فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Leila Asadi, Marjan Beigi*, Mahbube Valiani Page 1
    Background
    Maternal and neonatal health indicators have the important role in evaluating community development.
    Objectives
    In this study, we examined the effects of maternal and fetal complications leading to midwifery errors in referred cases to the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization and Medical Council of Forensic Medicine from 2006 - 2011 in Isfahan, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross - sectional study, we evaluated all midwifery cases that were referred to the Isfahan Legal Medicine organization and Medical Council of Forensic Medicine from 2006 - 2011 that had at least one warrant issued by the outcome of the Disciplinary Board. The data were collected by a checklist and analyzed by SPSS - 18. Research data were qualitative and quantitative (discrete and continuous variables).
    Results
    A total of 206 cases were reviewed. In 66 cases, 32% of them the malpractice verdict in midwifery services was approved. According to our findings, the most maternal and fetal errors led to the complaint include: fetal or neonatal death (29.4%), maternal mortality (18.1%), and neurological disorders (15.3%). In addition, the highest rates of maternal medical malpractice were maternal mortality (56.8%) and in infant complications, infant mortality with 28.8% frequency (P = 0.03).
    Conclusions
    It seems the maternal health program effort is impaired in our country. The maternal mortality is unacceptable, due to the fact that many of them are preventable. Taking strategies to prevent replication errors within the care of pregnant women is recommended.
    Keywords: Keywords: Fetal Complication, Complaint, Midwifery, Iran
  • Hubert Amu*, Kenneth Setorwu Adde Page 2
    Background
    Ghana was unable to meet the millennium development goal five target of 190 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015, as the country’s maternal mortality ratio is still high (358 deaths per 100,000 live births). A target of the newly-set sustainable development goal three also requires the country to reduce the maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030. We examined the country's emergency preparedness in pursuit of this target.
    Methods
    The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey, which collected data from 537 physicians and nurses/midwives at three regional level health facilities in Ghana using a 26-item questionnaire. Frequency, percentage, and chi-square statistics were used in presenting the results and describing associations. All analyses were done using SPSS (version 22).
    Results
    We realized that about 6-10 maternal emergency cases were recorded at the selected facilities every week. Essential logistics such as oxygen, blood, and ambulance services required for managing such cases were either never available, or sometimes not available. Even though training courses/workshops were regularly organized to improve the emergency preparedness of health professionals, most of them did not attend.
    Conclusions
    Health professionals are not prepared to handle all maternal emergency cases due to non-availability of some essential logistics and a lack of regular training to update their skills to enable them to handle such cases. Ghana is, therefore, unlikely to meet the sustainable development goal three target by 2030. To forestall this, management of hospitals and the Ghana health service must ensure that all essential logistics are always available at hospitals to avert unwarranted maternal deaths. A whipping system should also be put in place to ensure professionals attend training workshops organized for them.
    Keywords: Preparedness, Logistics, Training, Professionals, Emergency, Health, Ghana
  • Abbas Abbaspour *, Hadi Barati, Hamid Rahimian, Hossein Abdollahi, Hassan Asadzadeh Page 3
    Background
    Psychological capital is considered as the basis of sustainable competitive advantage in today’s organizations and can be developed and managed with minimal costs compared to tangible assets and can lead to significant results.
    Objectives
    This quantitative research was carried out to determine the direct and indirect impact of psychological capital on female’s organizational optimism with psychological climate acting as the meditating variable.
    Methods
    This study was a descriptive correlational research that included 45 females, who were employed at Farhangian University between the academic year of 2016 and 2017. A sample of 45 was determined using the census method. Data were collected using a standard questionnaires, including psychological capital questionnaire, psychological climate questionnaire, and organizational optimism questionnaire. The reliability of the instruments was measured using Cronbach’s alpha, combined reliability and factor load, and the validity of the instruments was determined using a convergent and divergent validity method. Cronbach’s alpha test obtained a value of 0.98, 0.96, and 0.93. The data were analyzed by the structural equation modeling and Smart PLS2 software.
    Results
    The results indicated that the female’s organizational optimism had a mean value of 3.46 ± 0.75. Also, on average, the participants were 35 ± 0.43 years old and had 25 ± 0.38 years of work experience. Psychological capital and female’s organizational optimism are antecedents and consequences of psychological climate among students, respectively, and psychological climate has a significant mediating role on the relationship between psychological capital and female’s organizational optimism; 53% of the total effect of female’s organizational optimism was indirectly explained by the psychological climate (P
    Conclusions
    The findings suggest the need of implementing programs, which strengthen women’s psychological capital in order to improve psychological climate and achieve a greater organizational optimism.
    Keywords: Psychological Climate, Women's Organizational Optimism, Psychological CapitaL
  • Marzieh Lotfalizade, Nayereh Khadem Ghaebi *, Farideh Golhasani Keshtan, Vida Taghipour Bazargani Page 4
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of nitric oxide (Isosorbide mononitrate) versus misoprostol in cervix ripening and labor progression.
    Methods
    This study was a clinical trial. One hundred females with term pregnancies, referred for induction of labor with bishop score of six or less, were randomly allocated to receive either 40 mg Isosorbide Mononitrate (IMN) tablet vaginally or 25 µg misoprostol vaginally every six hours for a maximum of three doses. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    Results
    The bishop score decreased significantly due to increasing abortion numbers (P = 0.04; r = -0.19), yet this relationship in the two studied groups wasn’t significant (P misoprostol = 0.67; r = -0.06, and PIMN = 0.57; r = -0.05). The mean primary bishop score was similar in the two groups (P = 0.06) yet the final score in the IMN group was significantly lower than the misoprostol group (P = 0.001). Also, Apgar score in the IMN group was significantly higher than the misoprostol group (P = 0.02). There was a significant difference between the side effects (meconium amniotic fluid, nausea, atony, abdominal pain and tachysystole) and medication group, while this was significantly lower in IMN than the misoprostol group (P = 0.001). P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
    Conclusions
    Cervical ripening with IMN resulted in fewer adverse effects, and it was safer to use for cervical ripening. Therefore, it could be a good substitute for patients with a contraindication for misoprostol.
    Keywords: Keywords: Cervix, Misoprostol, Isosorbide Mononitrate, Bishop Score
  • Lindsay E. Cline*, K. Alysse Bailey, Kimberley L. Gammage Page 5
    Background
    To date, most research surrounding body image coping has focused on adolescent and young adult women. However, with age-related changes to body appearance and function, it is important to understand how women aged 55 cope in uncomfortable body image contexts.
    Objectives
    The present study explored how women aged 55 coped with body-related situations that elicited body image discomfort.
    Methods
    Ten women from a seniors’ exercise program were interviewed about uncomfortable body image situations to explore their coping strategies. Thematic analysis was used to find themes amongst the data and interpret women’s experiences with regards to body-related distress and coping.
    Results
    Women discussed coping strategies that included: enhancing or hiding physical appearance; reassuring self-talk; social comparisons to others; and a desire to change their mindset to relieve body-related distress.
    Conclusions
    Although women aged 55 discussed some unique strategies, there were several similarities with adolescent and young adult women. Thus, body image coping strategies appear to transcend the lifespan.
    Keywords: Body, related Distress, Social Comparison, Thematic Analysis
  • Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Farideh Vaziri *, Fatemeh Najib, Samira Nasiri Page 6
    Background
    Based on a possible association between thyroid function or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and perinatal psychological symptoms, this study examined the potential link between antenatal depression and thyroid function or vitamin D level in the population of Shiraz city.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on mothers, who were under prenatal care at a teaching hospital in Shiraz, during year 2015. Evaluation of depression was performed by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Eligible pregnant females aged ≥ 18 and at 26 to 28 weeks of gestation were passed to the laboratory to offer a blood sample to determine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, TSH, FT4, and TPOAb. Finally, data from 184 pregnant females was analyzed.
    Results
    The mean depression score was 9.19 ± 4.44, with a median value of 9.50, and mode value of 13. Overall, 52 mothers (28.3%) had depression (depression score > 12). The mothers with and without depression were not different in relation to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, TSH, FT4, and TPOAb levels. No association was established between thyroid function and antenatal depression with a binary logistic regression analysis. Also, vitamin D deficient mothers did not have more chance of being depressed. No correlation was detected between thyroid function and vitamin D levels.
    Conclusions
    Based on the current findings, no association was observed between antenatal depression and thyroid function or vitamin D deficiency.
    Keywords: Antenatal Depression, Perinatal Depression, 25, Hydroxyvitamin D, Thyroid Function, TPOAb
  • Seyedeh Azam Pour Hosseini, Sara Mirzaeian *, Reza Jafarzadeh Esfehani, Nayereh Ghomian Page 7
    Small intestine gangrene during pregnancy is a rare and difficult diagnosis. This condition is mainly caused by a complicated obstruction of the small bowel resulting from adhesions due to previous surgical operations such as hernia, or small intestine volvulus. Vascular causes including thrombosis, emboli, and vasculitis are common. The current report discussed a case of entire small bowel gangrene following small intestinal volvulus in a 24 - year - old multigravida in the 36th week of pregnancy, presenting with severe abdominal and back pain. During the operation, the small intestine was not recoverable, leading to a successful near - total enterectomy. The current case demonstrated the importance of a full diagnostic work - up of pregnant females present with gastrointestinal symptoms, especially when there is more than one etiology possible for patient’s clinical condition
    Keywords: Abdominal Pain, Pregnancy, Small Intestine, Intestinal VolvuluS