فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Behrouz Baghaiee *, Marefat Siahkouhian, Pouran Karimi, Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira, Saeed Dabagh Nikoo Kheslat, Khadije Ebrahimi Page 1
    Aging is an inevitable process, which is associated with the development of various diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy can occur in both pathological and physiological types. Both types can be divided into eccentric or concentric. If age is associated with inactivity, this can lead to pathological heart hypertrophy. However, exercise is able to control pathological hypertrophy, but it could lead to physiological hypertrophy. In this paper, we consider the effects of middle-age on heart and cardiac hypertrophy types and the effects of exercise.
    Keywords: Middle, Age, Exercise, Cardiac Hypertrophy, Pathologic, Physiologic
  • Behrouz Baghaiee, Marefat Siahkouhian *, Pouran Karimi, Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira, Saeed Dabagh Nikoo Kheslat Page 2
    Background
    Midlife is associated with the development of various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of midlife on cardiac hypertrophy in sedentary rats and its relationship with body weight and oxidative stress.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, 10 rats aged 11 - 14 months and 10 rats aged 4 months were used. After keeping the rats under normal housing condition for 10 days, they were slaughtered, and the dimensions of the heart, the extent of heart tissue fibrosis, and levels of H2O2 were measured. Student’s t-test and linear regression were used for the statistical analysis.
    Results
    The findings of this study showed that midlife with low physical activity increases heart weight (P = 0.001), body weight (P = 0.001), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels (P = 0.001) resulting in a significantly increased ventricular wall thickness (P = 0.001) and ventricular diameter (P = 0.001). The increase in body weight and H2O2 by middle age was significantly associated with an increased ventricular wall thickness (P = 0.001), ventricular diameter (P = 0.001), and heart weight (P = 0.001). Also, there was a significant positive relationship between body weight gain and H2O2 level (P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    Midlife with low physical activity is associated with pathological concentric cardiac hypertrophy in rats, and subsequently, with weight gain, increased H2O2, increased heart weight and left ventricular wall thickness, and to some extent, left ventricular internal diameter.
    Keywords: Cardiac Hypertrophy, Oxidative Stress, Weight Gain
  • Saeed Ahmadi Barati *, Akram Ahmadi Barati, Parastoo Ossanloo, Leila Farhady, Faranak Helbi Page 3
    Background
    Orientation means the personal ability to use the senses to determine one’s location and what relationship he/she has with environmental objects and persons. This ability is important for a blind person, so the purpose of this study was to review the developmental status of spatial orientation of students with visual impairments compared with normal ones.
    Methods
    Subjects of this descriptive-comparative study were 8 - 12 year old students selected from public schools of Kermanshah. They included 65 students in a cluster-random way as the healthy group. Thirty children with a visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.4 diopter as the low vision group and 16 ones with maximum visual acuity of 0.04 diopter as the blind group were included from rehabilitative centers. Their spatial orientation capability was measured by throwing a ball towards a target and counting the dribbling of a basketball for 15 seconds. Analysis of data was performed by SPSS software in descriptive and perceptional statistics (one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests).
    Results
    Statistical results showed that there was no significant difference among the 3 groups in throwing the ball towards the target but there was a difference in the other test.
    Conclusions
    There was no significant difference in the test of throwing a ball towards the target indicating corrective and compensatory mechanisms, but in dribbling the ball test there were significant differences among the three groups, and the healthy children compared with the visually impaired ones were in a better condition to show the importance of visual receptors for obtaining information from the surroundings.
    Keywords: Spatial Orientation Capability, Low Vision, Blindness, Students
  • Ali Zabet, Farshad Ghazalian *, Hojjatolah Nik-Bakht Page 4
    Background
    8-isoprostane(8-IsoP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are novel and classic index of lipid per oxidation, respectively, and reduced glutathione (GSH) is an index of antioxidant status, which the chronic adaptation of moderate and progressive resistance training on them is unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effect of 9 weeks moderate and progressive resistance training on serum 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in young men (from 17- to 21 year-olds).
    Methods
    In the semi-experimental study, 36 volunteers were randomly divided in to 3 groups of 12 men involving: moderate and progressive resistance training and control groups. The training protocol involved three periods of three weeks each with progressive intensity. The moderate training group performed the first period of protocol in throughout of study (just 5 percent increase in training intensity as overload), while the training load of progressive training group was incrementally increased in every period. Blood sampling were taken in two phases involving pre test and following ninth week from anterior brachial vein. The variables were measured via sandwich ELISA.
    Results
    The results of ANCOVA and Bonferroni tests showed that 9 weeks of moderate and progressive resistance training led to significance decrease in lipid oxidation indices (8-IsoP and MDA);the range of the decline especially in serum 8-IsoP was more in progressive group. Significant change in serum GSH levels was not observed in the training groups.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study show that periodic increase in resistance training load leads to improves in oxidative stress adaptability. Moreover, 8-IsoP is more accurate index for predicting oxidative stress compared to MDA.
    Keywords: Resistance Training, Oxidative Stress, Glutathione, 8, Isoprostane, Malondialdehyde
  • Mehdi Hakimi, Marefat Siahkouhian *, Lotfali Bolboli, Dariush Sheikholeslami Vatani Page 5
    Background And Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of 8 weeks of resistance and endurance training with vitamin D3 supplementation on blood pressure, resting heart rate, and body composition in obese hypertensive middle-aged men.
    Methods
    Sixty-three obese hypertensive men (age = 39.85 ± 2.8 years; BMI = 31.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly divided into six groups: resistance training with vitamin D3 (R D, n = 11), resistance training with placebo (R P, n = 12), endurance training with vitamin D3 (E D, n = 9), endurance training with placebo (E P, n = 11), vitamin D3 alone (D, n = 10), and control with no intervention (C, n = 10). The training protocol consisted of endurance and resistance training three times a week for 8 weeks. The supplementation groups consumed 3000 IU of vitamin D3 daily, and the placebo groups ingested the same amount of maltodextrin.
    Results
    The training groups showed a significant decrease in the post-test fat mass, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the pre-test values. Also, the fat-free mass significantly increased only in the R D and R P groups. No significant changes were observed in the C and D groups. Moreover, there were significant differences between the groups in the post-test fat mass and systolic blood pressure in favor of the E D group.
    Conclusions
    Although endurance and resistance training with vitamin D3 supplementation improved the body composition, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the reduction in the systolic blood pressure and body fat mass was significantly higher in the E D group.
    Keywords: Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Resistance Training, Endurance Training, Vitamin D
  • Mahvash Maazinezhad, Mokhtar Arefi *, Farhad Farnoodi Page 6
    Background
    Given the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults, particularly in young people, which is associated with impaired individual, social, and emotional performance as well as neuropsychiatric problems, it is essential to address the psychological issues in these patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy in reducing perceived stress in patients with MS.
    Methods
    The study used a semi-experimental research design with pre- and post-test evaluations. The study population included all the patients from Kermanshah society of MS patients. Twenty-four participants were selected using a purposeful non-random sampling. The participants were divided into experimental and control groups consisting of 12 patients each. The variables were measured using the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale.
    Results
    The results showed that mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy approach significantly reducedperceived stress in patients with MS.
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that perceived stress in patients with MS can be reduced by learning and implementing mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Perceived Stress, Cognitive Therapy, Mindfulness
  • Behnoosh Atashzar, Karim Afsharinia * Page 7
    Background
    One of the most important topics in positive psychology that is highly regarded is hardiness. This study aimed to investigate the role of hardiness training in increasing happiness and academic achievement of students in Kermanshah city (high school of medical science) for the academic year 2016 - 2017.
    Methods
    This was an experimental study. The study population included all 17 to 20-year-old female students, about 120 in total, who were referred to the High School of Medical Science to prepare for the university entrance exam in the academic year 2016 in the city of Kermanshah. Thirty Minecraft students were randomly chosen and divided into the experimental and control group, each consisting of 15 participants. The experimental group received just under hardiness training programs, and the control group received no intervention. The data obtained from the Oxford happiness questionnaire scores and percentage scores earned for the monthly course tests held as per the school curriculum were used. SPSS statistical software for was used for data analysis. Analysis of covariance and test research hypotheses for repeated measures were used.
    Results
    The effect size of the hardiness training on increasing happiness of students was 51 percent, and the effect size of hardiness training on students’ academic achievement in Minecraft was 34 percent (P
    Conclusions
    The results showed that hardiness training increases the happiness and academic achievement of Minecraft students.
    Keywords: Happiness, Achievement, Students
  • Samira Fatahi, Sima Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi *, Robabe Memarian, Elahe Sadat Saeedifar Page 8
    Background
    Nurses form the largest group among the healthcare workers and are legally and ethically responsible for the quality of patient care. Given that the performance of standards is one of the important aspects of care of the patients, particularly those undergoing surgery, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of nurses in the care of patients in surgical wards in the hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    This was a cross - sectional study conducted among all the nurses in the abdominal surgery wards, and the sample size was 30 nurses. The data collection instrument was a researcher - made questionnaire about the standard care of patients after abdominal surgery, and its validity (using expert panel) and reliability (using test - retest) were confirmed. The SPSS software was used for the analysis of the data.
    Results
    The results showed that the lowest standard performance was in the surgical wards for relieving pain by administering the drug using an infusion pump (0%), and the highest standard performance was for dressing based on principles of asepsis (67%).
    Conclusions
    The reasons for the non - performance of standards can be the factors such as the lack of equipment, the low number of nurses, high workload, and lack of motivation. Therefore, it is recommended that studies be conducted on the causes of and obstacles to the performance of these standards.
    Keywords: Care, Nurses, Performance, Surgery