فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2018
  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahnoosh Fatemi*, Fereshte Ghandehari Pages 286-295
    Objective
    In traditional medicine, Ficus carica (also known as fig) latex is recognized as a remedy with various therapeutic effects. Recently, in vitro studies have reported the anticancer effect of this latex on cancer cell lines. This study evaluated the effect of this latex on breast cancer growth, hematological parameters, and histopathology in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty-four female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. In cancerous group, 0.5 ml 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene was injected to nipple for breast cancer induction. The control group received sesame oil at the same volume through similar route. In fig latex treated group (Fle), breast cancer was induced and then 0.5 ml of fig latex was intratumorally injected on a daily basis for 4 weeks. Tumor size was measured at the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks of the experiment. Blood samples were used for investigation of the hematological parameters and livers, kidneys and tumor tissues were removed for histopathological analysis.
    Results
    The tumor size in Fle group was significantly decreased compared to the cancerous group. Haematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC and their indices were significantly decreased, whereas platelet, leukocyte and white blood cell numbers were significantly increased in cancerous group compared to the control group. There were no changes in these parameters in the Fle group compared to the control group. There were severe pathological changes in the livers and kidneys of cancerous group, but not in Fle group.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that fig latex could decrease tumor growth without having any adverse effect on hematological and histological factors. However, further investigation is required in this field.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, Ficus carica latex, Hematological parameters, Histopathology, Rat
  • Mehrdad Iranshahi, Ramin Rezaee, Mona Najaf Najafi, Ali Haghbin, Jamal Kasaian* Pages 296-312
    Objective
    The genus Ferula L. includes perennial flowering plants belonging to the Apiaceae family. This genus is a rich source of biologically active phytochemicals such as sulfur-containing derivatives, coumarins, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene coumarins, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, and daucane esters. Over the last decade, considerable attention has been paid to biological activities of these compounds; it is assumed that the most prominent biological features of the genus Ferula are their cytotoxic effects. This article discusses cytotoxic activity of the genus Ferula and their important compounds.
    Methods
    In this mini-review article, papers published from 1990 to April 2016 were included and the following information was discussed; cytotoxic activity of the genus Ferula and their important compounds, the type of cell line used in vitro, concentrations of the extracts/active compound that were used, and the underlying mechanisms of action through which Ferula-related chemicals induced cytotoxicity. In addition, we explained different mechanisms of action through which the active constituents isolated from Ferula, could decrease cellular growth.
    Conclusion
    It is highly recommended that potent and effective compounds that were isolated from Ferula plants and found to be appropriate as adjuvant therapy for certain diseases, should be identified. Also, the versatile biological activities of sesquiterpene coumarins suggest them as promising agents with a broad range of biological applications to be used in the future
    Keywords: Ferula, Biological activity, Cytotoxicity, Umbelliprenin, Sesquiterpene coumarin, Farnesiferol C
  • Wahid Hussain, Manzoor Ullah*, Ghulam Dastagir, Lal Badshah Pages 313-329
    Objective
    Medicinal plants are used for treatment of ailments throughout rural and urban areas of the world. Such use of plants varies from one region to another and is measured using quantitative techniques. The current research which was conducted from March to October 2015, is the first explorative study of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of lower Kurram, Kurram agency, Pakistan.
    Materials And Methods
    Field trips were done to 20 location of lower Kurram and information regarding medicinal use of plants was collected from the locals through semi-structured interviews.
    Results
    A total of 52 plant species that were reported by the people from the region, to have medicinal value, fall within 48 genera and 35 families. The family Asteraceae comprised most of these herbs (6 species) followed by the family Lamiaceae (4 species) and Solanaceae (3 species). Leaves (24.3%) and fruits (21.6%) were the frequently used parts in preparation of remedies. The reported plants were used for treatment of 50 ailments with most of these plants (35 species; 30.97%) being used for treatment of digestive problems. Seriphidium kurramensis had the highest relative frequency of citation (66.18) and use value (1.10). Fidelity level of Caralluma tuberculata and Artemisia scoparia for diabetes was (61.22) and (55.56), respectively. The highest fidelity level for malaria was reported for Artemisia absinthium (43.66) and S. kurramensis (40.00).
    Conclusion
    The inhabitants of lower Kurram still practice medicinal plants and few of the plants were used for treatment of fatal diseases like malaria, hepatitis and blood cancer. Haphazard cutting of plants and overgrazing are major threats that can affect plants biodiversity.
    Keywords: Artemisia absinthium, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Seriphidium kurramense, Traditional knowledge, Pakistan
  • Hassan Esmaeili*, Zahra Hafezimoghadam, Mansour Esmailidehaj, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Zeynab Hafizibarjin Pages 338-349
    Objective
    Previous studies reported that asafetida from Ferula assa-foetida Linn. species and its essential oil (AEO) have antioxidant effects. In the present study, the effect of AEO was evaluated on ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: 1) control group, 2) vehicle group, 3-5) AEO groups and, 6) carvedilol group. In the control group, hearts were only subjected to 30-min global ischemia followed by 120-min reperfusion. Hearts in other groups were perfused with vehicle (Tween 0.1%), AEO (0.125, 0.25 or 0.50 µL/g heart) or carvedilol (10 µM) for 5 min immediately before the induction of ischemia.
    Results
    Compared to the control group, myocardial dysfunction was significantly more severe only in group 5 in which a significant increase in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and a significant decrease in left ventricular developed pressure and ±dp/dt. Also, the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase as the markers of myocardial injury were significantly higher only in group 5 compared to control group. The size of infarct and the incidence of irreversible fibrillation did not show any significant differences between the control group and groups 3-5.
    Conclusion
    These results showed that perfusion of isolated rat hearts with AEO 0.5 µL/g heart, but not at lower concentrations, might worsen myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury.
    Keywords: Asafoetida, Heart, Essential oil, Ischemic, reperfusion injury
  • Azam Habibi, Masoud Soleimani *, Amir Atashi, Mahshid Akhavanrahnama, Azadeh Anbarlou, Mansoureh Ajami, Monireh Ajami Pages 350-357
    Objective
    The application of human cord blood (hCB) is limited to children by using relatively small volume of cord blood that does not contain enough hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). So, efforts for applying cord blood stem cells in transplantation have led to establishment of some approaches for ex vivo expansion of HSCs such as garcinol.
    Materials And Methods
    CD133 HSCs were separated by a magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) system. Isolated cells were cultured with different doses of garcinol, SCF, TPO and FLT-3L. The optimal dose of garcinol for ex vivo expansion of HSCs was determined by direct counting. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the expression of CD133 marker to check the ability of garcinol in maintenance of HSCs. Colony forming cell (CFC) assay was performed to evaluate clonogenic capability of treated cells. The level of expression of CXCR4 gene was evaluated by RT-PCR. Data were analyzed using Student’s t test.
    Results
    Our results showed that CD133 HSCs in the presence of garcinol (5-10 µM) had high expansion activity and cell counting showed that the number of cells in treated group was higher than control group (1.9 –fold) and CFC assay showed that the number of colonies following treatment with garcinol had 1.3-fold increase. Treatment of HSCs with garcinol resulted in 9.6-fold increase in terms of CXCR4 expression in comparison to control group.
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that garcinol can improve ex vivo expansion of HSCs and enhance their potential for homing to bone marrow.
    Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cells, expansion, Garcinol, Small, molecule compounds
  • Mina Mokhtari Hashtjini_Gila Pirzad Jahromi * _Gholam Hossein Meftahi_Davoud Esmaeili_Danial Javidnazar Pages 358-369
    Objective
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as one of the most devastating kinds of anxiety disorders, is the consequence of a traumatic event. Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron have been traditionally used for treatment of stress and anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the effects of peripheral administration of saffron, along with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) model caused by contextual fear conditioning (electrical foot shock chamber) in male Wistar rats.
    Materials And Methods
    rats (220-250 g) were divided into 7 groups (n=8) and underwent stereotactic surgery for implantation of the electrodes in the right-baso lateral of the amygdala (BLA). After 7 days, some animals received the foot shock, followed by another 7-day treatment (DBS treatment or combination treatment by saffron 5 mg/kg (i.p)) then freezing behavior as a predicted response in the absence of the foot shock (re-exposure time) and general anxiety were measured using elevated plus maze test. Serum corticosterone level and amygdala c-Fos protein expression were assessed using ELISA and Western blot analysis, respectively.
    Results
    DBS treatment and the combination therapy of saffron (5 mg/kg (I.P)) with DBS significantly (p
    Conclusion
    These results might show the potential of this combination therapy for treatment of treatment-resistant PTSD patients.
    Keywords: Deep brain stimulation, Saffron, Post, traumatic stress disorder, Contextual fear conditioning, Corticosterone, C, Fos protein
  • Mohammad Mazani, Yavar Mahmoodzadeh, Mir Mehdi Chinifroush-Asl, Shokofeh Banaei, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh*, Alireza Mohammadnia Pages 370-379
    Objective
    Studies have demonstrated that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in many tissues including the kidney, heart, lung, brain, and liver. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of Tanacetum parthenium extract (TPE) in renal tissues of CCl4-intoxicated rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Animals were divided into seven groups of six rats. Group 1 was the control group that was not treated with CCl4. The rats in the other groups were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil) on day 14. Rats in the groups bTPE40, bTPE80, and bTPE120 were gavaged with 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg of TPE, respectively for 14 constitutive days on a daily basis, before CCl4 administration. Rats in groups aTPE80 and aTPE120 were gavaged with 80 and 120 mg/kg of TPE, respectively, 2, 6, 24 and 48 hr after receiving CCl4. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 16th day through an intracardiac puncture and then serums were separated.
    Results
    CCl4 increased urea, creatinine, uric acid and creatinine: albumin (C/A) ratio level in serum and decreased total antioxidant and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) when compared to the control group (p
    Conclusion
    TPE had potent nephroprotective effects against oxygen free radicals produced through CCl4 metabolism.
    Keywords: Tanacetum parthenium, Carbon tetrachloride, Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress, Kidney
  • Wachiryah Thong-Asa*, Hathaipat Laisangunngam Pages 380-388
    Objective
    The present study investigates the effect of Tiliacora triandra leaf extract on spatial learning, memory, and learning flexibility as well as hippocampal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty male ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups including 10% Tween 80, T. triandra 300 mg/kg and T. triandra 600 mg/kg. All administrations were done orally for 18 consecutive days. Spatial learning, memory and learning flexibility were assessed using the Morris water maze. ChAT activity and hippocampal neuronal cell number were assessed by immunohistochemistry and histological methods, respectively.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that T. triandra leaf extract (300 and 600 mg/kg) significantly enhances spatial learning and learning flexibility. Only 300 mg/kg of T. triandra significantly improved the spatial memory. The hippocampal ChAT activity and total hippocampal cell number were significantly increased in T. triandra-treated groups.
    Conclusion
    The present study indicated that T. triandra leaf extract improves the spatial learning, memory and learning flexibility, exerts neuroprotective effects on hippocampal neurons and maintains ChAT activity in this brain area.
    Keywords: Choline acetyltransferase, Spatial learning, Learning flexibility, Hippocampus, Tiliacora triandra, Morris Water Maze