فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Abedin Saghafipour *, Jalil Nejati, Alireza Zahraei-Ramazani, Hassan Vatandoost, Ehssan Mozaffari, Fatemeh Rezaei Pages 65-70
    Background & Aims of the Study: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the re-emerging diseases in many areas of the Eastern Mediterranean region such as Iran. This study was conducted in order to detect the epidemiological aspects and therapeutic outcomes of CL patients in Kahakcounty, Qom province of Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    In this cross sectional study, clinical diagnosis of the disease was performed, using microscopic observation of the leishmania genus parasite in the ulcer site during 2016. Patient's data of therapeutic outcomes was recorded in epidemiological form of CL. Statistical analysis was done, using SPSS Ver. 16. Chi square and Fisher’s exact test were utilized for the assessment of the hypothesis.
    Results
    From 45 patients, 24 cases (53.3%) were men and 21 (46.7%) were women. Mean age of patients was 29.5 ±19.44. More than 28 % of samples were under 15 years old. The most common locations of ulcer in patient’s bodies were hands and feet (78.7%). 20.6% of samples had 3 ulcers and more. The highest prevalence of CL was happened in autumn. All of treated patients fully recovered without delays in treatment, complication or treatment failure.
    Conclusions
    CL disease has an endemic cycle in villages of Kahak County of Qom province and recently, prevalence of disease has been developing in this region, therefore, we proposed provincial health center staffs must design and implement suitable prevention programs based on health ministry guidelines in order to control of disease. Also, it seems Glucantime is the best and available drug for treating of this disease.
    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Epidemiology, Treatment, Qom, Iran
  • Reza Moradi *, Kazem Mahanpoor Pages 71-80
    Background & Aims of the Study: Azo Dyes are the most hazardous materials in different industries. Dyes and pigments used in industries for applications such as textiles, leathers, papers, foodstuffs, additives, etc. Application amounts of azo dyes in industries which can cause severe health problems in human and environmental pollutant problems. So, color wastewaters decomposition plan are necessary. The purpose of this study, is the application statistical experimental design: photocatalytic decomposition of azo dye Acid Red 14 (AR14) from aqueous solutions using multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) particles which was used UV/H2O2 process in photoreactor.
    Materials and Methods
    MWCNTs particles as a catalyst used for the degradation of dye in aqueous solution. MWCNTs particles have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Design of experimental (DOE) based design matrix was exerted for measure the effect of these three factors such as: A) pH, B) catalyst amount and C) H2O2 concentration at two levels. The full factorial experimental design (23) was utilized in this process. The significant effects of each factor and interactions determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. The decomposition kinetic of dye was studied.
    Results
    The maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency of dye obtained in this study was found 90.65%, corresponding to the optimal conditions of 3, 30 mg L-1 and 20 ppm respectively, for the pH, catalyst amount and H2O2 concentration. The most effective parameter in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency was H2O2 concentration. The interaction between pH×H2O2 concentration was the most effective interaction. A pseudo first order reaction with a rate constant (k=0.0696 min−1) was observed for the photocatalytic degradation of dye.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that photodegradation process can be suitable alternative to degradation dyes in aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: Dye, Kinetic, Experimental design, Photoreactor, Carbon nanotubes, Iran
  • Amir Azizi *, Javad Saien Pages 81-90
    Background & Aims of the Study: Chromium is widely detected in surface waters and underground waters, which usually appear as Cr(VI), and Cr(III), at sites associated with industrial activities. Cr(VI), in effluent streams with a high level of mobility and notorious mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicity; thus Cr(III) does not have much mobility in soil. So, converting it into less harmful species could be beneficial.
    Materials and Methods
    Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction in aqueous media was analyzed using desperately low dosages of nanoparticles of commercial titania. A directly imposed irradiation photoreactor equipped with a supersonic source was applied. The optimization of the reduction process was done using the central composite design (CCD) experimental. The residual concentration of Cr(VI) ion was determined by colorimetrically method. In addition, the impact of other factors, including water matrix and hole scavengers, also reduction kinetics were studied.
    Results
    A quadratic equation for reduction efficiency was proposed, and the adequacy of it was evaluated by a variety of statistical methods. A maximum of 80.6% reduction in aqueous samples containing an initial concentration of Cr(VI) within the investigated optimum operating condition (TiO2 dose of 33 mg/L; pH of 2.5, T=35 and t=120 min) was obtained. Results indicate that UV irradiation alone is an acceptable method for Cr(VI) reduction maybe due to H2O2 photolytic generation. The results show Cr(VI) photoreduction was greatly enhanced by about 88.2% when NO3− was used in comparison with SO42− anion. The photoreduction enhancements with the scavengers are appeared in the following order ethylene glycol > formic acid > citric acid with relevant. Maximum reduction of 96.5% for Cr(VI) was obtained in the presence of ethylene glycol hole scavenger. The results indicated that the process rate can be presented with a pseudo-first-order kinetic model.
    Conclusion
    The results showed, the CCD design was approximately adequate in Cr(VI) reduction, so it can be a suitable option for water quality improvement. The addition of inorganic or organic species can act as scavenging hydroxyl radicals- which are photo-generated- and valanceband holes that are on the photocatalysts of the semiconductor, and consistently, enhance the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) ion.
    Keywords: Photocatalytic reduction, Hexavalent chromium, Hole scavenger, Kinetic, Energy consumption, Iran
  • Simin Naseri, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudian *, Ahmad Reza Yari, Sadeg Molaghen, Zahra Mahmoodian Pages 91-98
    Background & Aims of the Study: The quality of the edible oils is made with chemical compositions and percentage of the degree of unsaturation fatty acids. The peroxide value (PV) always measures the extent of primary oxidation (rancidification) of oils. Oils Rancidity can produce potentially toxic compounds associated with health effects such as heart and neurological disorders. In order to investigate initial oxidative rancidity of the oils, PV will be measured. The aim of this paper is determination of PV and the acid number taking place in oils during frying process and its relationship with demographic characteristics and environmental conditions.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, the statistical populations are sandwich and fast food shops of Qom city, Iran. Samples were conducted, using cluster sampling. For data collection, a questionnaire and chemical tests were used. Samples were transferred in the laboratory under cool conditions for PV and acid number (AN) examination. A hundred fifty different sample of oil were collected. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS. The ANOVA, T-test and Pearson coefficient were used for data analysis.
    Results
    From the points of view of PV, 80% of oils were consumable and 20% were not. The lowest and the highest number of PV were 0.6 to 16.5, respectively. The minimum and the maximum number of AN were 0.028 to 0.2, respectively. With the assumption of equal variances (p>0.05), a significant relationship between the increase after the age of the chefs and the lack of obtaining a health card was shown. The small correlation between the temperature of the oils and PV, r(150)=-0.21, p=0.009 is shown. There wasn’t seen any relation between the type of oils with PV and AN.
    Discussion
    Antioxidants, oil saturation and the reduction of temperature can reduce the production of peroxide; thus, PV was reduced. Due to the results, temperature increasing lead to increases the peroxide content. In this case, 3.3% of the edible oil samples were in rancidity conditions.
    Conclusion
    This study has indicated that PV in almost sample was lower than the standard amount. However, removing the oil absorbed into the food leads to reducing the peroxide content and other hazardous compounds by fast-food consumers. This survey indicated that some cookers are not completely aware of government regulation and control procedures for PV and AN of frying oils.
    Keywords: Frying oils, Acid number, Peroxide number, Variance analysis, Sandwich, Fast, food, Qom, Iran
  • Mohsen Sadeghi Yarandi, Alireza Koohpaei, Shahram Arsang, Ali Ebrahimi * Pages 99-106
    Background & Aims of the Study: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) are considered as major occupational health problem in the developed and developing countries. The study was carried to the Ergonomic evaluation of working postures and analysis of the relation between physical activities with WRMSDs among men barbers in Karaj, Iran in 2016.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 80 participants were studied. Body postures were analyzed, using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) method. In order to assess the prevalence of disorders and physical activities, standard Nordic questionnaire and Baecke physical activity questionnaire were used, respectively. Data were analyzed, using Shapiro-Wilk, Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square statistical tests with SPSS-20.
    Results
    The average and standard deviation of barbers age were 36.71±6.1. The highest of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among barbers were related to shoulder and waist (95%). Considering to the findings, 71.3% of the participants were at moderate risk level. There was also a significant relation between physical activity and the knee, wrist, waist, elbow and buttocks/thigh (P-value
    Conclusion
    The results showed most prevalence of disorders is related to the upper limbs. Also, barbers with higher levels of physical activity have lower levels of WRMSDs. Based on these facts, corrective actions such as chair and equipment re-design, work rest cycle, training and suitable physical practices is necessary.
    Keywords: REBA, Barbers, WRMSDs, Physical activity, Posture, Iran
  • Parviz Mohammadi, Mohsen Pouursadeghiyan, Ayob Yarmohammadi, Afshin Darsanj, Soudabeh Eskankari, Bahman Khodadadian, Azam Jahangirimehr, Younes Sohrabi * Pages 107-112
    Background & Aims of the Study: One of the concerns of the human is pollution of food products such as rice to heavy metals. It is a fact that rice is one of the most consumed items in the diet of Iranian people, this study was conducted to evaluate the levels of lead and cadmium of Iranian and imported rice in Kermanshah in 2016.
    Materials and Methods
    This descriptive- analytical and cross sectional study is conducted in Kermanshah in 2016. In this study, 30 Iranian and imported rice samples were selected and sampled. The concentrations of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) samples collected using ICP-OES machine were read and compared with the standard values of Food and Drug Administration and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standard. In this study one-sample t-test and SPSS software (version 16) was applied to analyzed the data. The significance level in all tests was considered (α=0.05).
    Results
    The results showed that the average cadmium in the imported rice and Iranian rice were 1.318 ±0.158 ppm and 1.191 ±0.834, respectively, which is compared with the standard of Food and Drug Administration and the standard level of FAO were higher. Also, the average lead in the imported rice was 8.889 ppm with a standard deviation of 12.179 and 8.659 ppm with a standard deviation of 8.143 in Iranian rice compared with the standard of Food and Drug Administration and the standard level of FAO were higher and the difference was statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    The comparison of lead and cadmium heavy metals concentrations with the standard level suggested that concentration of these metals in Iranian and imported rice was recommended in 100% of samples above the standard level. Considering the cumulative effects of heavy metals and its adverse effects on human societies, as well as the threat of food security needs to be paid special attention and periodic studies should be undertaken to provide more comprehensive information.
    Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Rice, Heavy Metals, Food, Kermanshah, Iran
  • Ali Almasi, Farhad Amirian, Mitra Mohammadi, Ahmad Reza Yari, Abdollah Dargahi *, Ghobad Ahmadidoust Pages 113-118
    Background & Aims of the Study: Methylene blue (MB) is a risk for human and environment. Adsorption process is one of the removal mechanisms of MB. The purpose of this research was the evaluation of low cost adsorbent of walnut bark granule for MB dye removal from aqueous environments.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental research, the effect of various operating parameters such as dose of dye (100-500 mg/L), contact time (10-50 min), adsorbent dosage (1-5 g/L) and pH (3-8) was investigated. Color concentration was measured by spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Model UV-120-02) at 663 nm wavelength and pH was analyzed through pH meter (Digimed model DM-20, Digicron AnaliticaLtda, Sao Paulo, Brazil).
    Results
    The findings of this research were showed that the walnut bark granule was able to remove up to 41% of MB dye (100 mg/L) from solutions at initial pH 7. Removal efficiency was increased by adsorbent dosage and contact time. MB concentration has a reverse effect on removal. Also, the equilibrium data were also fitted to the Freundlich equilibrium isotherm model (R2=0.95).
    Conclusions
    Present study showed that use of walnut bark granule, as an absorbent, could be utilized in methylene blue removal. Therefore, considering the production wastes of this compound, utilization the essence of this substance as inexpensive absorbent with inexpensive and available raw material is clear.
    Keywords: Adsorbent, Walnut Bark Granule, Methylene Blue, Aqueous Solutions, Iran
  • Neda Ravankhah, Rouhollah Mirzaei *, Saeed Masoum Pages 118-125
    Background & Aims of the Study: Regarding to development of industry, soil contamination has become a serious problem in many countries, such as Iran. The aim of the present work was the illustration of the accumulation of potentially harmful trace elements and the potential risk which is posed to human health in surface soils of three industrial estates of Aran-o-Bidgol city, Isfahan province of Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    Altogether, 24 composite soil samples were collected at depths 0-20 cm from industrial estates of Helal, Sobahi and Ansar located in Aran-o-Bidgol in September and October 2014. Element contents (Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu) were extracted by 3 acids digestion (HF-HNO3-HClO4). Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in soil extracts were analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, whereas Cd was measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The accumulation and non-cancer risk of trace elements were investigated of these industrial states soils.
    Results
    The mean contents of Cd (0.81 mg/kg), Pb (13.41 mg/kg), Ni (30.14 mg/kg), Zn (53.85 mg/kg) and Cu (14.15 mg/kg) were higher than the uncontaminated background values. The average values of Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu at Ansar industrial site were higher than other industrial sites. Igeo for Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu were found in the range of 2-2.80, -2.26 - 3.33, 0.5-2.54, 0.47-2.49 and 0.44-4.01, respectively. The highest non-cancer risk was belonged to Pb (0.3 and 0.01) while the lowest was Zn (0.008 and 0.0002) for child and adult, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Pollution index indicated that industrial estate soils were ‘moderately contaminated’’ or ‘‘moderately to heavily contaminated’’ by Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cu. The non-cancer risk levels of sampling sites were lower than the regulatory limits. Also, it can be concluded that, non-cancer risks for adults were lower than children.
    Keywords: Health risk assessment, Non, cancer risk, Industrial estates, Trace elements, Geo, accumulation index, Iran
  • Behnaz Rahelinamin *, Behrooz Mohseni Pages 126-133
    Background & Aims of the Study: Groundwater resources are a crucial component of the ecosystem. Management and cleanup of contamination from groundwater resources requires a long term strategy and a huge amount of investments. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and Geographic Information System (GIS) can be useful in determining management strategies. To protect these valuable resources, groundwater hydrochemistry (Fe-, Ca2 and PO4-3) spatial distribution is evaluated; also, the important parameters that affect their rate and spatial distribution are identified.
    Materials And Methods
    This study employed GIS technique and Modeling technique based on artificial neural network for identification and investigation of important factor on groundwater hydrochemistry such as Fe-, Ca2 and PO4-3. The case study is Ghareh-su basin of Golestan province of Iran. The maps of land use, soil, geology, population density, digital elevation model, distance from built-up areas, roads and rivers, cultivated land density and water table are the parameters that used for running ANN model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to identify the effective parameters of ground water hydrochemistry
    Results
    The results show that the concentration of the parameters around Gorgan and Kordkuy cities, and areas where the cultivated land is denser, is high.
    Results indicated that the highest concentrations of these parameters were located around Gorgan and Kordkuy cities and where the cultivated lands have a high density. The present contribution confirms that a significant relation between the concentration of pollutants in groundwater resources and different land uses/land covers is found. Soil type, geological structure and high groundwater level in the north of Ghareh-su basin have a great impact on groundwater quality.
    Conclusion
    These techniques have successfully implemented in groundwater hydrochemistry mapping of Ghareh-su basin.
    Keywords: Ground water protection, GIS, Ghareh-su, land use, land cover, Artificial Neural Network, Iran
  • Sahar Geravandi, Ahmad Reza Yari, Morteza Jafari, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Mehdi Vosoughi, Maryam Dastoorpoor, Majid Farhadi, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi * Pages 134-138
    Background & Aims of the Study: According to statistics reported by the international organization, 500,000 people annually due to airborne particulate matter exposure of the air are dying prematurely. Studies show the dust storm is responsible for the 7.1 % increase of fatality. Control of particulate matter is one of the most important methods of direct and indirect effects of particles reduction. The aim of the study was the analysis of the relationship between exposure to particulate matter of plants, environment and human, which is a kind of crisis.
    Methods
    This research is conducted the overview of studies, examining the relationship of dust phenomenon impacts with emphasis on dust problems and present solutions in Khuzestan, Iran.
    Conclusion
    The evidence was considered inconclusive the environmental impact such as reducing vision loss caused by visible light availability, efficacy on the level of solar radiation and waste material. Short-term effects of dust, including more sensitive eyes, nose and throat, respiratory tract infections, headache, nausea and allergic reactions, this phenomenon can be long-term chronic respiratory and cardiovascular disease, lung cancer incidence and mortality.
    Proposed solution: Measures taken to decrease the impact of dust particles: avoid the outdoor activities, created ventilation system, increasing fluid intake to excretion of heavy metals associated with suspended particles such as mercury and lead, using a mask creation and design of clean room and sprayed mulch .
    Keywords: Dust Phenomenon, Particulate Matter, Crisis, Khuzestan, Iran