees. Among three studied populations, Ardabil bees were containing maximum private alleles (17 alleles). Maximum genetic resemblance report was between Ardabil and A. sh corresponding to their geographical vicinity. In total, we detected low genetic divergence among honeybee populations of Iranian North West inferred from estimated total FST.
    Keywords: Apis mellifera meda, microsatellite, genetic diversity, heterozygosity, northwestern Iran
  • Farahnaz Molavi *, Ali Mokhtari, Simin Nayebi Moghaddam, Seyed Mohammad Javad Abedian, Zeinab Azimi Taraghdari Pages 47-55
    Tardigrades are microscopic sized Ecdysozoans. In Iran, in the last year and for the first time, ýthese animals were identified and reported in Mashhad, and it immediately became an ýimportant question that what is the extent of tolerance and biological and reproductive details of ýthese animals in Iran. Therefore, in this study, it has been tried to study the mechanism of ýbiological and physiological adaptations, especially to temperature and humidity stresses. Also, ýthe development stages of the living details of these animals should be studied and compared ýwith other studies in other climates. For this purpose, sampling was conducted from valleys and ýbasins in Mashhad city during four seasons of 2014 to 2016. After identification of the species, ýfilms were recorded for these animals at least 6 hours per day, and the results of this study have ýbeen gathered on the favorable environmental conditions, reproductive details and development ýof eggs, nutrition, and other factors.ý
    Keywords: Protostomata, Arthropoda, Tardigrade, Iran, Khorasan