فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:6 Issue:4, 2018
  • Volume:6 Issue:4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/11/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Recycling spent Pleurotus eryngii substrate supplemented with Tenebrio molitor feces for cultivation of Agrocybe chaxingu
    Xian-Lu Zeng, Fei Han, Jing-Li Ye, Yan-Mei Zhong * Pages 275-280
    Purpose
    In the industrialized production of mushrooms usually only one flush of fruitbody is harvested, so that nutrients and energy in the substrate is not fully exploited. In this study, the spent Pleurotus eryngii substrate was recycled for the cultivation of Agrocybe chaxingu under ambient temperature.
    Method
    Six formulae were tested: (1) Control: 98% spent substrate, 1% sucrose, 1% lime; (2) Control 10% wheat bran; (3) Control 20% wheat bran; (4) Control 10% T. molitor feces; (5) Control 20% T. molitor feces; (6) Control 10% wheat bran 10% T. molitor feces.
    Results
    Two flushes of fruitbody were harvested, the control substrate resulted in a biological efficiency of 40.42%; the formulae with supplementation of 10% wheat bran, 20% wheat bran and 10% T. molitor feces significantly increased biological efficiency to 52.50, 54.61 and 51.56%, respectively, and supplementation of 20% T. molitor feces, or 10% wheat bran plus 10% feces further significantly increased biological efficiency to 62.95 and 61.10%, respectively. All supplemented substrates had significantly higher cellulose and laccase activity than the Control (cellulase 0.10 U/g; laccase 41.00 U/g), which were 10% wheat bran (0.15 U/g; 72.67 U/g), 10% T. molitor feces (0.17 U/g; 98.33 U/g), 20% wheat bran (0.22 U/g; 76.00 U/g), 20% T. molitor feces (0.27 U/g; 87.00 U/g), 10% wheat bran plus 10% T. molitor feces (0.25 U/g; 97.67 U/g), respectively.
    Conclusion
    Spent Pleurotus eryngii substrate was promising for cultivation of Agrocybe chaxingu, especially when supplemented with 20% T. molitor feces, or with 10% T. molitor feces plus 10% wheat bran.
    Keywords: Spent mushroom substrate, Fruitbody, Biological efficiency, Cellulase, Laccase
  • Soil chemical properties and growth response of Moringa oleifera to different sources and rates of organic and NPK fertilizers
    A. G. Adebayo *, H. A. Akintoye, A. O. Shokalu, M. T. Olatunji Pages 281-287
    Purpose
    The need for increasing production of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria can be achieved through adequate fertilization. This study investigated the effects of sources and rates of NPK (15:15:15) and compost on soil properties and productivity of Moringa at National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Methods
    NPK was applied at 30, 60, and 90 kg N/ ha, cow dung (CD), poultry manure (PM) and organomineral (OM) were applied at 10, 20 and 30 tons/ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Organic fertilizers were incorporated into the soil 2 weeks before sowing; NPK was split applied at 2 and 5 weeks after sowing. Seeds were sown at 75 cm × 75 cm spacing. Data were taken on plant height (cm), stem girth (cm), number of leaves, leaf biomass, stems weight and post-planting soil properties.
    Results
    Growth values for NPK and compost treatments were higher than the control. PM applied at 30 tons ha−1 resulted in highest growth values: plant height (65.91 cm), stem girth (1.51 cm) and number of leaves (14.20). PM applied at 30 tons ha−1 gave higher stem weight (2249.9 g) and leaf biomass (3610.5 g). Post-planting soil analysis indicated that nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, manganese, iron and zinc contents were higher in plots with organic and inorganic fertilizers except for potassium and magnesium.
    Conclusion
    PM proved more superior to CD manure and others because it produced better growth attributes such as shoot height, stem girth and number of leaves and leaf biomass than its counterparts produced.
    Keywords: Soil amendments, Moringa oleifera, Vegetative growth, Leaf biomass, Soil nutrient
  • The effect of municipal sewage sludge on the quality of soil and crops
    Suad Jaffar Abdul Khaliq, Ahmed Al-Busaidi, Mushtaque Ahmed, Malik Al-Wardy, Hesham Agrama (Bs) Choudri * Pages 289-299
    Purpose
    To examine the effects of the application of composted sewage sludge fertilizer (commercially sold as Kala compost) and inorganic (NPK) fertilizers on soil quality and on two crops (radish and beans) irrigated using groundwater and sewage treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation by measuring heavy metals in the soil and plants and other parameters such as crops yield, TOC in soil, chlorophyll index and total nitrogen.
    Methods
    The field experiments were conducted in an open area in Agricultural Experimental Study at Sultan Qaboos University campus, Oman. In this research, “green beans and white radish” were examined under the application of Kala and NPK fertilizers. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates.
    Results
    The results showed that the yield, TOC and chlorophyll contents of green beans and white radish increased when soil was amended with Kala compost compared to NPK. Chemical analysis of soil and the two crops did not show any risk of heavy metal accumulation.
    Conclusions
    Considering that the experiment was a short duration one, there is a need for more continuous long-term experiments (at least 5 years) that will improve the understanding on the effects of composted sewage sludge on soil fertility and crop yield to contribute to the development of sustainable agricultural practices in an arid environment of Oman.
    Keywords: Sewage sludge, Soil quality, Kala compost, Green beans, White radish, Oman
  • Influence of composting and thermal processing on the survival of microbial pathogens and nutritional status of Nigeria sewage sludge
    Kayode Fatunla *, Edu Inam, Joseph Essien, Emmanuel Dan, Akanimo Odon, Suil Kang, Kirk T. Semple Pages 301-310
    Purpose
    Sewage sludge samples from a water treatment plant in Nigeria were subjected to an in-vessel composting (using sawdust as a bulking agent) and thermal sludge processing to improve its quality for agricultural applications.
    Methods
    Treated samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties using standard analytical and aerobic culture protocols.
    Results
    Microbiological analysis of the initial fresh mixture (sewage sludge/sawdust) showed that the total heterotrophic bacteria was 1.17 × 106 CFU/g of fresh compost, coliforms 4.7 × 104 CFU/g, Salmonella sp., and Shigella sp. 7.3 × 104 CFU/g, yeasts and moulds 9.0 × 104 CFU/g. These values were significantly (p = 0.05) reduced after 40 days of in-vessel composting to 4.3 × 104 CFU/g for total heterotrophic bacteria, 7.4 × 102 CFU/g for coliforms, while yeasts and moulds, Salmonella and Shigella sp. were not detected in the final compost. The results of the physicochemistry revealed variation in pH, temperature, and nutrients status of treated sludge.
    Conclusion
    Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella sp. were eliminated, while a 2-log reduction in coliform counts occurred after 40 days of composting. Composting had a better processing impact by increasing the ash as well as reducing the carbon/nitrogen ratio of treated sludge, while thermal processing improved the sulfate and phosphate components of treated sludge. The treated sludge (biosolids) met the permissible limits of microbiological and nutritional standards recommended by US EPA for land application of sludge and could, therefore, be used as a biofertilizer, soil conditioner and also for land reclamation.
    Keywords: Sludge, Composting, Sawdust, Biosolid, Soil conditioner
  • Carbon mineralization and carbon dioxide emission from organic matter added soil under different temperature regimes
    Md. Babu Hossain (Md) Mizanur Rahman *, Jatish Chandra Biswas (Md) Main Uddin Miah, Sohela Akhter (Md) Maniruzzaman, Apurba Kanti Choudhury, Faruque Ahmed (Md) Humayn Kabir Shiragi, Naveen Kalra Pages 311-319
    Purpose
    Information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from different organic sources and their temperature sensitivity to decomposition is scarce in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study quantified the rates of CO2 emission and carbon (C) degradation constants from different organic material mixed soils at variable temperatures in two laboratory experiments.
    Methods
    The first experiment was conducted at room temperature for 26 weeks to study CO2 emission and C mineralization using vermicompost, chicken manure, cow dung, rice straw, and rice husk biochar. Weekly CO2 emission was measured by alkali absorption followed by acid titration. The second experiment comprised two factors, viz. four organic materials (vermicompost, chicken manure, cow dung, and rice straw) and six temperature regimes (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 °C). Organic materials at 2.5 g C kg−1 soil were mixed in both experiments.
    Results
    CO2 emission reached the peak at 5th weeks of incubation and then decreased with irregular fashion until 21st week. The C emission loss followed in the order of chicken manure > rice straw > vermicompost > cow dung > rice husk biochar, and C degradation constants indicated the slower decomposition of rice husk biochar compared to cow dung, vermicompost, chicken manure, and rice straw. Temperature positively enhanced the mineralization of organic materials in the order of 50 > 45 > 40 > 35 > 30 > 25 °C, which contributed to higher availability of soil phosphorus.
    Conclusions
    High temperature increased mineralization of tested organic materials. Because of slower decomposition rice husk biochar, cow dung and vermicompost application can be considered as climate-smart soil management practices that might help in reducing CO2 emission from soil.
    Keywords: Organic materials, Carbon degradation, Soil properties, Climate, smart soil management
  • Bioconversion of organic solid wastes into biofortified compost using a microbial consortium
    Payel Sarkar *, Rounak Chourasia Pages 321-334
    Purpose
    Urban municipal solid waste in India are 75–85% organic. Uncontrolled dumping of this waste is a major health concern. Degradation of organic waste by use of a microbial consortium is safe, efficient and economic. Therefore, this study was taken up to recycle the organic solid waste into effective compost using a microbial consortium.
    Methods
    Bacterial consortia were developed using antagonism assay. Concomitant enzyme production by the consortia was determined. The best consortium was further employed for degradation of 30 kg of organic solid waste. Compost analysis of 30 kg of wastes was done to determine the level of C, N, K, P and S.
    Results
    In this study, of the four consortia proposed, consortia no. 2 had the highest degrading capability. It exhibited consistent degrading capabilities of 30 kg waste. The volume of the waste was reduced to 82%, with a reduction in mass and moisture content to 65 and 42%, respectively, after 30 days of degradation study. The compost produced after 30 days had a dark colour and grainy texture without any crustacean population and lacked foul smell. Compost analysis of 30kg wastes inoculated with consortium 2 showed C:N ratio of 22:1 compared to 32:1 in control, and increased percentage of K, P and S which are required for enhancement of soil fertility.
    Conclusion
    Therefore, we can conclude that consortium 2 can serve as a biological tool for the removal of organic solid wastes from the environment, and the compost generated from the degradation can be applied to increase the fertility of the soil.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Microbial consortium, Compost, Soil fertility
  • Enhancement in the productivity of ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) with concomitant pest control by the vermicompost of the weed salvinia (Salvinia molesta, Mitchell)
    Naseer Hussain, Tasneem Abbasi, S. A. Abbasi * Pages 335-343
    Purpose
    In a novel attempt, vermicompost derived from an intransigent and noxious weed salvinia was assessed for its fertilizer value and pest repellent properties.
    Methods
    In outdoor experiments which simulated the way vegetables are cultivated by farmers, ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds were germinated and grown in soil supplemented with salvinia vermicompost at four levels: 0 (V0), 2.5 (V1), 3.75 (V2) and 5 (V3) t/ha. Besides assessing germination success and subsequent growth, yield, and biochemical content of the plants, the impact of pest attacks on them was also studied.
    Results
    Salvinia vermicompost significantly enhanced germination success, growth, and yield of the plants. Maximum growth in terms of shoot length (96.2 cm), root length (48.2 cm), shoot and root dry weight (23.31, 7.96 g), stem diameter (14.04 mm), and number of leaves and branches (26.8, 4.8) was recorded in V4 (5t/ha). Likewise, the mineral and biochemical content in vermicompost-treated plants was significantly higher than in the controls. The vermicompost also induced resistance in plants against pests and disease. Compared to the controls, vermicompost had reduced the fruit borer infection by 65, 78 and 82% in V1, V2 and V3, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The toxicity of salvinia is largely eliminated when it is vermicomposted, and the product acquires the qualities of a good organic fertilizer. The present work can potentially lead to the development of an inexpensive, sustainable and eco-friendly method of utilizing billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by salvinia, and which presently goes to waste.
    Keywords: Weed control, Organic fertilizer, Vermitechnology, Pest repellent, Abelmoschus esculentus
  • Use of pineapple waste for production of decomposable pots
    I. Jirapornvaree *, T. Suppadit, A. Popan Pages 345-350
    Purpose
    The aim of this research was to evaluate the suitability of pineapple waste for production of decomposable nursery pots.
    Methods
    The experiment was completely randomized, with three replicates and eighteen formula treatments. Treatments consisted of varying ratios of pineapple waste to binder, including 2:1, 1:0 (fresh pineapple waste), 1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2; the textures tested were coarse, medium, and fine, and the pot thicknesses were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm.
    Results
    The results revealed that the physical and chemical properties of pineapple waste were suitable for use in nursery pots on an experimental scale. The optimal physical and chemical properties for a decomposable pot included a 1:0 ratio of pineapple waste to binder, a coarse structure, and a pot thickness of 1 cm. With these properties, the pot degraded in more than 45 days, N and P release rates were 0.49% and 7.97 mg-P/kg, respectively, and the average absorption rate was 258.43%. Saturation occurred in 45 min, and the water evaporated in 444 h.
    Conclusion
    In terms of cost production per pot, fresh pineapple waste cost 0.0075 USD for a three-and-a-half inch diameter decomposable pot (excluding logistical costs). Therefore, this study provides a possible method for waste management.
    Keywords: Agricultural waste, Eco, product, Pineapple cannery industry, Waste management
  • Optimization of laccase production and its application in delignification of biomass
    Zabin K. Bagewadi *, Sikandar I. Mulla, Harichandra Z. Ninnekar * Pages 351-365
    Purpose
    Current research focuses on the biological delignification of biomass by microbial laccase which is an environmentally friendly process.
    Methods
    Various statistical approaches were designed for optimization of laccase production like Plackett–Burman design as well as response surface methodology (RSM). A laccase mediator system was designed for the delignification of saw dust which was molecularly characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
    Results
    The present study reveals wheat bran is a potential substrate for the production of laccase (63 U/g and 9.6 mg/g protein) under solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma harzianum strain HZN10. Statistical optimization by RSM using central composite design (CCD) revealed that wheat bran contributed maximally to the overall laccase production followed by yeast extract. Laccase production under optimized conditions yielded 510 U/g with 8.09-fold increase. HPLC peaks representing 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic (vanillic) acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic (syringic) acid showed drastic reduction in laccase-treated saw dust sample indicating the elimination of toxic inhibitors, thereby signifying the detoxification of sample. The laccase-treated saw dust showed 1.6-fold increase in reducing sugars after enzymatic (cellulase) hydrolysis. The FTIR analysis revealed the structural alterations occurring during the delignification process. SEM of biologically treated saw dust revealed the morphological alterations during the delignification process targeting the fiber cell walls rich in lignin.
    Conclusion
    The delignification of saw dust was effective by laccase mediator system and was evidenced by HPLC, FTIR and SEM analysis. Hence, laccase can be a powerful tool in biomass to biofuel conversions.
    Keywords: Laccase, Trichoderma sp., Plackett–Burman, Response surface methodology, Delignification
  • Evaluation of nineteen food wastes for essential and toxic elements
    Saranya Kuppusamy *, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj Pages 367-373
    Purpose
    The study evaluates and provides an overview of the nutritional importance of 19 selected food wastes as aids in human/livestock/soil/plant health.
    Methods
    Nitric acid-digested extracts of food wastes belonging to four different classes (fruits, vegetables, oilseeds and beverages) were analysed for different elements in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.
    Results
    Our study recommends spent coffee grounds, tea leaves, radish peel, watermelon rind and pineapple skin that contain substantially high concentrations of essential elements such as N, P, K, S and Fe for their use as: (a) substrates for composting, (b) biofertilizers, (c) soil amendments, and (d) bioadsorbents of toxins. Although these food wastes are rich in essential nutrients, we do not suggest them for the preparation of food supplements as they contain non-essential elements in concentrations beyond the human safety limits. However, food wastes like banana peel, plum pomace and pistachio shell that contain low and permissible concentrations of toxic elements can be recommended as dietary supplements for oral intake in spite of their lesser essential elemental composition than the other residues examined.
    Conclusions
    Our study confirms that food wastes are rich sources of essential nutrients and there is need to harness their real industrial systems.
    Keywords: Food wastes, Nutrients, Essential elements, Waste management