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پژوهش های مدیریت عمومی - پیاپی 39 (بهار 1397)
  • پیاپی 39 (بهار 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • عباس رضایی پندری، عادل آذر * صفحات 5-32
    در محیط نامطمئن و پررقابت عصر حاضر، کالاها و خدمات به گونه ای است که بسیار کم اتفاق می افتد سازمان یا موسسه ای به تنهایی و بدون کمک گرفتن و همکاری با دیگر سازمان ها بتواند محصولی را تولید یا خدمتی ارائه کند. یکی از رویکردهای مورداستفاده شرکت ها برای کسب مزیت رقابتی در چنین شرایطی استفاده از زنجیره ی تامین است. با توجه به ماهیت متفاوت خدمات استفاده از مدل های تولیدی در بخش خدمات با محدودیت هایی همراه است بنابراین با توجه به نامناسب بودن مدل های زنجیره ی تامین تولید محور در بخش خدمات، ضروری است تا مفهوم زنجیره ی تامین در بخش خدمات و مدلی مفهومی جهت مدیریت زنجیره تامین خدمات تعریف شود. این پژوهش کیفی باهدف غایی ارائه مدلی برای مدیریت زنجیره ی تامین خدمات در صنعت بیمه با استفاده از طرح نظام مند نظریه داده بنیاد انجام شده است. برای شناسایی مولفه های مدل مصاحبه هایی با 14 نفر از خبرگان و صاحب نظران صنعت بیمه انجام گرفت و سپس با دو مرحله کدگذاری باز و محوری مدل پارادایمی زنجیره تامین شکل گرفت در ادامه بر اساس مدل پارادایمی، چارچوب مفهومی مدیریت زنجیره ی تامین خدمات در قالب مدلی ارائه گردید که دربرگیرنده اجزاء و فرایندهای مدیریتی است که برای مدیریت کارآمد و اثربخش زنجیره تامین خدمات صنعت بیمه موردنیاز است. این چارچوب می تواند مبنایی جهت طراحی مدل های ارزیابی عملکرد و تعالی شرکت های خدماتی قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت زنجیره تامین، زنجیره تامین خدمات، نظریه داده بنیاد، صنعت بیمه
  • شاپور شرافت، احمدعلی خائف الهی*، آرین قلی پور، حسن دانایی فرد صفحات 33-59
    عملکرد رفتارهایی را شامل می شود که مرتبط با اهداف سازمان و بر اساس مهارت فردی تنطیم شوند و به مدیران کمک می کند تا میزان تحقق برنامه ها و اهداف استراتژیک سازمان را بررسی و کنترل نمایند. تحقیق حاضر به منظور شناسایی مولفه های مدیریت عملکرد منابع انسانی همراستا با اهداف سازمانی صورت گرفته است. تحقیق از نوع آمیخته بوده و برای جمع آوری داده های کیفی از مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با 14 تن از متخصصین استفاده شده و برای جمع آوری داده های کمی از پرسشنامه طراحی شده که در بین کارکنان صنعت بانکداری (504 نفر) به تصادف توزیع شده اند، استفاده شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های کیفی از روش تحلیل تم و برای تحلیل داده های کمی از تحلیل عاملی نوع دوم استفاده شده است. بر اساس نتایج کیفی تحقیق 4 مولفه اصلی متشکل از 57 گویه برای مدیریت عملکرد شناسایی شده است. نتایج تحلیل کمی نشان داده است که این مولفه ها از پایایی و اعتبار بسیار بالایی برخوردار بوده است. جامعیت این مدل به نحوی است که کاربردهای نظری و عملی برای متخصصین مدیریت منابع انسانی و مدیران اجرایی سازمان ها به همراه خواهد داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت عملکرد فردی گروهی، مدیریت عملکرد سازمانی، همراستایی، اهداف سازمانی
  • فرهاد رهبر، امیرعلی سیف الدین اصل*، محمدعلی شاه حسینی، عیسی نیازی صفحات 61-90
    سناریونگاری، تکنیکی است که با در نظر گرفتن عدم قطعیت های محیطی، چندین چشم انداز متفاوت از آینده را ارائه می دهد. سناریوها آینده هایی که امکان وقوع آن ها محتمل است را در قالب داستان هایی بیان نموده و روایت های بدیلی درباره ی موقعیت های مرتبط با آینده ارائه می دهند. سناریونویسی یکی از بهترین و قوی ترین ابزارها برای شناخت و بررسی علمی آینده است که با استفاده از آن می توان تغییرات و عدم قطعیت های محیطی آینده را شناسایی و بررسی نمود. با توجه به اهمیت سناریونگاری و تاثیرات آن بر برنامه های کلان کشور، سازمان ها، بنگاه ها و...، موفقیت و کارآمدی فرآیندهای سناریونگاری همواره از دغدغه های دست اندرکاران مدیریت کشورها بوده و هست. با توجه به نقش کلیدی بازیگران در آینده نگاری، این پژوهش در پی آن است که در جهت توسعه ی روش های موجود، رفتار بازیگران را در هر کدام از عوامل کلیدی آینده ساز استخراج نماید و سپس اقدام به سناریونگاری نماید. روش نمونه گیری پژوهش حاضر به صورت گلوله برفی بوده و از ابزار مصاحبه و پرسشنامه جهت جمع آوری اطلاعات استفاده گردید. بدین منظور، نمونه آماری 12 نفری از خبرگان و پژوهشگران حوزه ی آینده پژوهی جهت مصاحبه و نمونه آماری 43 نفری برای تکمیل پرسشنامه انتخاب گردیدند و چارچوب های سناریونگاری موجود توسط پژوهشگران و صاحب نظران این حوزه بررسی و چارچوب جدیدی برای مطالعه سناریونگاری به دست آمده و اعتبار آن توسط جمعی از خبرگان این حوزه تایید شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آینده نگاری، سناریونگاری، میک مک، مکتور، سناریوویزارد، مولتیپول
  • مهدی افخمی اردکانی*، مجید علی محمدی اردکانی صفحات 91-112
    نیروی انسانی یک سازمان، منبعی کلیدی برای کسب مزیت رقابتی پایدار و یکی از عوامل اصلی موفقیت سازمان ها، به حساب می آید. از این رو، مدیریت اثربخش منابع انسانی به یکی از مهمترین مسائل پیش روی سازمان ها برای نیل به اهداف سازمانی تبدیل شده است. با توجه به اهمیت استراتژیک منابع انسانی، اتخاذ استراتژی هایی مناسب برای مدیریت این منابع، دغدغه اصلی مدیران ارشد سازمان ها محسوب می شود. دراین تحقیق با اتخاذ رویکرد قواره ای، مدلی مبتنی بر سیستم های استنتاج فازی جهت تدوین استراتژی منابع انسانی ارائه شده است. ورودی های سیستم مبتنی بر اهداف استراتژیک مدل دیر و هولدر (1988) شامل ایفای نقش، ترکیب، شایستگی و تعهد می باشد. خروجی های سیستم مبتنی برمدل بامبرگر و مشولم (2005) شامل چهار استراتژی پدرانه، ثانویه، پیمانکارانه و متعهدانه تدوین شده است. سیستم طراحی شده در پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و نتایج بیانگر این مطلب است که سیستم طراحی شده دارای اعتبار خوبی می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: استراتژی منابع انسانی، مدل نقاط مرجع استراتژیک، سیستم استنتاج فازی
  • فرزانه شاقوزایی، افسانه مرزیه *، ناصر ناستی زایی صفحات 113-134
    یکی از متغیرهای اساسی در رفتار سازمانی ،عملکرد شغلی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین رابطه اخلاق حرفه ای با کفایت اجتماعی و عملکرد شغلی انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش توصیفی-همبستگی است که به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای تعداد 123 نفر از کارکنان سازمان فنی و حرفه ای شهر زاهدان در سال 1395 از طریق سه پرسشنامه اخلاق حرفه ای گریگوری ، کفایت اجتماعی فلنر و عملکرد شغلی پاترسون مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون چندگانه با کمک نرم افزار SPSS21 استفاده شد. یافته ها نشان داد که اخلاق حرفه ای و مولفه های آن، شامل دلبستگی و علاقه به کار، پشتکار و جدیت در کار، روابط سالم و انسانی و روح جمعی و مشارکت در کار، با کفایت اجتماعی رابطه مثبت و معنادار دارند (01/0p <). هم چنین نتایج رگرسیون نشان داد که اخلاق حرفه ای 6/39 درصد از واریانس کفایت اجتماعی را تببین می کنند که از بین مولفه های اخلاق حرفه ای، مولفه ی پشتکار و جدیت در کار و روح جمعی و مشارکت در کار،از توان پیش بینی کنندگی بیشتری برخوردار بوده اند (05/0p <). دیگر یافته ها نشان داد که اخلاق حرفه ای و مولفه های آن: دلبستگی و علاقه به کار، پشتکار و جدیت در کار، روابط سالم و انسانی و روح جمعی و مشارکت در کار با عملکرد شغلی رابطه مثبت و معنادار دارند (01/0p <). هم چنین نتایج رگرسیون نشان داد که اخلاق حرفه ای 3/38 درصد از واریانس عملکرد شغلی را تببین می کنند که از بین مولفه های اخلاق حرفه ای ،پشتکار و جدیت در کار و علاقه و دلبستگی به کار از توان پیش بینی کنندگی بیشتری برخوردار بوده اند (05/0p<). با توجه به یافته ها می توان نتیجه گیری کرد که کارکنانی که اخلاق حرفه ای بالاتری دارند به همان نسبت نیز از احساس کفایت اجتماعی و عملکرد شغلی بالاتری نیز برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: اخلاق حرفه ای، کفایت اجتماعی، عملکرد شغلی، سازمان فنی و حرفه ای
  • سید محمدرضا حسینی پور، محمدمهدی پرهیزگار*، میرزا حسن حسینی، علی اکبر جوکار صفحات 135-156
    هدف پژوهش حاضر طراحی الگوی ساختاری تاثیر بانکداری الکترونیک بر افزایش توان رقابتی بانک ها است. روش شناسی پژوهش کمی و روش پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش های گردآوری داده ها توصیفی-پیمایشی است. جهت گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه استفاده شد. جامعه ی آماری مدیران، معاونین و کارشناسان ادارات و بانک های شهر تهران(پنج بانک خصوصی منتخب) بوده اند که 269 نفر از آنان در پژوهش شرکت کرده اند. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها از مدل معادلات ساختاری با نرم افزار لیزرل استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان دهنده ی آن است که فرهنگ، امنیت ادراک شده، سهولت استفاده، اعتماد، کیفیت وب سایت، حفظ حریم خصوصی و نوآوری بر توان رقابتی بانک ها تاثیر مثبت و معناداری دارند. اما تاثیر سرعت بر توان رقابتی بانک ها معنادار شناخته نشده است. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق، نقش بانکداری الکترونیکی را بر توان رقابتی بانک ها مورد تایید قرار می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: بانکداری الکترونیک، رقابت بانکها، توان رقابتی
  • حاجیه رجبی فرجاد * صفحات 157-180
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر مطالعه ی تاثیر رهبری تحول آفرین بر نگرش شغلی با توجه به نقش میانجی توانمندسازی روان شناختی است. پژوهش پیش رو از لحاظ هدف کاربردی است و از نظر روش، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی شمرده می شود. در این پژوهش ابتدا مدل نظری و فرضیه های بین متغیرها توسعه داده شد. سپس به کمک مدل معادلات ساختاری، فرضیه های پژوهش بررسی شدند. جامعه آماری تحقیق دانشجویان دانشگاه علوم انتظامی امین است. به این منظور نمونه ای برابر با 165 نفر بر اساس جدول مورگان و با بهره مندی از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده به دست آمد. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات سبک رهبری تحول آفرین از پرسشنامه باس و اولیو (2000)، توانمندسازی روان شناختی از پرسش نامه اسپریتزر(1995)، رضایت شغلی کارکنان از شاخص توصیف شغلی (JDI) و تعهد سازمانی از پرسشنامه آلن و می یر(1990) استفاده شد، علاوه بر روایی محتوا از روایی سازه نیز استفاده شد و برای سنجش پایایی نیز از آلفای کرونباخ بهره گرفته شد. آلفای کرونباخ برای هر یک از رهبری تحول آفرین برابر با 79/0، توانمندسازی روان شناختی برابر با 80/0 و نگرش شغلی (تعهد سازمانی برابر با 85/0 و رضایت شغلی برابر با 84/0) به دست آمد که مبین سطح پایایی مطلوب پرسشنامه ها بوده است. نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش نشان داد، رهبری تحول آفرین بر نگرش شغلی کارکنان تاثیر دارد. همچنین نقش میانجی گری توانمندسازی روان شناختی در ارتباط رهبری تحول آفرین با نگرش شغلی کارکنان به تایید رسید.
    کلیدواژگان: نگرش شغلی، رهبری تحول آفرین، توانمندسازی روان شناختی، تعهد سازمانی و رضایت شغلی
  • رمضان حسین زاده * صفحات 181-198
    اشتغال یکی از متغیرهای مهم و مورد توجه اداره امور عمومی و سیاستگذاران در سطح ملی، منطقه ای و شهری می باشد. از این رو هدف این مطالعه بررسی تغییرات اشتغال در شهرستان زاهدان در دوره سرشماری 1385-1390 و اثر تغییرات مزیت رقابتی و تغییرات ساختاری بر میزان اشتغال در فعالیت های مختلف شهرستان در این دوره می باشد. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه روش توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد و مدل های برنامه ریزی منطقه ای نسبت مکانی و الگوی انتقال سهم برای تحلیل به کار گرفته شده است. نتایج الگوی ضرایب مکانی نشان داده است که بخش هایی مانند «امور عمومی و دفاع»، «حمل و نقل انبارداری و ارتباطات» و «آموزش» جزء بخش های مزیت دار در اقتصاد شهرستان بوده اند. نتایج الگوی انتقال سهم نشان داده است که اثر تغییرات رقابتی در سه بخش «آموزش»، «بهداشت» و «خدمات کسب و کار و مستغلات» مثبت بوده و موجب افزایش اشتغال این بخش ها شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مزیت رقابتی، اشتغال، شهرستان زاهدان، الگوی انتقال سهم
  • رضا سپهوند*، محسن عارف نژاد، علی شریعت نژاد صفحات 199-227
    پژوهش حاضر باهدف تحلیل شاخصه های هویت رهبری اصیل در راستای بهسازی منابع انسانی با استفاده از رویکرد فرآیند رتبه بندی تفسیری (IRP) انجام پذیرفت. این پژوهش یک تحقیق قیاسی استقرایی است، چراکه در پژوهش حاضر به طور توامان از دو رویکرد تحقیق کیفی و کمی با توجه به نوع داده ها و شرایط استفاده می شود. جامعه آماری پژوهش 25 نفر از اساتید متخصص در حوزه منابع انسانی دانشکده های مدیریت دانشگاه های دولتی تهران بودند که با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند انتخاب گردیدند. برای تائید روایی پرسشنامه ها از نظرات اساتید و پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش منجر به شناسایی شاخصه های هویت رهبری اصیل و بهسازی منابع انسانی و تحلیل تسلط شاخصه های هویت اصیل در بهسازی منابع انسانی شد. شاخص های هویت رهبری اصیل عبارت اند از: خودآگاهی، خودکارآمدی، خود دوستی، خود همبستگی، خودکارآمدی رهبری، شهرت رهبری، الگوسازی رهبری، خود افشایی، خودتعالی و خود فداکاری. به علاوه مولفه های بهسازی منابع انسانی، ایجاد آگاهی علمی و ارتقاء دانش کارکنان، شایسته سالاری، وجود مدیریت استعداد در سازمان، توسعه مهارت های انجام کار، ارتقاء قابلیت های کارکنان، به روز کردن اطلاعات کارکنان، مشارکت کارکنان، رشد شخصیت هماهنگ در کارکنان، وجود نظام پاداش مبتنی بر عملکرد، حمایت سازمانی، غنی سازی و توسعه مشاغل و وجود جوسازمانی مناسب هستند. علاوه بر نتایج کلی، با استفاده از روش (IRP) به تحلیل چگونگی اثرگذاری شاخصه های هویت رهبری اصیل بر بهسازی منابع انسانی پرداخته شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان دهنده این بود که خودتعالی رهبری اصیل با کمک به رشد شخصیتی کارکنان، ایجاد نظام مدیریت استعداد، افزایش مهارت های کاری، ارتقا قابلیت های کارکنان و افزایش حمایت سازمانی موجب بهسازی منابع انسانی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت رهبری اصیل، بهسازی منابع انسانی، فرآیند رتبه بندی تفسیری (IRP)
  • فهیمه کوکبی سقی، رحمت الله قلی پور سوته*، علی پیران نژاد صفحات 229-247
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطه ی درگیری مثبت در کار و بهره وری دانش نیروی کار با توجه به نقش میانجی ساختار سازمانی است. روش توصیفی-همبستگی و پژوهش کاربردی می باشد. جامعه ی آماری شامل کارکنان اداره کل ورزش و جوانان خراسان رضوی است که حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول مورگان و با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده 90 نفر در نظر گرفته شده است. داده ها با استفاده از پرسشنامه های درگیری مثبت در کار اوترخت (2009)، ساختار سازمانی رابینز (1990) و پرسشنامه ی بهره وری دانش نیروی کار محقق ساخته؛ جمع آوری شده اند که از نظر روایی محتوا، سازه و همگرایی مورد تائید قرار گرفتند. به علاوه، پایایی پرسشنامه ها با آلفای کرونباخ بیشتر از 7/0 تائید گردید. داده ها با روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری و حداقل مربعات جزئی با استفاده از نرم افزار PLS تحلیل شد و نتایج نشان می دهد که درگیری مثبت در کار و بهره وری دانش نیروی کار به صورت جدا و از طریق متغیر میانجی ساختار سازمانی، رابطه ی مثبت و معناداری دارند. همچنین نقش میانجی پیچیدگی، رسمیت و تمرکز مورد تائید قرارگرفت. بر این اساس طراحی ساختار سازمانی در جهت افزایش پیچیدگی، کاهش رسمیت و کاهش تمرکز، می تواند زمینه ی مناسبی را برای افزایش درگیری مثبت در کار و درنتیجه بهبود بهره وری دانش نیروی کار در سازمان فراهم آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: بهره وری دانش نیروی کار، درگیری مثبت در کار، ساختار سازمانی
  • ندا محمداسمعیلی * صفحات 249-273
    امروزه اکثر سازمان ها به اهمیت مشتری مداری در حفظ جایگاهشان در بازار پی برده اند. بنابراین یکی از اصلی ترین موضوعات مورد توجه مدیران، توسعه رفتارهای مشتری مدارانه می باشد. از سوی دیگر اصلی ترین عامل در شکل دهی رفتارها در هر سازمانی فرهنگ سازمانی است. بنابراین توسعه فرهنگ مشتری مداری پیش زمینه بروز رفتارهای مشتری مدارانه و نهادینه ساختن این رفتارها در سازمان می باشد. از اینرو تحقیق حاضر درصدد شناسایی مکانیزم های توسعه فرهنگ مشتری مداری در سه شرکت متفاوت در گروه مپنا است. این تحقیق با رویکرد آمیخته صورت گرفته است. در بخش کمی به منظور شناسایی وضعیت موجود ابعاد مختلف فرهنگ مشتری مداری 420 پرسشنامه بین کارکنان توزیع شد و در بخش کیفی با استفاده از ابزار مصاحبه، در خصوص مکانیزم های موثر برای توسعه فرهنگ مشتری مداری، مصاحبه های نیمه ساختار یافته ای با 176 نفر از کارکنان در سه شرکت صورت گرفت. ارزش مشتری مداری یکی از ارزش های بیان شده گروه مپنا است که دارای سه بعد(گوش دادن، ارتباطات و شراکت است). نتایج مرحله کمی نشان داد در هر سه شرکت، بعد گوش دادن کمترین و بعد شراکت بیشترین امتیاز را کسب کرده است. در بخش کیفی، پس از تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه ها حدود 173 کد استخراج شد که بر اساس تشابه و تجانس مفهومی کدها در قالب مفاهیم و در یک مرحله کلی تر در قالب 10 تم فرعی و نهایتا در 4 تم اصلی دسته بندی شدند در نهایت چهار مکانیزم (منابع انسانی، آموزشی، ارتباطی و ترویجی) شناسایی شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ، مشتری مداری، فرهنگ مشتری مداری
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  • Abbas Rezaei Pandari, Adel Azar * Pages 5-32
    In highly competitive and uncertain global marketplace, Supply Chains Management (SCM) has become vitally essential approach to gain competitive advantages. Due to the unique characteristics of services, which distinguish them from goods, our knowledge of the structure of supply chains in service businesses is still scant. In this paper, we applied a qualitative research, Grounded Theory, with the ultimate goal of providing a model for service supply chains management (SSCM) in insurance industry. To identify components of the model, interviews were conducted with 14 managers and experts in the insurance industry. With three-stage, open and axial, coding developed a paradigmatic model for SSCM. Then, based on the paradigmatic model, a conceptual framework for insurance service supply chain were provided. It consists of components and management processes required to delivery services to the customers effectively. This framework could be used as basis for design performance measuring or excellence model in service industry.
    Introduction The supply chain management (SCM) approach was introduced into the business world to deal with increasing competition among firms for survival (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). Nowadays in global markets, firms are no longer units with specific trademarks performing as autonomous entities. The complexity of goods and services in the modern world makes this a rare occasion for organizations and institutes to provide goods or services independently and without the help or cooperation of others (Cooper et al., 1997). Due to this and the highly unreliable and competitive environment, companies face a real struggle; therefore almost every day, new methods and procedures are being innovated to help them progress under such harsh circumstances (Cooper, Lambert et al. 1997). The Supply Chain Management (SCM), is one of these various methods developed to help companies and corporations overcome such difficulties (Lambert & Cooper, 2000).
    In the recent decades, the service sector has had a great share of the global economics; economy services are considered the driving force of many of the developing countries (Giannakis 2011). In the Islamic republic of Iran, more than 50% of the gross production is that of the service sector and the analysis of the national GDP indicates growth in this sector (SCI 2014). Even with the importance of the service sector and the increase in the conversion of global economics to a service based format, the service sector is not as developed as the manufacturing sector (Van Ark, O’Mahony et al. 2008). One of the main reasons for this issue is that many of the production based organizations have had a great opportunity of development which is due to the SCM procedure being applied by them. An effective supply chain is able to both reduce the resources needed for the presentation of the desired services and also to develop costumer servicing by the way of increasing the availability of a product and decreasing the order time period as well as the cost of the required service (Banomyong & Supatn 2011).
    Although different disciplines of research such as Service marketing, service operations management, service science and service engineering have been developed, little research has been dedicated to the method of Service Supply Chain Management (SSCM), which expands the organization’s boundaries (Johnston & Clark 2012). Service standardization, design difficulties and servicing procedures play important roles in the deficiency of research in this field (Lin, Shi et al. 2010). The abstraction and measurement of such services is a difficult matter and in addition to all these, the variety of service sectors has made it even more difficult to suggest a single model for such services (Ellram, Tate et al. 2004). Taking this feature into account and since there has been little research on service supply chains, the present study has been conducted based on views and experiences by insurance industry experts. And attempts to design and provide a model for service supply chain management in the insurance industry.
    Case Study The study used interviews with experts, managers and insurance industry professionals as the main source for gathering data. The major source from which the main concepts were extracted were interviews performed with 14 managers and experts of the insurance industry in Iran. This research based on the core of SSCs, which companies providing insurance services, carried out presses/procedures of insurance SSCs and designed a conceptual framework for SSCM.
    Marerials and Methods Since previous researches have employed week frames to determine the structure of service supply chains, it seems appropriate to utilize a qualitative procedure; and the service supply chain management has been modeled with a qualitative approach by using the data theory method with the help of the Strauss and Corbin (1998) model. Grounded theory is a qualitative research method that develops a theory using a data set.
    The researcher has attempted to gather and analyze 13 interviews in three turns. At the beginning and based upon the newly found recognition of the insurance industry, theoretical sampling, and after that and to achieve theoretical saturation, snowball sampling was performed. In this study, 2 introductive interviews were made to better understand the environment; 9 main interviews with the aim of extracting required data, and another two to determine that theoretical saturation is obtained and as a confirmation to the extracted codes were made. Theoretical saturation is a state wherein no new data are discovered, the subject has been extended enough and the connections between the data has been determined (Creswell 2003). Each interview was conducted with either one or two people and in two sessions. The interviews ranged from 30 minutes to two hours. The selected people for the main interview had at least 10 years of experience in the insurance industry. Ten percent of the interviewees had a BA, 50 percent had an MA and 40 percent had a PhD degree.
    Data analysis and findings Coding is a systematic procedure developed by Strauss and Corbin (1998) to explore data categories, features and aspects. In this study, with two-stage, open and axial, coding developed a paradigmatic model for SSCM. This was done through analysis, naming and classifying the acquired data from interviews, observations and technical notes. The shared codes, and codes underlined by all interviewees, as well as codes regarded important by the researcher, were all identified as final codes. Similar codes were combined to form single service supply chain management factors. Then, based on the paradigmatic model and selective coding, a conceptual framework for insurance service supply chain were provided. It consists of components and management processes required to delivery services to the customers effectively. Finally, 8 presses/procedures were identified for insurance SSCs. These procedures contain all the activities and processes performed in order to deliver a service to a consumer. As the service provider states, some of these activities are seen throughout all the chain, whilst other are seen only in specific phases.
    Conclusion As it was previously mentioned, service industries are greatly influential on the economy of advanced countries and is facing growth in progressing countries; therefore paying attention to the SSC with the purpose of improving it is of great importance. By going through the research literature, it was determined that the models used in production supply chain management are not applicable in the SSC. In this study, it was endeavored to privilege from the opinions of the experts in the field of insurance industry and the use of grounded theory, it better comprehend the nature and the difficulties of the service supply chain. The suggested frame presents a new perspective of managing service procedures in the insurance industry, which can help managers take a different view on designing and managing such procedures and assess themselves in accordance with the aims intended for the company. In the presented service supply chain management model, all the procedures needed for an efficient supply chain have been determined which are: service delivery management, service capabilities management, market management, cash flow management, CRM, SRM and information flow management. Risk management has been described as a specialized process in insurance procedures.
    Insurance industry managers can privilege from the model provided by this research as a guideline to achieve competency advantage and lower the unreliability of the environment as well as using it as a basis for insurance’s management and supply chain network structure; it may also be used to assess their performance.
    Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Service Supply Chain, Grounded Theory, Insurance Industry
  • Shapoor Sherafat, Ahmad Ali Khaef Elahi *, Arian Gholipour, Hasan Danaei Fard Pages 33-59
    Performance includes behaviors which are related to the objectives of an organization and are regulated on the basis of each individual skill. It helps managers to evaluate the fulfillment of each organization plans and strategic plans. The present study aimed at exploring the components of performance management in line with organization objectives. In doing so, a mixed research design was used. The qualitative were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 14 experts and the quantitative data were gathered through administering the researcher developed instrument among 504 employees working in banking industry, who were selected through random sampling. The qualitative data were analyzed through theme analysis technique. The quantitative data were analyzed through factor analysis. The results of the study showed that the components of performance management had acceptable internal consistency and high construct validity. Comprehensiveness of the model in a way that theoretical and practical applications for human resource management professionals and executives will bring organizations.
    Introduction In the present changing world, organizations and their jobs have characteristics such as uncertainty and unpredictability. These organizations and people working in them are under pressure from changes inside and outside the system. These variables are affected by various factors such as political and social instability, the evolution of procedures and organizational structures, as well as cultural and social changes. As a result, employees are often faced with emerging, unstable, unpredictable, and complex situations. Performance management as one of the management processes has a prominent role in helping to realize the goals and missions of the organization. Organizations are equipped by their own personnel and the adjusted goals will be accessible by the same human resources. Performance includes behaviors which are related to the objectives of an organization and are regulated on the basis of each individual skill. It helps managers to evaluate the fulfillment of each organization plans and strategic plans. The present study aimed at exploring the components of performance management in line with organization objectives.
    Case study: In the present study, employees from banking industry were selected. The participants were selected from 16 banks in Tehran city, Iran. The participants were 504 employees who were selected through convenience sampling procedure.
    Materials and Methods A mixed method research design was used. In the qualitative phase, the items of the questionnaire were developed through in-depth interviews with the participants. The interviews were contented analyzed and the items were extracted. In the quantitative phase which was used for testing the developed model, the researcher-developed questionnaire was used for collecting data. It consisted of four main components and 57 items which are measured on five-point- Likert scale. The questionnaire measures individual performance management, organizational performance management, alignment, and organizational goals. The construct validity of the questionnaire was estimated through running Structural Equation Modeling using Smart PLS3 software.
    Discussion and Results Results of the qualitative phase indicated that the model consists of four components: individual performance, organizational performance, alignment, and organizational objectives. Results of the quantitative phase shows that the model is valid. The relationship between the components of the model is significant that is individual performance and organization performance have significant on alignment as well as organizational goals.
    Conclusion In line with the findings it can be postulated that it is of much significance to develop an organizational carrier that guarantees the variables listed and encourages a comprehensive performance management system aligned with organizational goals. Accordingly, organizations and HR managers should pay more attention to the importance and role of individuals in the management performance process. Moreover, managers of organizations should pave the way for creativity and do whatever which might lead to greater learning and cooperation of the individual in the organization. It can also be argued that efficiency, ethics and judgmental power as individual variables that influence organizational performance should be strengthened.
    Keywords: Individual Performance Management, Organization Performance Management, Alignment, Organization Objectives
  • Farhad Rahbar, Amir Ali Saifoddin-E Asl *, Mohammad Ali Shahhosseini, Eesa Niazi Pages 61-90
    Scenario planning is a technique that, given environmental uncertainties, offers several perspectives different from the future. The scenarios present the possible future scenarios in stories and provide alternative narratives about future-related situations. Scenario planning is one of the best and most powerful tools for future scientific knowledge that can be used to identify and review future changes and uncertainties in the future. Given the importance of scenario analysis and its effects on the country's macro-programs, organizations, firms, etc., the success and effectiveness of scenario-making processes has always been a concern for the management of countries. Considering the key role of casters in the future, this research seeks to extract the behavior of the actors in each of the key elements of the future, in order to develop existing methods, and then proceed with scenarios. To this end, the scenarios that were developed by researchers and experts in this field were reviewed and a new framework for studying scenario was obtained and validated by a team of experts in this area.
    Introduction
    An overview of scripting literature suggests that in none of the proposed methods consider the behavior of important actors as one of the future factors. Research in the literature of research shows that in all of these methods, first of all, it is to identify the key factors and then the forces of progression and identification of the uncertainty And eventually scenario with the choice of logic governing the scenario. In this regard, Zali and Sajadi (2017), Nazemi et al. (2017), Zali and Zamanipour (2016), Shakouri et al (2015), Bilali (2012) and Zali (2009) Made Therefore, in view of the key role of the cast in the future, this research seeks to extract the behavior of the actors in each of the identified key factors in order to develop existing methods and then proceed with scenario analysis. Regarding the consideration of the role of key actors in the scriptwriting process, Ali Zare Mirk-Abad, in his doctoral dissertation, has devised a scenario based on the viewer's perspective, in which the performance of the actors by him was conducted only in a perfectly qualitative manner (Q method).
    Case Study :In this research, a sample of 12 experts and researchers in the field of future research was selected for interview and a sample of 43 people were selected to complete the questionnaire. The framework of the scenarios available by researchers and experts in this field was reviewed and a new framework for studying the obtained scenarios was obtained. And its credibility was confirmed by a group of experts in the field.
    Materials And Methods
    In this research, both field and library methods have been used to collect information. In the present study, since the main focus of the proposed framework is on the minds of experts and is depicted in the various stages of the proposed framework, the wisdom in the minds of experts, the selection of experts is of particular importance. In the current study, the number of samples selected for interview was equal to 12 people selected by snowball method. In the process of selecting an example, qualitative researchers can use a snowball sampling method in which a participant in our research leads to other participants or snowball. With this number of interviews, the investigator's diagnosis was that the collected data reached a saturated point and there was no need for further interviews. In choosing this sample number, issues such as time, availability of interviewees and their degree of cooperation have been considered. Finally, in order to measure the model through scrolling, a questionnaire consisting of 21 questions was sent to validate the model to 43 experts and researchers in the field of futures studies. Finally, 17 valid questionnaires were collected.
    Discussion and
    Results
    In this article, the approach to studying the behavior of actors is based on the approach of the French school (Michel Godet) and the method of MACTOR, which was done for the first time. In the meantime, the scenario approach in his treatise is based on the Scenario model of the Global Business Network or the Schwartz model, but in the proposed model, this paper describes the scenario development approach based on the model. In the scenario model, according to Michel Godet, all the points mentioned in the Peter Schwartz model are accepted. But in one case, his approach to the subject is deeply rooted in Schwartz's method, and this involves the need for formal analysis in parts of the scenario process, which is, of course, not very different. For example, in the methodology, the exact identification of the subject of futures studies with strategic planning in the first step and the search for effective variables (Schwartz's forces and forces) is necessary in steps two and three. But in order to search for variables or factors and the effect of one on the other, Godet also recommended the formal method of structural analysis in addition to setting up a futuristic studio (Schwartz scenario group) and extensive consultation with practitioners and experts. Or, in the search for possible or probable scenarios or futures, which, like the Schwartz analysis axes, are composed of various combinations of variables, has also benefited from the analysis of morphology.
    Conclusion
    This paper attempts to use the meta-combination method to propose a suitable framework for performing scenario-based studies. To this end, the scenario frameworks presented by researchers and experts in this field were reviewed and a new framework for studying scenario was obtained. The difference in the framework provided with other frameworks is to consider the behavior of key actors and to provide strategic options for policy making.
    Keywords: Futures Studies, Scenario Planning, MICMAC, MACTOR, Scenario Wizard, MULTIPOL
  • Mehdi Afkhami Ardakani *, Majid Ali Mohammadi Ardakani Pages 91-112
    Human resources are a key source of sustainable competitive advantage and are considered as one of the main factors for the success of organizations. Therefore, effective management of human resources has become one of the most important issues facing organizations to achieve organizational goals. Given the strategic importance of human resources, adopt appropriate strategies to manage these resources, is the main concern of senior managers. In this study with the configurational approach, a model based on Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) is provided for formulation of human resources strategy. Based on Dyer and Holder model inputs include contribution, composition, competence and commitment. Based on Bamberger and Meshoulam model outputs includes paternalistic, secondary, free-agent and commitment strategies. The system was designed, in RIPI was used and the results indicate that the system is valid.
    Introduction
    Human resources management can and should play a strategic and key role in the design and implementation of organizational transformation and transfer strategies. Although literature related to HR strategy is rich, it lacks operational and functional models for proposing strategies that are appropriate to job clusters. The present study tries to provide a fuzzy logic quantitative model for developing a suitable human resources strategy. Due to the diversity and variety of variables, we try to design and test the model in the form of an expert system.
    Case study: In order to implement and test the expert system provided with empirical evidence, a study was conducted at the Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI). For this purpose, after designing a questionnaire, two homogeneous job clusters were selected to measure the desired job objectives.
    Materials And Methods
    The purpose of this research is applied and, in terms of data collection, is a kind of analytical-descriptive research. In order to design a fuzzy expert system for choosing a human resources management strategy, while conducting library studies, interviewing experts, in the second phase, a few methods were used and its strategy was a case study with the aim of testing the expert system. The statistical population of the research is the academic and organizational experts of human resources management and experts in the field of strategic human resource management. Sampling method in this research is a snowball type. In the case study, in order to test the designed model, information on the jobs of the research institute of the oil industry has been studied.
    In order to design a fuzzy expert system, the present study uses MATLAB software using the graphical user interface features and its fuzzy logic toolbox. We have tried to design a system that is user friendly with the user's graphical interface and can improve the flexibility and performance of the system by using the fuzzy logic toolbox. The design of the fuzzy expert system consists of the following five stages: design - Fuzzy inputs and outputs - Formulation of inference rules - defuzzy - test of model. The knowledge of determining the inputs and outputs of the system as well as the rules of deduction from the literature is obtained through library study and a survey of experts. To fuzzy, the triangular function and for the fuzzy inference, the mamdani method has been used.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Developing a human resources strategy tailored to any occupation or job cluster in organizations is one of the important factors in the success of organizations.
    In general, different models and theories have been presented with different approaches for the formulation of human resource strategies.
    One of these models is the strategic reference points (SRP) that are very good in today's organizations. Since most models lack a quantitative and mathematical framework for strategy formulation.
    In this paper, we tried to present a model whit configurational perspective, which will show the impact of organizational goals and objectives on occupations in a comprehensive way on choosing a type of human resource strategy.
    On the other hand, using fuzzy logic, this model is presented as an expert system to provide a tool for organizations that are simple and practical to determine their human resources strategy. Such a system is even applicable for identifying a strategy for any job.
    Keywords: Human Resource Strategy, the strategic reference points, Fuzzy Inference System
  • Farzaneh Shaghozaei, Afsaneh Marziyeh*, Naser Nastezaei Pages 113-134
    One of the basic variables affecting organizational behavior is job performance. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of professional ethics with social competence and job performance. Research method of the current study was descriptive-correlational and using a stratified random sampling method, among all staff of Zahedan Technical and Vocational Training Organization in 2016, a corpus of 123 people was studied by applying three questionnaires on professional ethics (Gregory, 1990), social competence (Fellner, 1990), and job performance (Paterson, 1970). To analyze the data, a Pearson correlation coefficient and a multiple regression analysis were used via SPSS21. Results showed that professional ethics and its components, including attachment to and interest in work, perseverance and seriousness in work, healthy human relationships at work, and collective spirit and participation in work, were significantly and directly related to social competence (P
    Introduction
    Organizations are social institutions which, like other types of institutions, include people whose main job is to handle the responsibility of administering these institutions. Job performance is one of the components affecting an organization which has played an important role in studies conducted on various organizations and has been the main focus of such studies (Andam, Montazeri, & Abavisani, 2015). Job performance, as an expected overall value of an organization, is regarded as an indicator for determining levels of efficiency and productivity in the organization. There are different viewpoints on job performance. Job performance refers to a degree to which staff carry out jobs assigned to them in a given working condition and, as general values expected by an organization, it is defined based on distinct pieces of behaviors which are done by a person over a given period of time (Motowidlo, 2003, as cited in Hassani, 2015).
    Studies have indicated that people’s job performance is influenced by motivations, abilities, characteristics, clarity of roles, and having an opportunity of doing activities and the ability of human resources itself is dependent on occupational knowledge and skills needed to perform occupational tasks and activities (Robbins, 1997).
    Another component that can affect individual and organizational effectiveness is social competence. Social competence is a complex variable linked to an individual's ability to manage emotions and is a combination of motivational drives, cognitive abilities, social competence, and behavioral skills (Cunningham, 2009, as cited in Shariatmadar & Pourgravand, 2014).
    Green and Rechis (2006) argued that to strengthen social competence, levels of cooperation, responsiveness and effectiveness, acceptance of social responsibilities, behaving in a friendly way, and other positive interaction practices should be improved among students. Cheung and Lee (2010) laid an emphasis on school teaching practices, interpersonal interactions, and interactions with a teacher as sources supporting or complementing parental behaviors; since they create opportunities for learning and practicing social competence.
    Among the most important issues that have caused many problems for organizations around the world, problems caused by corruption and misconduct can be mentioned (Arshadi & Piriaei, 2014). While in the Western world and in the field of organization and management, there is a branch known as professional ethics, in our organizational and managerial society, little attention has been paid to professional ethics (Jafariani & Yazarlou, 2015). Several definitions have been proposed for professional ethics. As an example, professional ethics refers to ethical issues and questions, considers ethical principles and values ​ in a professional system, and administers professional ethics in a professional environment (Maarefi, Ashk Torab, Abaszadeh, Alavi Majd, & Eslami Akbar, 2014).
    Professional ethics is one of the new branches of ethics that seeks to answer various ethical issues and attempts to consider certain principles for them (Mortazavi, Irannejad Parizi, & Jafari, 2014). Failure to adhere to some ethical standards has raised many concerns in governmental and non-governmental sectors (Ahmadi, Safari Kahreh, Mirmahdi, & Esmaili Kakhaki, 2013). In our society, despite many positive elements in our national and religious culture according to which a great value is given to work, a number of values dominate the general structure of the society ​​that undermines work ethics as well as work conscience (Ghajari & Heidari, 2015).
    One of the most important educational organizations which can play a key role in training human resources needed by communities and have been considered by different countries all over the world due to the ever-increasing changes taken place in the field of knowledge and technology is the technical and vocational training organization. According to the mentioned issues and due to the fact that, as far as the authors checked, no similar studies have been conducted to examine the issue, the main objective of carrying out this study was to determine the relationship of professional ethics with social competence and job performance among staff of Zahedan Technical and Vocational Training Organization.
    Case Study :The current study had a statistical population including all staff of Zahedan Technical and Vocational Training Organization in 2016 who were 181 people. Based on the Cochran’s sampling formula, 123 people, 54 women (43.9%) and 69 men (56.1%), were selected based on their gender using the stratified random sampling method.
    Materials And Methods
    The research method of the present study was descriptive-correlational. Measurement tools used in the current study were questionnaires. To measure professional ethics, social competence, and job performance among the staff, questionnaires on professional ethics (Gregory, 1990), social competence (Fellner, 1990), and job performance (Paterson, 1970) were respectively used. The validity and reliability of all these three questionnaires were also examined.
    Results And Discussion
    The first finding obtained from this study showed that the statuses of professional ethics, social competence, and job performance among the staff were higher than the average. This finding is consistent with results of a number of previously carried out studies (Shahinmehr & Hasani, 2015; Soleimani, Abbaszadeh, & Azizi, 2012).
    The second finding of this study indicated that professional ethics and its components (attachment to and interest in work, perseverance and seriousness in work, healthy human relationships at work, and collective spirit and participation in work) were significantly and directly related to the staff’s social competence. The results of the regression analysis demonstrated that professional ethics could determine 39.3% of the variances in social competence.
    The results obtained from examining the relationship of professional ethics and its components with job performance among the staff of Zahedan Technical and Vocational Training Organization demonstrated that professional ethics and its components were significantly and directly related to job performance. Based on the regression model, professional ethics could determine 38.1% of the variances in job performance.
    Conclusion
    In the present era, when analyzing behaviors of various organizations, addressing ethics and paying attention to ethical values are among the requirements. Ethical behaviors constitute the external symbols of organizations which themselves are the sum of a variety of ethical values in which organizations emerged and evolved. In the current situation, failure to adhere to some ethical standards has raised many concerns in governmental and non-governmental sectors.
    Therefore, considering the findings of this study regarding the positive and significant relationships of the components of professional ethics with social competence and job performance, managers of different organizations are highly recommended to hold various workshops to train the components of professional ethics, including perseverance and seriousness in work and attachment to and interest in work, and methods of observing the principles of human relations in work to their staff to provide the grounds for promoting their social competence and improve their job performance.
    Keywords: Professional Ethics, Social Competence, Job Performance, Technical, Vocational Training Organization
  • Seyed Mohammad Reza Hoseinipour, Mohammad Mahdi Parhizgar *, Mirza Hasan Hoseini, Ali Akbar Jowkar Jowkar Pages 135-156
    The purpose of this study was to design a structural model of the effect of electronic banking on increasing the competitive ability of banks(five selected banks) . The method of research is descriptive survey. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The statistical population consisted of directors, deputies and experts of offices and banks of Tehran (five selected banks). 269 of them participated in the research. A structural equation model(SEM) by Lisrel software was used to analyze the data. The results showed that culture, perceived security, ease of use, trust, website quality, privacy and innovation have a positive and significant effect on the competitive ability of banks. However, the effect of speed on competitive ability of banks was not significant. Overall, the results of the role of electronic banking on the competitive ability of banks were confirmed. Therefore, it can be concluded that e-banking leads to increase bank's competitive ability.
    Introduction
    Today, The issue of competition between firms­ is the subject of discussion among managers,politicians and academics(Peña-Vinces& Urbano,2014). Competitive ability refers to the superior position of a company compared to its competitors in that industry . When a company has more profits than other companies ­in the same industry , it be known as a company with a competitive advantage in this market(Bleoca,2014) .Without a competitive ability, the company will have little economic justification and will be financially in decline) Kim&Oh,2004 (.
    There is Strong competition among commercial banks .It means even­ Most innovative products and services are copied by others. Then bank opportunity to protect its competitive ability,will be declined(Al-Alak,2014(. Electronic Banking is one of main factors that facilitates banks competitive ability(Joseph & Stone,2003).
    Case study :For measuring the variables of the research, 300 questionnaires containing 42 questions were distributed among managers, assistants and experienced experts in the field of E-Banking Tehran city’s selected banks.
    Materials And Methods
    This is a descriptive- correlation study modeled based on structural equations model. Research statistical population included 1000 bank experts in tehran. Research sample of 278 experts were randomly selected through stratified random sampling method using Cochran formula (1997). Data were collected through questionnaire. Validity of the instrumentations was verified through content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis, as well using SPSS. Once covariance errors were removed and fitness factors were examined, factor analysis was confirmed; further, reliability of research instrumentations was also obtained larger than 0.07 using Cronbach’s alpha test, indicating high validity of the questionnaires.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The purpose of this study was to design a structural model for the effect of electronic banking on increasing the competitive ability of banks. The results of structural equation model showed that technology culture, perceived security, ease of use, trust, web site quality, privacy and service innovation have a positive and significant effect on competitive ability, but the effect of speed on competitive ability is not significant. Also, 70% of the competitive variance is explained by the research model.
    Conclusion
    As we observed in this study, the role of electronic banking on the competitive ability of banks were confirmed.Because seven factors of e-banking have a positive and significant effect on the competitive ability of banks. Therefore, it can be concluded that Electronic banking leads to increase bank's competitive ability.
    Keywords: E-banking, Banking competition, Competitiveness ability
  • Hajieh Rajabi Farjad * Pages 157-180
    Purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transformation-creating leadership style on the occupational attitude regarding to the role of psychological empowerment mediation. The present research is applied one in terms of goal, and correlational descriptive one in terms of the method. In this study, first theoretical model and hypotheses between variables were developed. Then by the help of structural equations model, the research hypothesis studied.
    Statistical universe of the research is the students of Amin Police University. For this purpose, a sample of 165 students based on the Morgan table and using the simple random sampling method, obtained. In order to gather information on the transformation-creating leadership ,Bass and Olive (2000), psychological empowerment ,Spritzer (1995), job satisfaction of employees, index of job descriptor (JDI), and organizational commitment, Allan and Meyer(1990) questionnaires are used . In addition to content's validity, construct`s validity also is used and to evaluate reliability, Cronbach`s Alfa is used. Cronbach`s Alfa for each of the variables in transformation-creating leadership(0/79), psychological empowerment (0/80)and occupational attitude of employees (organizational commitment (0/85)and job satisfaction(0/84)) which indicate the optimum level of reliability of the questionnaires. The results of this research show that transformation-creating leadership has an impact on employees` occupational attitudes. Also, the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship of transformation-creating leadership with employees` occupation attitudes is confirmed.
    Introduction
    Employees are regarded as the capital of each organization, and achieving to organizational goals depends on the proper management of these valuable resources. Employees have a lot of differences in their individual and social behaviors, and what is often more important for managers of organizations is how to regulate the behavior with employees through knowledge of different variables affecting their attitude towards the job and organization. Occupational and organizational attitude is a kind of person's perception of his organization and job ,that is caused by factors such as the nature of the job and organization, surrounding human resources, the organizational and environmental factors and personal factors (Azimi et al., 2012). The attitudes and behaviors of employees, which are the most important elements that constitute the organization, affect their capabilities and motivations. Non-participation of employees in providing appropriate educational services ,is only part of the challenges faced by the studied community and its stakeholders; in other words, , the studied community must accurately identify the characteristics and needs of the staff ,and provide needed requirements for competing in this environment in an organizational system so that create its own competitiveness.
    According to the importance of the role of cognitive and behavioral processes in employee`s empowerment, as well as the lack of a research that put the study of psychological empowerment and its components from the angle of their role with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and transformational leadership on its agenda.
    Case study: Statistical universe of this research were students of Amin Police University. For this purpose, a sample of 165 people, based on Morgan's table, using simple random sampling method, was obtained.
    Materials And Methods
    This research is applied one in terms of goal, and has a descriptive correlation method. To collect information about the transformation-creating leadership, the Bass & Olive qquestionnaire (2004) with 20 items and four indicators of ideal characteristics, ideal behaviors, inspirational motivation, mental stimulation and personal observation; about psychological empowerment ,from the Spritzer questionnaire (1995) with 24 items and four elements of significance, competence, self-determination and effect, about job satisfaction of the employees from occupational description index (JDI) with five components of payment, promotion opportunities, supervisor, policies and procedures, membership of the working group, working conditions and job benefits, and finally organizational commitment with 24 questions and three components of emotional commitment, continuous commitment and normative commitment, all based on the Likert`s five- option spectrum were used. To acquire more confidence from level of questionnaires` reliability, the questionnaires were implemented on a sample of 30 people and Cronbach's Alpha for each of the variables (transformational leadership, psychological empowerment, and job attitude (organizational commitment and job satisfaction) were 0.79, 0.88, 0.85 and 0.84) respectfully, which indicate the optimal level of reliability of the questionnaires.
    Also in this study, structural equation modeling method has been used to test the model and research hypothesis.
    Discussion and
    Results
    In the framework of the proposed model of this research, four hypotheses have been extracted: 1-Transformation-creating leadership has an impact on student's psychological empowerment.
    The effect of transformation-creating leadership on psychological empowerment is (0.7), then it can be concluded that variable of transformation-creating leadership influences psychological empowerment.
    2-Psychological empowerment has an impact on student's attitudes toward work.The effect of psychological empowerment on the job attitude is (0.36). Therefore, it can be concluded that variable of psychological empowerment affects the attitude of the job.
    3-Transformation-creating leadership has an impact on the student's attitude of work.The effect of transformation-creating leadership on job attitude is (0.23), so it can be concluded that variable of transformation-creating leadership has an impact on job attitudes.
    4-Psychological empowerment is effective as an intermediating variable in the relationship between transformation-creating leadership and job attitude.
    In addition to the direct effect, transformation-creating leadership indirectly and through psychological empowerment, affects the attitude of the work, which has a greater effect (0.25) than direct effect (0.23). Therefore, it can be concluded that the variable of psychological empowerment has a minor mediation effect on relationship between style of transformation-creating leadership and occupational attitude, which is also supported by the fourth hypothesis of the research.
    Conclusion
    Findings of the research showed that transformation-creating leadership has a positive and significant effect on employee's occupational attitude. The results are in line with the studies by Avolio et al. (2004), Hechenau et al. (2006) and Konorti (2008). Findings of the research showed that transformation-creating leadership has a positive and significant effect on the psychological empowerment of employees. Findings of the research are based on studies conducted by (Levin, 2010; MacKenzie et al., 2001).
    Analysis of the data showed that psychological empowerment has a positive and significant effect on employee's attitude of work, thus, it is consistent with the findings of researchers such as Thomas and Timon, Spritz and colleagues, Leiden et al. Findings of the research showed that psychological empowerment is considered as a mediator variable and minor. Also these findings were consistent with studies by Li and Tian (2006).
    According to the findings of this research, this research can be a guide for university`s administrators in order to have a positive attitude toward student's education through a closer look and applying transformation-creating leadership and providing a suitable platform for empowerment of students. Accordingly, in order to strengthen the positive attitude of students, the following are suggested:• For managers and supervisors of different sections, training workshops will be held to improve transformation-creating leadership.
    • Students need to be aware of the environment in which they are studying, so that students feel well connected with the organization. Senior executives should try to investigate issues through group meetings and, through modeling, sharing information with students, can increase mutual trust and students feel that they are important to the organization, and thus the extent of their involvement in Study increases.
    Keywords: occupational attitude, transformation-creating leadership, psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, job satisfaction
  • Ramezan Hosseinzadeh * Pages 181-198
    Employment is one of the important and considered variables by policy makers at national, regional and urban levels. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate employment changes in Zahedan during the census period of 2006-2011 and the effect of changes in competitive advantage and structural changes on employment in different activities of the city during this period. The research method is descriptive-analytic method and regional programming models such as Location Quotient (LQ) and shaft-share model are used for analysis. The results of the Location Quotient model have shown that sectors such as "Public Affairs and Defense", " Transportation and Communication " and "Education" have been part of the advantaged sectors of the city economy. The results of the shift-share model have shown that the effect of competitive changes has been positive in the three sectors of "education", "health" and "business and real estate services" and has led to an increase in employment of these sectors.
    Introduction
    Provinces and different regions of the country have different production and employment potentials. This may be due to several factors, such as the particular climate conditions and the region's particular natural resources. For this reason, each region and city of the country may have a comparative advantage in certain activity or activities. Hence, identification of activities that have an advantage in an area is important for recognizing and adopting appropriate strategies for economic growth and development in the region. As a result, regional and local planners and decision makers should identify the strengths and weaknesses of the economy. The planners of economic growth and development should be aware of the ways and the reasons for the Recession and boom of various activities in the local and regional economy to make the right decisions to address local and regional problems. Among economic variables, employment is one of the most important variable in economic growth and development in the region. This variable is influenced by different policies of growth and development. Also, in the current period, employment is the most important issue of policy makers at the national, regional and local levels, and all efforts of planners and decision makers in the country to address this unemployment problem.
    Unfortunately, in the urban planning system in Iran due to the lack of spatial planning and the lack of an integrated urban management system, the role of cities in regional development and reduction of regional inequalities has been neglected (Safaei, 2003) . Also, urban planning has not paid much attention to determining the competitive advantages of cities for planning urban economic development (Hatami neghad & Hosseini, 2013). Therefore, in the present study, the comparative advantage of employment and employment changes based on shift share and Location Quotient in different activities of Zahedan city in Sistan and Baluchestan province are investigated.
    Case study: The case study of this paper is the all economic activity in Zahedan Coty in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, we use the Location Quotient (LQ) method to study the advantages of different activities in the economy of the Zahedan city. This method is used to identify the domestic and export sectors in different regions. In this method, the activities in the region are divided into two parts, the basic activities of non-basic activities. In the shift share model, the growth of employment in a region is divided into three factors. The part that caused by national growth, the growth resulting from the competitive advantage and the growth resulting from structural change in the region (the change in the composition of the region's activities).
    Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results of the Location Quotient model have shown that sectors such as "Public Affairs and Defense", " Transportation and Communication " and "Education" have been part of the advantaged sectors of the city economy. The results of the shift-share model have shown that the effect of national component in all sectors was negative and resulted in a decrease in the employment of city of Zahedan to 4662 people. Structural changes have reduced the 1286 people in the total employment in Zahedan during the study period. The effect of this factor has been positive in 9 sectors of than 14 sectors and has increased the employment of the city. The results of the model in relation to the effect of competitive changes in different sectors indicate that this factor has reduced employment by 39638 people in total employment of this city. The effect of this factor was only positive in three sectors, which led to an increase in employment. These three sectors include "education", "health" and "business and real estate services".
    Keywords: Comparative advantage, employment, Zahedan city, shift-share model
  • Reza Sepahvand *, Mohsen Arefnezhad, Ali Shariyatnezhad Pages 199-227
    The present research was conducted with the aim of analyzing the authentic leadership Identity Indicators in order to human resources improvement using Interpretative Ranking Process (IRP) approach. This research is an inductive deduction study that two qualitative and quantitative research approaches are used according to the type of data and conditions. The statistical population is 25 professors in the human resources field at the Faculty of Management, Tehran's state universities, who selected using purposive sampling. To confirm the validity, the questionnaire was distributed among experts and they were approved. Reliability of the questionnaires was confirmed by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which was equal to 0.79. According to results authentic leadership identity Indicators are: self-awareness, self-efficacy, self-affirmation, self-affiliation, leadership self-efficacy, leadership fame, leadership modeling, self-esteem and self-actualization. In addition, the components of human resource improvement are scientific knowledge promotion, meritocracy, the existence of talent management in the organization, the development of work skills, enhancement of staff capabilities, updating employee information, employee participation, personality development Coordinated in the staff, the existence of a performance-based reward system, organizational support, enrichment and business development, and the existence of an organizational climate. Also the results indicate that authentic leadership self-esteem improves human resources by helping to develop the personality of the staff and creating a talent management system.
    Introduction
    The improvement of human resources, as a key, fundamental, and an essential, issue is one of the most urgent steps in organizations and in the field of human resource management. It is impossible to achieve the goals of development, construction, and establishing a proper condition for a supreme organizational life, unless there is a growth, enhancement, and improvement of human resources in all areas of the organization. Nowadays, all organizations make a claim that human capital is their prominent asset, since it is obvious to everyone that man is the main cause of improvement and the only one who shoulders the responsibility for development. The process of development and improvement, without the human participation, will be unavailing as human beings are both the goal and the means of achieving development and improvement. The necessity and importance of human resource development lies in the fact that efficient, skilled, and capable human resource is the prime booster and driving force for any organization. For the human capital to be efficient, competent and capable human resources, the fundamental solution is to employ human resource improvement programs. Using human resources improvement programs, people can effectively continue their activities and increase their productivity according to organizational changes and the environment. It was not only a few years ago that has considering the improvement of human resources been noticed under the scope of management of organizations and companies which in turn leads to paying attention to the management of human resources in this regard. Nonetheless, throughout the world, this process has long been applied to other countries and organizations. Today, successful organizations are those that make use of knowledge forces to take a step in creating values and strategies, as well as treasure the human resources and its improvement as the most precious values in the organization. Human resources are the most valuable factor of production, the most important capital, the main source for the competitive advantage, and the generator of the fundamental capabilities of any organization.
    Case Study: Faculties of Management at Tehran State Universities.
    Materials And Methods
    This research employed a combination of interviews and a questionnaire to analyze the indicators of authentic leadership in order to improve human resources; therefore, this study is a deductive-inductive type of research. This study enjoys both qualitative and quantitative research approaches in line with the data and conditions. At the outset, through employing the qualitative data obtained from exploratory studies, including the investigation of exploratory texts, human resource improvement and authentic leadership identity indicators are acknowledged. After identifying the indicators, the IRP (Interpretative Ranking Process Approach) questionnaire is provided. The questionnaires were distributed among 25 Lecturers in the field of human resources at the Faculties of Management at Tehran State Universities. Expert's opinions were used to confirm the validity of the questionnaires. Also, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was utilized to confirm the reliability of the questionnaires. In keeping with the research goal, purposive sampling was employed.
    Results And Discussion
    Having done exploratory studies on the authentic leadership identity, a number of indicators such as self-awareness, self-efficacy, self-loving, self-solidarity, leadership self-efficacy, leadership fame, leadership modeling, self-disclosure, self-esteem and self-sacrificing, were acknowledged; as with the human resource improvement, such components as establishing scientific awareness and the promotion of the employee knowledge, meritocracy, talent management in the organization, development of work skills, promoting the staffs’ capabilities, updating the employees’ information, employees’ participation, harmonious personality promotion in the employees, the existence of a performance-based reward system, organizational support, enrichment and the development of businesses, and the existence of an appropriate organizational atmosphere were identified. The results revealed that the most effective impact on human resource improvement could be attributed to authentic leadership self-efficacy. Moreover, the second place belonged to the authentic leadership modeling. Self-sacrifice, self-esteem and self-awareness were also held the fourth to sixth positions, respectively, in terms of improving human resources.
    Conclusion
    Concerning the development of human resources, the important point is that the development and improvement of human resources demands a driving force that improves their performance through the induction of psychological capacities. This force is but the authentic leadership. Therefore, the present study, which was an attempt to analyze the authentic leadership identity indicators in order to improve human resources, employed the interpretative ranking process approach. The results of the research consisted of identifying the indicators of authentic leadership identity and improving human resources and analyzing the domination of original identity indicators on human resource improvement. The aauthentic leadership identity indicators include self-awareness, self-efficacy, self-loving, self-solidarity, leadership self-efficacy, leadership fame, leadership modeling, self-disclosure, self-esteem and self-sacrificing. Furthermore, such the components as establishing scientific awareness and the promotion of the employee knowledge, meritocracy, talent management in the organization, development of work skills, promoting the staffs’ capabilities, updating the employees’ information, employees’ participation, harmonious personality promotion in the employees, the existence of a performance-based reward system, organizational support, enrichment and the development of businesses, and the existence of an appropriate organizational atmosphere constitute human resource improvement. It should be mentioned that the most effective factor affecting human resource improvement is the authentic leadership self-efficacy. Moreover, the authentic leadership modeling captures the second place. Self-sacrifice, self-esteem and self-awareness are also ranked as the fourth to sixth most important ones, in terms of improving human resources.
    Keywords: Authentic Leadership Identity, Human Resource Improvement, Interpretative Ranking Process (IRP)
  • Fahimeh Kokabisaghi, Rahmat Allah Gholi Pour Souteh *, Ali Pirannejad Pages 229-247
    The aim of this study is to find out the relationship between work engagement and knowledge worker productivity with respect to the moderation role of organizational structure. The study is practical and descriptive and correlational based on the methods. Study population was employees of Sport and Youth Administration of Khorasan Razavi. Through Morgan and simple random sampling method, the sample size was estimated 90 persons of the study population. Three questionnaires including Utrecht work engagement (2009), Robbins organizational structure (1990) and created knowledge worker productivity for data collection were used. The validity of the questionnaires approved by Context, Construct and Convergent validity and Cronbach’s alpha higher than 0/70 approved the reliability. Data were analyzed by Structural equation modeling in PLS software. The results showed a significant positive relationship between work engagement and knowledge worker productivity by itself and with the mediation role of organizational structure. Also, the mediation roles of complexity, formalization and centralization are approved. In fact, organizational structure design that increases complexity, and decreases formalization and centralization can increase work engagement that will result in the improvement of knowledge worker productivity.
    Introduction
    World is moving from an economy based on production to a knowledge-based economy which necessitates investments on manpower, information technology, research and development. The role of traditional requirements for production such as natural resources, manpower and capital are not as important as intangible inputs including information and knowledge. In recent years, knowledge has become the most important asset of organizations. Drucker believed that knowledge-worker productivity to be the biggest managerial challenge of 20th century and undeniably it will be needed for survival of organizations in developed countries (Peter F Drucker, 1999). To survive in the current competitive environment, the success of organizations is depended to acquire, use and transfer of knowledge. In this regard, organizations should consider the level of employees’ engagement in their work. Since, they decide to use their knowledge in the organization. Also, structure of organizations creates a basis for using the knowledge (Monavarian, 2008).
    Case study: The study population included employees of Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports of Khorasan Razavi (Iran). By simple sampling method 90 people were selected as the sample of our study.
    Materials And Methods
    This study is practical, descriptive and correlational based on the aim and the method of data collection. Questionnaires were used to collecting data. Knowledge worker productivity is analyzed using the Dracker model, work engagement is measured by 9-items Utrecht work engagement scale characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption, and organizational structure is examined by Robins model consists of three items including complexity, centralization and formality. Data were analyzed by Descriptive and Inferential Statistics by Structural Equation Modeling in PLS software.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Hypotheses
    Hypothesis 1: Work engagement relates to Knowledge worker productivity.
    Hypothesis 2: Complexity of organizational structure relates with Knowledge worker productivity.
    Hypothesis 3: Formality of organizational structure relates with Knowledge worker productivity.
    Hypothesis 4: Centralization of organizational structure relates with Knowledge worker productivity.
    Hypothesis 5: Organizational Structure mediates the relationship between work engagement and Knowledge worker productivity.
    Hypotheses testing presented that the direct effect of work engagement on knowledge worker productivity is significant when the organizational structure is not included in the model with a value of 0.558. Including the mediator role of organizational structure, the indirect effect is significant too. T-value of the indirect effect of work engagement on knowledge worker productivity via organizational structure mediated role is 0.145. Therefore, it is concluded that this relationship via the mediator variety is significant. In addition, this study confirms the indirect association between work engagement and knowledge worker productivity by the mediating role of dimensions of organizational structure. In fact, decreasing formality and centralization cause raising work engagement and knowledge worker productivity. In contrast, complexity as a mediating factor positively influenced on the relationship of work engagement and knowledge worker productivity.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicated that organizational structure plays a mediating role in the relationship of work engagement and knowledge worker productivity in the studied organization. It means appropriate design of organizational structure will be helpful in increasing of work engagement and knowledge worker productivity. Organizational structure should not act as a barrier against employees who are engaged appropriately in their work. It should give freedom to the employees to be innovative in providing solutions in different organizational situations. In this regard, Kodden (2011) showed that increasing the flexibility of organizational structure will increase work engagement and motivates knowledge workers to make more efforts for organizational goals and as a result, knowledge worker productivity rises (Kodden, 2011). In another study by Catteeuw et al. (2007), the role of organizational structure on improvement of workers’ motivation and work engagement was approved. They added that more work engagement will result in more use of knowledge for advancing of the organization (Catteeuw, Flynn, & Vonderhorst, 2007). Therefore, enough attention should be paid to improvement of structure of organizations in order to increase knowledge productivity.
    Keywords: knowledge worker productivity, organizational structure, work engagement
  • Neda Mohammadesmaeili * Pages 249-273
    Nowadays, most of the organizations have realized the importance of a customer-oriented approach for maintaining their position on the market; therefore, one of the main concerns of managers is the development of customer-oriented behaviors. On the other hand, the main factor in shaping behavior in any organization is organizational culture. Recognizing culture is important because it includes a set of factors that, if not understood, can eliminate any attempt to direct the behaviors toward desired goals. Thus, the development of customer-oriented culture is the first step in developing customer-oriented behaviors and institutionalizing these behaviors in an organization. The present study seeks to identify the mechanisms for developing a customer-oriented culture.
    Materials And Methods
    The approach of this research is the mixed approach. By the means of questionnaire in the quantitative section, various dimensions of the customer-oriented culture were identified. Also, in the qualitative section, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 176 employees by means of interviewing tools in order to understand the effective mechanisms for developing customer-oriented culture.
    Conclusion
    Finally, four types of mechanisms were identified: human resources, education, communication and promotion.
    Keywords: culture, customer focused, customer focused culture