فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های راهبردی مسائل اجتماعی ایران - سال هفتم شماره 1 (پیاپی 20، بهار 1397)
  • سال هفتم شماره 1 (پیاپی 20، بهار 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • وحید قاسمی*، احسان فرداصفهانی، صبا منوچهری فر صفحات 1-18
    این پژوهش، با هدف بررسی و مطالعه نظریه های به کاررفته در حوزه انحرافات اجتماعی در یک برنامه مستند تلویزیونی با موضوع مسائل اجتماعی انجام شده است. اینکه از چه نظریاتی با چه فراوانی استفاده شده است و چه کسانی به آنها اشاره کرده اند، از مهم ترین پرسش هایی بوده که در مقاله به آن پاسخ داده شده است. همچنین، در این مطالعه طیف وسیعی از آراء انحرافات اجتماعی - مجموعا 12 نظریه - در 2 پارادایم اثبات گرا (نظریه های فشار، یادگیری و کنترل اجتماعی) و برساخت گرا (مارکسیستی و انگ زنی) به کار گرفته شده اند. مقاله حاضر، با روش تحلیل محتوای کمی و با کمک چک لیست ساخته شده به دست پژوهشگر انجام شده و جامعه آماری آن، 25 قسمت، با 14 موضوع را ازجمله اعتیاد، زورگیری، سرقت مسلحانه، جرائم اینترنتی و... در بر می گیرد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد نظریه های فشار از مرتن، پیوند افتراقی از سادرلند و پیوند اجتماعی از هیرشی، به ترتیب پرکاربردترین ها و نظریه های قانون در عمل از ویلیام چمبلیس و واقعیت اجتماعی از ریچارد کویینی کم کاربردترین ها بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: کج روی، نظریه های انحرافات اجتماعی، برساختگرایی، اثبات گرایی، برنامه شوک
  • امید قادرزاده*، حسین محمدزاده صفحات 19-42
    در دنیای معاصر، مسائل قومی از بغرنج ترین و همچنین، تاثیرگذارترین مسائل اجتماعی و سیاسی محسوب می شوند. در چند دهه اخیر شناسه های هویتی در مناطق کردنشین برجسته شده و رنگ سیاسی به خود گرفته است. جغرافیای سیاسی منطقه نیز این مسئله را پیچیده و به تبع آن، مدیریت مسالمت آمیز منازعات اجتماعی را دشوار کرده است. با در نظر گرفتن نوع زندگی چندقومی جامعه ایران و تحولات جهانی بررسی تعلقات و ترجیحات هویتی به طور فزاینده ای اهمیت پیدا کرده است. این پژوهش به روش پیمایش انجام شده و در آن با 1103 نفر از کردهای ساکن مناطق کردنشین مصاحبه شده است. مطابق نتایج توصیفی در میان افراد نمونه، هویت طلبی قومی در ابعاد سیاسی، فرهنگی و اقتصادی اجتماعی شدت یافته است. همچنین، بر مبنای نتایج تبیینی در این مناطق، متغیرهایی مانند میزان توسعه مناطق کردنشین، همبستگی قومی، میزان الگوپذیری از نخبگان قومی، میزان ارتباطات درون قومی و بین قومی، میزان استفاده از رسانه های ارتباطی، میزان احساس محرومیت و تبعیض و نیز هم جواری جغرافیایی با عامل هویت طلبی قومی به طور مثبت و معناداری رابطه دارند و درمجموع، این موضوع 67درصد از تغییرات هویت طلبی قومی را تبیین کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: هویت طلبی قومی، احساس تبعیض، میزان توسعه، مناطق کردنشین
  • مهناز فرهمند*، کبری نجفی صفحات 43-64
    نزاع قومی یکی از مهم ترین مسائل اجتماعی شهر خرم آباد محسوب می شود؛ به همین دلیل هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر بررسی عوامل موثر بر منازعات بین قومی لک و لر در مردان این شهر است. روش کار از نوع پیمایش است و جامعه آماری مردان 55-20ساله شهر خرم آباد هستند که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 383 نفر به صورت نمونه برای هردو قومیت لک و لر مشخص شده است. در تدوین چارچوب نظری از آراء جامعه شناختی گر، هکتر، آگنیو و پیتر بلا استفاده شده است و حجم نمونه با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای متناسب با حجم pps انتخاب شده اند. همچنین، میزان پایایی متغیرهای تحقیق با بیش از 7/0 ازطریق آلفای کرونباخ سنجیده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد بین نزاع قومی به صورت متغیر وابسته و سن، قومیت، فرهنگ شهروندی، قانون گریزی، احساس محرومیت نسبی، اختلافات خانوادگی و انسجام اجتماعی رابطه معنادار وجود دارد؛ درحالی که بین ویژگی های فردی وضعیت تاهل، وضعیت اشتغال، تحصیلات، میزان درآمد و نزاع قومی رابطه ای معنادار مشاهده نشده است. همچنین، براساس نتایج آزمون تی مستقل، میزان نزاع قوم لک بیشتر از قوم لر است. مطابق نتایج تحلیل چندمتغیره نیز متغیرهای قانون گریزی، احساس محرومیت نسبی، فرهنگ شهروندی، اختلافات خانوادگی و قومیت 398/0درصد از تغییرات متغیر نزاع بین قومی را تبیین می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: نزاع قومی، فرهنگ شهروندی، محرومیت نسبی، اختلافات خانوادگی، قوم لک و لر
  • حسین افراسیابی*، ضیاءالله امیرمحمدی صفحات 65-80
    مصرف قلیان، به دلایل متفاوتی در سال های اخیر شیوع زیادی داشته است و پسران جوان، یکی از عمده ترین مصرف کنندگان آن به شمار می آیند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی دلایل و زمینه های اجتماعی مصرف قلیان در بین جوانان شهر جیرفت است. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش نظریه زمینه ای اجرا شده است. برای این کار، با 47 نفر از جوانان شهر جیرفت که با روش نمونه گیری نظری و هدفمند انتخاب شده اند، مصاحبه های عمیق انجام شده و با شروع انجام مصاحبه ها در خلال آن، گزاره های معنادار و سپس، مفاهیم مربوط به آن مشخص شده است و بعد از آن، مفاهیم در مقوله ها دسته بندی شده اند. بعد از انجام کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی، 8 مقوله اصلی به دست آمده است که این مقوله های اصلی عبارت اند از: قهوه خانه در دسترس، مصرف جایگزین، تکمیل کننده، فشار دوستان، رهایی از نظارت خانواده، محیط نابسامان، مصرف در خانواده، کنجکاوی و هیجان. براساس مقولات به دست آمده، نابهنجاری چند دامنه به صورت مقوله اصلی از داده ها استخراج شده است و طبق مقوله های حاصل شده از اطلاعات، می توان گفت مصرف قلیان درزمینه اجتماعی و تعاملات متناسب با مصرف، شکل گرفته است و سپس رشد می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: قلیان، دخانیات، تنباکو، جوانان، روش کیفی
  • ناصر بهروزی *، فروغ محمدی، مرتضی امیدیان صفحات 81-96
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه سلامت روان، حمایت اجتماعی، باورهای فراشناختی و سرزندگی در نوجوانان پسر عادی و بزهکار مقیم کانون اصلاح و تربیت شهر اهواز و جامعه آماری آن، تمام نوجوانان بزهکار مستقر در کانون اصلاح و تربیت اهواز و تمام نوجوانان دبیرستانی شهر اهواز بوده است. از میان نوجوانان مقیم کانون اصلاح و تربیت، 47 نفر به صورت در دسترس انتخاب شده اند. برای نمونه گیری گروه مقایسه عادی به صورت خوشه ایمرحله ای به 75 نفر از نوجوانان پسر عادی در شهر اهواز در دبیرستان های مرحله نخست و دوم و در مناطق محروم شهری مراجعه شده است و از این میان، باتوجه به میزان تحصیلات پدر، درآمد خانواده و تعداد افراد خانواده، 47 نفر ازطریق همسان سازی با نوجوانان بزهکار انتخاب شده اند. ابزارهای این پژوهش، پرسش نامه سلامت عمومی (GHQ) پرسش نامه حمایت اجتماعی (MOS) پرسش نامه باورهای فراشناختی (MCQ-30) و پرسش نامه سرزندگی رایان و فردریک بوده اند. تحلیل ها نیز به روش واریانس چندمتغیره (MANOVA) با نمرات تفاضل اجرا شده اند. طبق نتایج حاصل شده، میان نوجوانان عادی و بزهکار در سه متغیر سلامت روان، حمایت اجتماعی و سرزندگی تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت؛ اما در باورهای فراشناختی (خرده مقیاس نیاز به کنترل افکار) تفاوت معنادار و نمره نوجوانان بزهکار بیشتر بود که این موضوع، نشان دهنده اختلال بیشتر در آنان است و باتوجه به احساس ندامت و ترس از حبس، بروز این نگرانی طبیعی به نظر می رسد. درباره تفاوت نداشتن سایر متغیرها این احتمال وجود دارد که برخی از نوجوانان مقیم کانون اصلاح تربیت، به دلیل حادثه ای جرم را مرتکب شده باشند؛ اما سیر زندگی بزهکارانه ای نداشته باشند. گفتنی است که در برخی پژوهش های قبلی همتاسازی وضعیت اجتماعی اقتصادی انجام نشده بود.
    کلیدواژگان: سلامت روان، حمایت اجتماعی، باورهای فراشناختی، سرزندگی، بزهکار
  • رحیم حمیدی پور*، فاطمه رجبی صفحات 97-111
    هدف پژوهش حاضر پیش بینی احساس امنیت اجتماعی براساس معنویت، هویت اجتماعی و هوش فرهنگی است. روش پژوهش همبستگی است و جامعه آماری آن، کلیه دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اراک هستند که تعداد کل آنها 17000 نفر است. از این تعداد 380 نفر به صورت نمونه با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایانتخاب شده اند و برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسش نامه های احساس امنیت اجتماعی، هوش فرهنگی ارلی و آنگ، سنجش نگرش معنوی شهیدی و فرج نیا و هویت اجتماعی صفاری نیا و روشن استفاده شده است. مطابق نتایج حاصل شده، بین احساس امنیت اجتماعی با درجه معنوی، نگرش معنوی و توانایی معنوی رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. احساس امنیت اجتماعی با هوش فرهنگی، شناخت فرهنگی و انگیزش فرهنگی به طور معناداری رابطه دارد و با فراشناخت فرهنگی و رفتار فرهنگی رابطه ندارد. بین احساس امنیت اجتماعی و هویت اجتماعی نیز رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین، نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان می دهد که متغیر هویت اجتماعی در پیش بینی متغیر امنیت اجتماعی بیشترین اهمیت را دارد. هویت اجتماعی احساس تعلق و همبستگی به جامعه و مولفه ای مهم در پیش بینی احساس امنیت اجتماعی است. هر عامل و پدیده ای که در احساس تعلق و همبستگی اعضای هر گروه اختلال ایجاد کند، درواقع، هویت آن گروه را به مخاطره می اندازد و تهدیدی برای امنیت اجتماعی قلمداد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس امنیت اجتماعی، معنویت، هویت اجتماعی، هوش فرهنگی
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  • Vahid Ghasemi*, Ehsan Fard Esfahani, Saba Manoochehri Far Pages 1-18
    Introduction
    Social deviations are among the behaviors that undoubtedly exist in every single society, and only the types, severity and frequency of that deviations vary from society to society. Society of Iran is no exception. The importance of repairing and reversing the inclinations to deviation is so urgent that if we do not understand the causes of the emergency situation today, the social system will be ready to collapse. Theories of social deviations can generally be found at a large-scale, proof-based, constructivist approach. The proof-based theory in the field of social deviation theory was originally proposed with theories that have more biological roots than sociological ones; the theories used in this study are under the same two paradigms. And includes the following: social pressure theories: The main question in the theory of social pressure is that why people are co-digging? The general response of this theory to the question is that factors in the society push some people and force them to coexist. Robert Merton said this pressure is due to the inability of a person to achieve socially acceptable goals. Likewise, Albert Cohen thinks failing to reach a high position in society is the reason for pressure; The community, while encouraging individuals to obtain status, does not provide access to them. According to Cohen, these people set up a "subculture" of delinquency to offset their failure to compete for dignity. Social learning theories: Cloward and Ohlin refer to the importance of legitimate and illegitimate opportunities in completing the theory of Sutherland. In their view, deviant people must have access to a suitable environment for the acquisition of values and learning the skills necessary to carry out their diversion role, so that after learning the role in this environment, they will continue their behavior with the support and encouragement of the group. The total number of social thinkers suggest that coexistence and coincidence are learned through similar processes, and coexistence is the result of learning deviant values and norms, especially within the framework of subcultures and peer groups, so the main thing in such theories is that individuals learn coexistence during their interaction and through certain processes. Social control theories: controlling theory has been one of the influential theories of the sociology of deviations in explaining and analyzing social coexistence. These theories are not the main cause of coexistence as social control. Therefore, it is assumed in social control theories that all naturally have a motive for committing coexistence and there is no need to explain these motives, but what needs explanation and explanation is to be consistent with social norms. Constructivism and coexistence: The constructivist approach to coexistence is based on three important hypotheses that have come to be known as "relativism", "subjectivism", and "empowerment" in the context of positivist arguments. Marxist views of prominent leaders such as William Chambliss, Maknoff, and Pierce emphasize the ineffectiveness of the law, the lack of reflection of the collective morale of members of society, and the monopolization of law and power among the ruling class of society. According to this view, power is in the hands of those who possess the forces of production and control.
    Material &
    Methods
    The method used most in the study of communicational means is content analysis. This method provides an opportunity for researchers to systematically study documents and systematize their observations on the content of communications media by counting certain items in the form of defined categories. In this study, a quantitative content analysis method was used that is descriptive of all kinds of research.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the existence or absence of sociological theories of deviations, which the results suggest is an abundance of different theories, although it is hard to find direct references to the sociology of deviations, since the presence of sociologists in this program is very weak. The other goals of this research are to find the most widely used and the most useful sociology of deviations in this program. The theory of pressure from Robert Merton with the most abundance of the most widely used theory and theories of law in practice of William Chambliss and the social reality of Richard Quinney without even mentioning the least amount of what they got. Why the theory of Merton is at the forefront can be due to the fact that today’s Iranian society is familiarizing itself with norms and new values through the transition from tradition to modernity, the development of cultural relations, and new norms that it has diminished previous values and norms, and of course, they still do not have enough power to stand up for the entire community. One of the most important of these values, which is the cause of many of the crimes set forth in this paper, is material values. With the expansion of capitalist and bourgeois outlook in developed countries and Iran as a developing country, money has been accepted as a desirable value among many people in society. This is despite the fact that there are no legitimate tools and legal means to achieve this goal for all the people of the society, especially in the current unfavorable economic conditions of Iran, which are faced with numerous challenges and crises.
    Keywords: Deviation, Theories of Social Deviation, Super Structuralism Positivism, Shock Documentary
  • Omid Ghaderzadeh*, Hossein Mohammadzadeh Pages 19-42
    Introduction
    Ethnicity and ethnocentrism, specifically in it,s instrumental and politicized form, constitute one of the most troublesome issues preoccupying social scientists. The Kurds constitute the fourth largest ethnic bloc in the Middle East after the Arabs, Persians and Turks (Olson, 2003: 6). The Kurdish ethnic movement in the four countries of Iran, Turkey, Iraq and Syria has always posed a problem for the central governments in these countries, so much so that, it could be described as an issue at the Middle East scale. Ethnicity-based nationalism among the Kurds emerged first among the Iranian Kurds (McDowell, 2004: 395). In recent years, the Kurdish movement has become more of a "social resistance" and has become a symptom of Kurdish culture and identity in most Kurdish regions of Iran, and is being revived as a basis for action in the public domain. Admitting the fact that the Kurds have historically been considered as defending Iran's land, people and culture, the question arises as to how the state of ethnocentrism, in the current political, cultural and economic context could be described. What are the factors influencing ethnic identity-seeking changes? What solutions could be worked out for the rational and practical management of ethnic identity-seeking? The most important assumption of the present research is that ethnic identity-seeking is a social-political construct, although the characteristic features of the community and the ethnic group have an old-fashioned nature.
    Materiel &
    Methods
    Given the diversity and extent of the topographical arrangement of the Kurdish regions, in this study, a cross-sectional survey method has been used for describing and explaining the two goals. The Kurds in Iran are mainly residing in the provinces of Kurdistan, West Azarbaijan, Kermanshah and Ilam. In this research, the choice of statistical society has been done in two stages. In the first step, attempts were made to determine the ethnic gravity points (research site). In the second stage, in terms of the level of development of the Kurdish regions, the statistical population of the research was selected from developed, underdeveloped and undeveloped urban areas among the ethnic gravity points in the Kurdish regions. Accordingly, the cities of Sanandaj, Ghorveh and Baneh (located in Kurdistan province), Paveh and Javanrood (located in Kermanshah province), Sardasht and Mahabad (located in West Azarbaijan province) were selected as the statistical population of the study. With regard to population size and Cochran formula, and coping with coverage defects and undecidedness, and the diversity of the population, the sample size was 1103 people. To access the samples, a multi-stage cluster probability sampling method was employed.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    According to the results of this research, ethnic identity indices have been prominent in the current research field, with the mean of ethnic identity in the Kurdish regions being higher than the average. Ethnic identity-seeking is more intense among the Sunni Kurds, and this indicates the activation and aggravation of the ethnic divide in Iranian society. The escalation of the ethnic identity among the Sunni Kurds and in the developed regions could be interpreted as confirming the cultural division of resources and amenities in the Iranian society, which has escalated the feeling of relative deprivation and the irritability threshold among the Kurds. The results showed that the highest mean of ethnic identity index was in non-developed regions. The results of regression analysis showed that the variables of ethnic solidarity, ethnic elite modeling, feelings of discrimination, inter-ethnic relations, consumption of domestic and ethnic media, and the level and type of religion, inter-ethnic relations, and education level explain 67.3% of the changes in ethnic identity-seeking. Given the multicultural nature of the Iranian society, it is going to prove essential for cultural diversity to be the basis of policy making. Among the policy-making issues in the multicultural society of Iran is the transition from cultural nationalism to civilian nationalism, or constitutional patriotism (in the sense of Habermas), and reliance on citizenship, to strengthen social integration and national unity
    Keywords: Ethnic Identity, seeking, Discrimination, Developmental Level, Kurdish Regions
  • Mahnaz Farahmand*, Kobra Najafi Pages 43-64
    Introduction
    Ethnic conflict is one of the most important social issues in the city of Khorramabad. This phenomenon in the tribal culture of this city is a power and defense index of socio-cultural status and family dignity, and is heavily influenced by traditional and tribal values. It seems that the variable of ethnic conflict is affected by certain conditions that are rooted in the social, cultural, economic and political structure of society.
    Material &
    Methods
    The purpose of the present research was to investigate factors affecting inter-ethnic conflicts between Lak and Lor ethnicities of Khorramabad city. The research method was survey. The statistical society consisted of 20-50-year-old men in Khorramabad city. The population of this society was about 173264 individuals, of whom, using Cochran formula, 383 subjects were selected for both ethnic groups. The theoretical framework of the study was based on the sociological theories of Gurr, Hechter, Agnew, and Peter Blau. The research sample was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling method proportional to pps volume. Researcher-made questionnaires that had content validity and were obtained with an emphasis on assessment of professors regarding the items were used to collect data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The reliability of the study variables with more than 7/0 was measured by Cronbach's alpha.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The citizenship culture, relative deprivation, family differences, and lawlessness were independent variables in present research. The inter-ethnic conflict variable was the dependent variable, measured in intellectual, emotional, spoken, behavioral dimensions. The results of the T-test showed that ethnic conflict of Laks was more than those of the Lors. The highest mean was observed in emotional dimension and the lowest mean in spoken dimension, so that Laks had more intellectual and spoken conflicts than Lors. The behavioral lawlessness was observed among respondents more than subjective lawlessness. The relative deprivation was with the highest average in the social and economic dimension and the least deprivation in the political and cultural dimension. The most family strifes were considered in ethnic affiliation and tribal bias. The highest mean of the variable of citizenship culture was observed in the dimension of civic behavior, altruism and the least mean in the dimensions of trust, universalism and participation. The research results also indicated that there was significant relationship among the ethnic conflict as the dependent variable and age, ethnicity, civic culture, citizenship culture, lawlessness, relative deprivation, and family strifes. However, significant relationship was not observed between individual characteristics of marital status, employment status, education, income and ethnic strife. The results of one-way ANOVA showed that the age groups of 20-28 and 29-37 had the highest average of ethic conflict. Multivariate analysis also showed that lawlessness, relative deprivation, ethnicity, culture citizenship and family strifes have been able to explain 39.8 percent of variance of inter-ethnic conflict that among them, family strifes variable had the greatest impact on ethnic conflicts. The adjusted coefficient of determination and the multiple correlation coefficient were obtained 0.39 and 0.63, respectively. The results of the path analysis showed that the family differences with 0.38 of the total impact had the most impact on ethnic conflict, while other variables included lawlessness with 0.21, the variable of citizenship culture with 0. 19, relative deprivation variable with -0.08 percent, and ethnicity with -0.05 percent, had impact on ethnic conflict
    Keywords: Ethnic conflict, Citizenship culture, Relative deprivation, Family strife, Lawlessness, Lak, Lor ethnicity
  • Hossein Afrasiabi, * Ziaa-Allah Amirmohammadi Pages 65-80
    Introduction
    Smoking Hookah is increasing among young people during last decades. This can be a risk factor for health and social life among individuals and families. Hookah is popular in the cultures of Africa, India, Afghanistan, Iran, the Middle East and Turkey; however, hookah culture is becoming increasingly popular in other parts of the world, and has become widespread among youths. The studies have shown that smoking hookah has turned into a social phenomenon that has become widely popular. In recent years, the prevalence of smoking hookah, has attracted the attention of different scholars. The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern and the context of smoking hookah by young people in Jiroft city (Kerman province, Iran) from their point of view and according to an interpretative approach. In this frame, we investigated the meaning and experiences of smoking hookah among young participants.
    Materials And Methods
    The study was conducted by qualitative approach. 47 young people of Jiroft city selected with purposeful sampling method and data collected by semi-structured interviews. In this way, the participants were encouraged to discuss the topic raised by introducing the topic of interview and, based on what the interviewee presents in the course of the interview, subsequent questions were formed. Interviews were conducted at the coffeehouses to allow the interviewee to discuss the natural process of smoking hookah in a natural setting. Participants were selected from different characteristics, in terms of age, education, occupation, and the age, in order to ensure that youth from diverse backgrounds are present in the interviews. The interviewees were assured that their statements will not create a legal issue for them. In order to obtain the consent of the participants, only those individuals were interviewed who had completed our consent form for the interview and were provided with information such as the subject of the research, the purpose and method of conducting the research, the guarantee of anonymity, privacy, and the method of reporting the research. The interview transcripts were analyzed by theoretical coding method at open, axial, and selective coding levels. After data coding, the 8 categories emerged.
    Discussion of results &
    Conclusion
    8 main categories emerged after data coding.Categories included access to coffee shops, alternative usage, complementary, friend’s pressure, run away from family control, disorganized environment, smoking hookah by family members, curiosity and emotional curiosity. Family and friend’s hookah smoking and access to coffee houses was the main causal conditions for smoking hookah from the participants’ point of view. It can be concluded that smoking hookah is affected by social context and interactions that are suitable for smoking. The youth, especially those who are far away from family and parent supervision and who have tendency towards the hookah while away from the family, considered friends as the main cause for their smoking hookah. The presence of individuals besides their families, especially parents, or having friends who smoked hookah was significantly associated with the youth’s tendency towards hookah. Moreover, the frequency of observing smoking hookah by relatives resulted in reduced embarrassment of smoking it personally. This might even make it a desirable issue. Water pipes are conducive to social interactions, especially in café settings. Hookah smokers are particularly likely to also use other substances, especially alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. It was expected that individuals who drink to enhance positive social outcomes, such as to enjoy a party, might also use hookah more frequently based on the social nature of hookah.
    Keywords: Smoking, Hookah, Water pipe, Shisha, Qualitative
  • Nasser Behroozi, * Forogh Mohammadi, Morteza Omidian Pages 81-96
    Juvenile delinquency is a global phenomenon, although its type and seriousness varies according to each society. Juveniles’ attempts to express themselves and find an independent identity as well as their insufficient experience and limited knowledge lead them to react differently. One of these reactions can be delinquency, resulted from family problems, social and economic disruption, and lack of social support. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference between juvenile boys kept in Correction and Rehabilitation Center in Ahvaz and normal juvenile boys with regard to mental health, social support, metacognitive beliefs, and vitality. Some research that can be related to the article: in the area of metacognitive beliefs and mental health in our country, Purehsan et al. (2016) investigated the tendency of Tehran students towards drug abuse and suggested that positive and negative metacognitive beliefs, especially about anxiety, result in increased tendency towards drug abuse. Cuyper et al. (2013) compared the personal networks of prisoners prior to incarceration with general population and proved that the prisoners had created and maintained intimate networks; there was no difference between the prisoners and general population. Akbarzadeh et al. (1393) compared normal and drug abuser university students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University in terms of metacognitive beliefs and psychological capital using MANOVA. The results revealed that the drug abuser students were characterized by low psychological capital and disturbed beliefs.
    Materials And Methods
    This is a casual-comparative research. The statistical population included 2 groups: male juvenile delinquents from Correction and Rehabilitation Centers of Ahvaz and normal male juveniles. The latter were selected through multistep clustering method and matching cultural, social, and economic status. The data, collected through calculating the average and standard deviation and applying MANOVA with matching social-economic state, was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. The questionnaires and scales were distributed among two groups to collect information. The general health questionnaire, made by Goldberg & Hillier (1979), included four subscales: somatic symptoms, anxiety, social function disorder, and depression. The social support questionnaire, made by Sherbourne & Stewart (1991), included five subscales: tangible support, emotional support, informational support, affectionate support, and positive social interaction support. Metacognitive beliefs questionnaire included five subscales: cognitive confidence, positive beliefs about anxiety, cognitive self-consciousness, negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger, and negative beliefs concerning the consequences of not controlling thoughts. Vitality questionnaire was provided by Ryan & Frederick (1997). Reliability and validity of the questionnaires were also examined by Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory factor analysis.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    According to the findings, there was no significant difference between normal male juveniles and male delinquent juveniles with regard to mental health, social support subscales and vitality. Concerning mental health, the results were opposed to those of other studies. However, for social support, the results are in accordance with some research such as Cuyper et al. (2013). Also, for vitality, our findings are consistent with a study by Young et al. (2015). In addition, the social support that juvenile delinquents might receive (the delinquency can be due to an ethnic conflict), the education that they received in Correction and Rehabilitation Center in Ahvaz, and the fact that they might not have juvenile delinquency records can be considered as the cause of these results. Overall, these results pointed to the fact that socio-economic class is an effective variable, and many teenagers from disadvantaged classes may be at risk of criminal behaviors. Also, these teenagers need training in order to improve mental health and relationships, learn how to deal with criminal acts at the level of family, neighborhood, and community, reform metacognitive beliefs and adjust internal energy. Thus, based on the results of this study, it is suggested that training informative programs are needed for teenagers and their parents. It is also suggested to perform some qualitative research on causes of crime among teenagers. One need to exercise caution to extend the results to a female sample and should consider the limitations of data collection.
  • Rahim Hamidipour*, Fateheh Rajabi Pages 97-111
    Introduction
    social security feeling as a psychological and social phenomenon is influenced by the direct and indirect experiences of people from different social conditions, including the need to achieve a healthy life and the continuity of social relationships (Bahripour and Rastegarkhaled, 2013) . Therefore, security is a psycho-social process that is not experienced by individuals abstractly, but most people in the community have an essential role to play in creating and establishing it based on their needs, desires, mental and personal abilities. Social security feeling is a kind of mentality and positive psychological orientation. Green (2000) focuses in his research on security, specifically on issues related to identity, and states that five identities including tribal, national, ethnic, and Islamic identities are sufficiently capable of acting as security agents. On the other hand, cultural intelligence is defined as the ability to learn new patterns in cultural interactions and to provide correct behavioral responses to these patterns. Differences in language, ethnicity, values, norms, and in a statement of different cultures can appear as potential sources of contradiction (Hosseininasab and Qaderi, 2011). If there is a lack of understanding of these cultural differences, the feeling of social insecurity may increase. (Movahed and Hemmat, 2013; Mokhtari and others, 2013). On the other hand, Vegan (2003) sees spirituality as the highest level of growth in areas such as cognition, ethics and excitement, and considers it as an attitude that includes peak experiences and growth spheres (White and Others 2011). Spirituality is in fact the science of life and teaches humans how to maintain the health of their soul and body, and how to ensure their natural growth with an active and useful social life (Azhdarifard, Ghazi, and Noranipour, 2010). Research results show that there is a meaningful relationship between social security and social identity (Niyazi et al., 2011), cultural intelligence (Movahed and Hemmat, 2013) and spirituality (Mokhtari et al., 2012). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to predict the sense of social security based on spirituality, social identity and cultural intelligence.
    Materials And Methods
    The present research is a correlational study. The statistical population consists of all students of Arak Azad University whose total number is 17,000 students. Of these, 380 people were selected using cluster sampling. To collect data, social security feeling questionnaire (2011), Early and Angle cultural intelligence (2004), Shahidi and Farajnia mental attitudes (2012) and social identity of Safari Nia and Roshan (2011) were used. For data analysis, multivariate regression was used. SPSS software was used to analyze the data.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusion
    Findings indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between the social security feeling and spiritual level, spiritual attitude and spiritual ability. Social security feeling has a significant relationship with cultural intelligence, cultural recognition and cultural motivation, and is not related to cultural metacognition and cultural behavior. Social security feeling and social identity also have a meaningful relationship. Also, the results of regression analysis showed that social identity variable is the most important variable in predicting social security.
    Social identity is a feeling of belonging and solidarity to a society, and any factor and phenomenon that causes disturbance in the sense of belonging and solidarity of the members of a group actually poses a threat to social security. According to the results of this research, it is possible to enhance the social security by promoting spirituality and cultural intelligence. In order to explain the absence of a relationship between spirituality and social security feeling, one can first and foremost refer to the present condition of mankind. There is a growing distance between the intellectual level of man and the spiritual principles which has caused confusion in human beings (Elahi,1380; quoted from Shahidi and Farajnia, 1391). According to Carrette and King (2005), spirituality presented to mankind in the contemporary world has a capitalist character and does not have a significant impact on lifestyle
    Keywords: Social Security, Spirituality, Social identity, Cultural Intelligence