فهرست مطالب

  • سال نهم شماره 3 (پیاپی 45، مرداد و شهریور 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • ابوالفضل مزینانی، علی علیزاده، علیرضا آزاد صفحات 1-33
    امروزه، با بی اعتبار شدن معیارهای اخلاقی مشروع و مقبول اکثریت جامعه که در مسیر سنجش و ارزیابی گفتار و کردار نخبگان قدرت، به ویژه سلطه جویان، وجود دارد، حوزه تحلیل گفتمان مبتنی بر «نقد درونی» و وفادار به اصول مکتب فرانکفورت با چالش جدی مواجه شده است و برای رفع این معضل، سنت تفسیر موضوعی قرآن کریم اهمیت یافت. مفسر موضوعی به دنبال استخراج آرمان ها، راه حل ها، نظریه ها و ایده هایی است که به صورت پراکنده درباره موضوعات و معضلات فردی و یا اجتماعی خاصی در لابه لای آیات، مضامین و مفاهیم قرآن ارائه شده است. در این مقاله، رویکردی معرفی خواهد شد که با هدف تعمیم فلسفه تفسیر موضوعی به عرصه تحلیل گفتمان سیاسی/اجتماعی تدوین شده است. این بسته نوین که به اصطلاح آن را «تحلیل گفتمان موضوعی» می نامیم، با تلفیق نظریه ها و راهبردهای تحلیلی «رویکرد تاریخی- گفتمانی ووداک» و مراحل اجرایی «رویکرد تفسیر موضوعی شهید صدر» تدوین شده است. این بسته در سه بعد «مبانی نظری»، «ابزار تحلیل زبان» و «مراحل عملیاتی» توصیف شده است. همچنین، شیوه کار با نظریه بافت و نظریه استدلال به عنوان ابزار تحلیل به صورت منفرد بازنمایی شد. بااین حال، برای آشنایی با شیوه کار با این بسته خارج از حیطه تفسیر موضوعی، تبیین مراحل عملیاتی نیز با یک مطالعه موردی آزمایشی روی مثنوی معنوی همراه شد. تحلیل گفتمان موضوعی برای استخراج، تبیین و تدوین آرمان ها، عقاید و یا نظریه های نقادانه فرد/افرادی از مراجع و رهبران مذهبی/سیاسی که به نوعی مشروعیت کسب کرده اند، به عنوان مکملی برای نقد درونی و یا سرمشقی برای نخبگان قدرت توصیه می شود
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل گفتمان موضوعی، رویکرد گفتمانی، تاریخی، تفسیر موضوعی، نقد درونی، آرمان
  • نعیمه پراندوجی، ناهید نصیحت صفحات 35-61
    ادبیات هنری قرآن، ظرفیت مطالعه نشانه معناشناسانه را برای قرآن پژوهان فراهم می کند. این رویکرد تولید، دریافت و کارکرد معنا را در نظام های گفتمانی بررسی می کند. در جستار پیش رو، با هدف کاربردی کردن مفاهیم قرآنی با زبان روزآمد و با تکیه بر یافته های نشانه معناشناسی، ماجرای ایمان آوردن ملکه سبا مطالعه می شود. در این مسیر، نگارنده با رویکرد بررسی صورت- محتوا فرآیند تغییر معنا و نظام حاکم بر این داستان را بررسی می کند. با چنین هدفی، به این سوال پاسخ می دهد که هم تنیدگی فشاره و گستره (دو بعد بنیادین دلالت) چگونه فرآیند گفتمانی را شکل می دهند. یافته ها نشان می دهد که در معناکاوی این ماجرا، فرآیند تنشی به عنوان مهم ترین رکن عمل می کند. ملکه می خواهد نوع حضور خود را که در تجربه جدید و موقعیت حکومت سلیمان نبی قرار گرفته، بازسازی کند. هم آمیختگی این حضور عاطفی و شناختی باعث می شود که جریان معناسازی داستان، به سمت گفتمان تنشی سوق یابد. در این تعامل، طی یک عملیات مرحله ای، گفتمان از معنای نخست (پیروی از نظام شرک) به معنای دوم (ایمان به خدا) می رسد و تغییر معنا رخ می دهد
    کلیدواژگان: نشانه معناشناسی، نظام گفتمانی، فرآیند تنشی، سلیمان نبی، ملکه سبا
  • شیما ابراهیمی، رضا پیشقدم، اعظم استاجی، سید امیر امین یزدی صفحات 63-97
    برای اجرای فرآیند زبان آموزی مطلوب، توجه به نقش هیجانات و حواس اهمیت ویژه ای دارد و مدرسان با ایجاد هیجان مطلوب و تاثیرگذاری بر حواس، توان یادگیری زبان آموزان را ارتقا می دهند. مفهوم «هیجامد» تلفیقی از دو واژه (هیجان+ بسامد) است که به تاثیر هیجانات ناشی از استفاده حواس در یادگیری مفاهیم گوناگون اشاره می کند و از سه مرحله هیچ آگاهی (تهی)، برون آگاهی (شنیداری، دیداری، لمسی- حرکتی) و درون آگاهی (درونی و جامع) تشکیل شده است. در پژوهش حاضر، به منظور کیفیت بخشی روش تدریس زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی زبانان، با درنظر گرفتن این مفهوم و مولفه های سه گانه آن (هیجان، حواس و بسامد) و باتوجه به تاثیر هیجان های آموزشی بر یادگیری و پیشرفت زبان آموز، الگوی هیجامد را در تدریس زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی زبانان پیشنهاد می دهیم و تاثیر تدریس مبتنی بر این الگو را بر هیجانات زبان آموزان غیرفارسی زبان زن در ایران با استفاده از پرسشنامه های هیجامد و هیجان می سنجیم. بدین منظور، 60 زبان آموز زن غیرفارسی زبان از 16 کشور را با سطح زبان فارسی یکسان (سطح زبان فارسی کتاب هفتم) به روش نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب کردیم و آن ها را پس از طی 22 جلسه تدریس برای چهار گروه (هر گروه شامل 15 نفر) و در مدت شش هفته براساس الگوی هیجامد ارزیابی نمودیم. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که تدریس مبتنی بر الگوی هیجامد بر ارتقای میزان هیجانات زبان آموزان غیرفارسی زبان زن تاثیر معنادار مثبت داشته است. به سخن دیگر، با درگیر کردن تعداد حواس بیشتر در فرآیند آموزش، میزان هیجامد زبان آموز افزایش می یابد و هیجان مثبت تولید می شود. درنتیجه، با کاهش هیجانات منفی، زمینه تعامل بیشتر با مدرس فراهم می شود و یادگیری کارآمد رخ می دهد. با برجسته کردن نقش عوامل هیجانی و تعدد حواس در امر یادگیری، به نظر می رسد که امکان استفاده از این الگو درجهت بالا بردن و ارتقای هیجانات مثبت زبان آموزان در تدریس زبان فارسی وجود دارد و زمینه یادگیری موفق زبان آموز فراهم می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: هیجان، حواس، هیجامد، آموزش زبان فارسی
  • سمیرا شفیعی، غلامحسین غلامحسین زاده، حمیدرضا شعیری، سعید بزرگ بیگدلی صفحات 99-127
    داستان سرایی در رساله الطیرها به عنوان آثاری تعلیمی- ارشادی جایگاهی ویژه دارد. در هر داستانی، ارزش/ارزش هایی تعریف می شوند که کنشگران به دنبال دستیابی به آن ها هستند. راوی برای رساندن کنشگران به نظام ارزشی داستان، دوره های روایی را خلق می کند. منظور از دوره روایی این است که از دهه شصت (اوج ساختارگرایی) تاکنون، روایت ها بر الگوهایی منطبق هستند که هر دوره را از دوره دیگر از بعد نظریه و نگرش نشانه معناشناختی متمایز می کند. کشف و شناسایی دوره های روایی رساله الطیرهای فارسی و عربی با تمرکز بر بررسی نظام ارزشی گفتمان باعث می شود که به الگویی برای دوره بندی روایی بخشی از متون ادبی دست یابیم و زمینه برای خلق شیوه های تحلیل متون فراهم شود. هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی دوره های روایی براساس منطق الطیر عطار به منظور تبیین الگویی مناسب برای مطالعه نظام های روایی است. دوره های روایی ما را با سیر تحول تفکر روایت مواجه می کند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که رساله الطیرها درمجموع از هفت دوره روایی «کنش محور برنامه مدار»، «تعاملی مبتنی بر مذاکره گفت و گومحور»، «کنشی مبتنی بر توانش»، «تنش منفعلانه»، «دوره شوشی مبتنی بر تطبیق سوژه با هستی»، «انجذاب و هم آمیختگی» و «ارزیابی» تشکیل شده اند. دوره های اول و دوم با عنوان توانش مطرح شده اند و مقدمه ای برای دوره های کنش، تنش، شوش، استعلا و ارزیابی هستند. تنها در منطق الطیر عطار، همگی این دوره ها به صورت بارز دیده می شود. در باقی رساله ها، تنها بعضی از این دوره ها حضور دارند. در سه مرحله اول و مرحله ارزیابی، ارزش چیزی خارج از کنشگران و در دوره های تنش، شوش و انجذاب، ارزش در درون سوژه است.
    کلیدواژگان: رساله الطیرها، نظام ارزشی، دوره های روایی، منطق الطیر، نشانه معناشناسی گفتمان
  • آویده طلایی، فرح حبیب، سیدمصطفی مختاباد امرایی صفحات 129-158
    بازار ایرانی یکی از عناصر مهم و تاثیرگذار در شهرهای ایرانی است و عملکردهای متعدد اجتماعی، اقتصادی، سیاسی، کالبدی و فرهنگی دارد. امکان بررسی معنا و کارکرد این بازار درقالب رویکردهای تحلیل متن، مانند زبان شناسی و نشانه شناسی، وجود دارد. متن بازار ایرانی دارای ویژگی های دلالتی است. به عبارت دیگر، خود متن و عوامل سازنده آن همگی دارای قابلیت تداعی معنا هستند. حال با توجه به اینکه هدف این پژوهش تدوین مدل مفهومی برای خوانش مناسب و بررسی مولفه های اثرگذار در ایجاد معنا در بازار ایرانی به مثابه یک متن و به عنوان برشی از شهر با چارچوب نشانه شناسی لایه ای است، باید لایه های آن شناسایی و نمود عینی شبکه رمزگان در یک کنش ارتباطی مشخص شود. بنابراین، پس از تبیین مفاهیم پایه و تشریح ضرورت های نظری حوزه نشانه شناسی معماری، لایه های دخیل در این خوانش شناسایی و با رویکرد نشانه شناسی لایه ای به طور دقیق واکاوی خواهند شد. روش نشانه شناسی نظریه بنیاد درقالب یک شیوه تحلیلی به محقق کمک می کند که با شناسایی نشانه ها و کدهای موجود در معماری ایرانی، ضمن بررسی نشانه ها و تغییر نوع آن ها، لایه های موجود در بازار ایرانی را شناسایی و عوامل موثر بر خوانش مطلوب و رمزگشایی مناسب در آن را بررسی کند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که بازار متنی است که لایه های متعدد آن بر یکدیگر لغزیده و مناسبات انحصارطلبانه و جدایی طلبانه عناصر بنا به مناسبات هم پوشانی و نفوذ تبدیل شده است. لایه های کالبدی، کارکردی، محیطی، زمانی و معنایی با هم آمیخته و یگانه شده اند و یک کلیت نظام مند به نام بازار را به وجود آورده اند. درواقع، مجموعه های لایه های هم نشین و نظام های درگیر در این بنا پشتیبانی کننده یکدیگر و انسجام آفرین هستند و خوانش مناسب بازار ایرانی باتوجه به حمایتگری لایه های کالبدی، کارکردی، معنایی، محیطی و زمانی امکان پذیر است؛ به گونه ای که خوانش این مجتمع همبافته نشانه ای، بر احساس مخاطب در حرکت درون رمزگان کالبدی و فراکالبدی بازار ایرانی متکی است
    کلیدواژگان: بازار، سنتی، نشانه شناسی لایه ای، خوانش معماری
  • زهرا طالبی، نادر اسدی، هانیه دواتگری صفحات 159-178
    هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر بررسی مقایسه ای تاثیر روش های تدریس مبتنی بر رویکرد نتیجه گرا، فرآیندگرا و فن بیان در مهارت نگارشی زبان آموزان سطح متوسط است. روش تحقیق پژوهش حاضر ازنوع نیمه تجربی با سه گروه آزمایش است. بدین منظور، 60 زبان آموز ازبین جامعه آماری به صورت تصادفی در سه گروه آزمایشی نتیجه گرا، فرآیندگرا و فن بیان جای گرفتند. همچنین، گروه های آزمایش در 12 جلسه آموزش دیدند. ابزار پژوهش ازنوع فعالیت نوشتارمحور روایی بود که درمورد سه گروه، در مراحل پیش آزمون، پس آزمون اجرا شد. داده های جمع آوری شده نوشتاری ازنظردرستی، روانی و پیچیدگی به صورت کمی درآمد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده های حاصل از پژوهش از روش تحلیل آماری کوواریانس (آنکوای یکراهه) استفاده شد. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل آماری نشان داد که تفاوت معناداری بین عملکرد سه گروه آزمایش (محصول گرا، فرآیندگرا و فن بیان) ازنظر دقت و روانی وجود داشت؛ به طوری که رویکرد فن بیان (ژانر) بیشترین تاثیر را بر دقت و روانی نوشتاری فراگیران داشت. نتایج پژوهش تفاوت معناداری ازنظر پیچیدگی را نشان نداد. درنهایت، این مطالعه چشم انداز بسیار روشنی را به منظور برنامه ریزی دوره های آموزشی مهارت های نگارش برای توجه بیشتر به آموزش روش های تدریس نگارش و اجرای تکالیف مبتنی بر فن بیان در کلاس های آموزش زبان انگلیسی خواهد داشت
    کلیدواژگان: رویکرد نتیجه گرا، فرآیندگرا، فن بیان، مهارت نگارشی
  • فاطمه بهرامی صفحات 179-202
    گرچه مفهوم دستوری شمار از بدیهیات تلقی می‏شود و به تمایز مفرد/جمع در همه کتاب‏های دستور زبان اشاره شده است، به جنبه های مختلف معنایی آن کمتر توجه شده و معمولا مفهوم جمع به مثابه دلالت بر بیش از یک، تفسیر می‏شود؛ درحالی که مفهوم دقیق آن، باتوجه به مختصات معنایی اسم پایه، ازنظر رده‏شناختی بسیار تنوع‏پذیر است. در این نوشتار، ویژگی های صرفی- معنایی تکواژ «-ها» را به‏عنوان یکی از پربسامدترین تکواژهای جمع‏ساز فارسی بررسی می‏کنیم و به‏طور خاص قصد داریم نشان دهیم که زبان فارسی تا چه اندازه در رمزگذاری مفهوم جمع، تابع تنوعات بین‏زبانی است. ارزیابی داده های زبان فارسی در چارچوب رده‏شناختی آکواویوا، نشان می‏دهد که تکواژ «-ها» در زبان فارسی تنوع معنایی دارد و تحت تاثیر ویژگی های معنایی اسم پایه، ممکن است بیانگر یکی از مفاهیم تعدد، نمود ناقص، پیوستگی، تعدد بدون وجود مرز ادراکی قابل تشخیص، القاء خوانش ملموس و عینی از اسم‏های معنی و زمان/مکان، موردنمایی، دلالت بر فراوانی کمی و کیفی (شدت‏بخشی)، پراکندگی و گستردگی موقعیت یافته برای اسم‏های توده‏ای، مشابهت، تاکید بر مصداق و یا تلفیقی از آن‏ها باشد. از این میان، کارکردهای نمودی، شدت‏بخشی، تاکید و تقریب زمانی، ویژگی های معنایی مختص جمع‏سازی در زبان فارسی هستند؛ اما همچنان تبیین این کارکردها ازطریق بسط حوزه های مطروحه در چارچوب مذکور ممکن است
    کلیدواژگان: مقوله شمار، تکواژ، ها، رده شناسی معنی شناختی، ویژگی های صرفی، معنایی
  • علی درزی، مجید عباسی صفحات 203-225
    پژوهش های انجام شده برای شناسایی جایگاه روساختی فاعل در جملات بی نشان زبان فارسی به شکل گیری دو دیدگاه متفاوت در این مورد درمیان زبان شناسان ایرانی منجر شده اند. برخی از زبان شناسان همچون انوشه (1387)، درزی (1996، 1385، 1388)، تفکری رضایی (1389) و درزی و مهدی بیرقدار (1389) با ارائه شواهدی نشان داده اند که فاعل جمله پس از ادغام در درون فرافکن بیشینه گروه فعلی (کوچک)، به منظور بازبینی مشخصه حالت فاعلی یا اصل فرافکنی گسترده، به جایگاه شاخص گروه تصریف یا زمان حرکت می کند؛ درحالی که براساس پیشنهاد کریمی (2005)، جایگاه بنیادی و روساختی فاعل در جملات بی نشان زبان فارسی درون فرافکن بیشینه گروه فعلی کوچک درنظر گرفته می شود و برای حرکت فاعل به شاخص گروه تصریف یا تصریف، الزامی وجود ندارد. در این مقاله، به کمک یک آزمون روان زبان شناختی دورخط ازنوع قضاوت دستوری بودگی، شواهدی را در تایید دیدگاه پژوهشگرانی ارائه می کنیم که جایگاه روساختی فاعل را شاخص فرافکن بیشینه گروه تصریف یا زمان می دانند
    کلیدواژگان: واژه های کلیدی: قلب نحوی، زمان واکنش، قضاوت دستوری بودگی، نظریه پیچیدگی اشتقاقی
  • افسر روحی، امیر رضا نعمت تبریزی، منوچهر جعفری گهر، فاطمه همتی، اسماعیل قادری صفحات 227-249
    در این پژوهش، تاثیر ایجاد تغییر در بار شناختی تکلیف و شرایط اجرای آن در عملکرد نوشتاری فراگیران زبان مطالعه شده است. بررسی رابطه بین خود نظم جویی فراگیران و تولید نوشتاری انفرادی و مشارکتی آن ها در تکالیفی متفاوت ازنظر پیچیدگی شناختی، هدف دیگر تحقیق حاضر است. 122 فراگیر زبان انگلیسی به طور تصادفی در چهار گروه تقسیم شدند و چهار نوع تکلیف ساده- انفرادی، ساده- مشارکتی، پیچیده- انفرادی و پیچیده- مشارکتی را انجام دادند. داده های جمع آوری شده با تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون تحلیل شدند. یافته ها نشان دادند که شرایط انجام تکلیف باعث ایجاد تفاوت معنا داری در صحت نوشتاری فراگیران زبان شد؛ ولی پیچیدگی تکلیف تفاوت چشمگیری در ابعاد مختلف نگارش آن ها ایجاد نکرد. فراگیرانی که تکلیف ساده را به طور مشارکتی انجام دادند، بالاترین میانگین را در صحت نوشتاری به دست آوردند. همچنین، خودنظم جویی فراگیرانی که تکلیف پیچیده را به شکل انفرادی انجام دادند، همبستگی مثبت معنا داری با صحت نوشتاری آن ها نشان داد. یافته های ما بر نیاز به توجه بیشتر به شرایط انجام تکلیف و تفاوت های فردی فراگیران در مدل ها و چارچوب های ارائه شده برای طراحی و تنظیم تکالیف، تاکید می کند
    کلیدواژگان: واژه های کلیدی: واژگان کلیدی: پیچیدگی، تکلیف، نوشتار، خودنظم جویی
  • مهدی سبزواری صفحات 251-271
    چندمعنایی از موضوعات مهم و سنتی مطالعات معنی شناسی و روابط واژگانی است. واژه چندمعنی بنابر تعریف، واژه یا تکواژی است که چند معنی مرتبط دارد. به دلیل ویژگی های متمایز واژه های چندمعنی، مطالعات این نوع مفاهیم و معانی به طور خاص و روابط واژگانی به طور عام در دو دهه اخیر در کانون توجه تحقیقات زبان شناسی شناختی و روان شناسان زبان بوده است. چندمعنایی در زبان فارسی نیز در حوزه معنی شناسی، روابط واژگانی و معنی شناسی واژگانی، همواره موردتوجه محققان این حوزه بوده است. بنابراین، مطالعه و توصیف این نوع روابط واژگانی درقالب رویکردهای جدید اهمیت دارد. در این مقاله توصیفی و تحلیلی، اقسام چندمعنایی فارسی معیار را با رویکردی شناختی و مشخصا تقسیم بندی نظری ایوانز در مطالعات چندمعنایی بررسی و تحلیل می کنیم. درواقع، با بررسی نمونه هایی از انواع چندمعنایی در فارسی معیار امروزی و تحلیل آن ها در چارچوب نگرش شناختی ایوانز، می کوشیم اعتبار و کیفیت این تقسیم بندی چندمعنایی را که ازمنظری متفاوت و نوین است، درمورد زبان فارسی معیار بررسی و ارزیابی کنیم. نوآوری این مقاله کاربرد رویکرد شناختی متمایز در بازشناسی انواع چندمعنایی در فارسی همراه با ارائه نمونه هایی مشخص و مستدل است. شواهد ارائه شده در این مقاله علاوه بر اینکه کارکرد نگرش شناختی ایوانز را در بررسی چندمعنایی تایید می کند، رویکردی متفاوت را برای تحلیل روابط معنایی پیش روی ما می گذارد.
    کلیدواژگان: چندمعنایی، مفهوم اولیه، مقوله شعاعی، رویکرد شناختی، نظریه مفاهیم واژگانی و الگوهای شناختی
  • عیسی متقی زاده، خلیل پروینی، سید رضا موسوی صفحات 273-296
    مهارت خواندن یکی از مهم ترین مهارت های زبانی است و از شروط موفقیت در یادگیری زبان دوم، تسلط بر این مهارت است؛ اما دانشجویان ترم آخر مقطع کارشناسی رشته زبان و ادبیات عربی که در شرف دانش آموختگی هستند و حتی بسیاری از دانش آموختگان این رشته نمی توانند متون عربی را صحیح و روان بخوانند. ازاین رو، می خواهیم با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش پیمایشی، مهارت خواندن دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی رشته زبان و ادبیات عربی را ارزیابی، نقاط ضعف آنان در این مهارت را شناسایی و راهکارهایی را به منظور بهبود آموزش مهارت خواندن ارائه کنیم. نمونه آماری پژوهش حاضر را 124 دانشجوی ترم هشتم مقطع کارشناسی رشته زبان و ادبیات عربی در 12 دانشگاه دولتی ایران تشکیل داده اند که 41 نفر از آن ها مرد و 83 نفر زن هستند. ابزار به کاررفته در این پژوهش، آزمون محقق ساخته است که برای اولین بار در رشته زبان و ادبیات عربی برای مهارت خواندن طراحی شده و برای طراحی آن، از الگوهای موجود در کشورهای عربی استفاده کردیم. یافته ها نشان می دهند که دانشجویان مهارت خواندن را به خوبی کسب نکرده اند و با اینکه در ترم آخر هستند و اغلب دروس کارشناسی را گذرانده اند، در همه سطوحی که متخصصان زبان عربی برای مهارت خواندن ذکر کرده اند، با ضعف مواجه هستند. اصلی ترین دلیل این مشکل، وجود نداشتن درسی خاص برای مهارت خواندن در سرفصل درسی است
    کلیدواژگان: واژه های کلیدی: واژگان کلیدی: مهارت خواندن، مهارت شناخت، مهارت فهم، مهارت نقد، زبان و ادبیات عربی
  • مرتضی معین صفحات 297-317
    اریک لاندوفسکی، نشانه شناس پساگرماسی، الگوی نظام های معنایی و تعاملی خود، یعنی برنامه مداری، مجاب سازی، تصادف و تطبیق را به ترتیب براساس اصول «قاعده مندی»، «نیت مندی»، «شانس» و «امر احساسی» تعریف می کند. طبیعتا امکان پیاده سازی این الگو در حوزه های اجتماعی وجود دارد که در آن ها با پراتیک های تعاملی سوژه ها مواجه می شویم. اگر قبول کنیم که فعالیت آموزشی براساس تعامل بین سه عامل متفاوت، یعنی سوژه آموزش دهنده، سوژه آموزش گیرنده و ابژه و متدی تعریف می شود که براساس آن آموزش داده می شود، می توانیم تنوع و تفاوت پراتیک های آموزشی را با این الگو موردخوانش قرار دهیم. در مقاله حاضر، ضمن معرفی موشکافانه این الگو و ویژگی های هریک از این نظام های معنایی و تعاملی و همچنین مطرح کردن الگوی دیگر، یعنی الگوی فضیلتی- رذیلتی لاندوفسکی، تعامل های ممکن میان ساحت کنشگر آموزش دهنده و کنشگر آموزش گیرنده را در یک محیط خرد اجتماعی، یعنی کلاس درس، موردخوانش قرار می دهیم. همچنین، چگونگی تجزیه و تحلیل شیوه های آموزشی و فلسفه بنیادینی را که هریک از این شیوه ها بر آن استوار هستند، در حوزه آموزش اهداف روش های گوناگون آموزشی و با الگوهای مطرح شده نشان می دهیم
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه مداری، مجاب سازی، تصادف، تطبیق، لاندوفسکی، آموزش
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  • Abolfazl Mazinani, Ali Alizadeh, Arli Reza Azad Pages 1-33

    Introduction
    In the last few decades, critical theories, which are to understand and change social systems, as well as critical discourse studies adhered to the principles of Frankfurt School and Social Constructionism have been of a great significance in the fields of linguistics and political and social sciences. Weiss and Wodak (2014) believe that critical theory, even with different conceptions of ideology, seeks to make human agents aware of their needs and interests (p. 14). In the same vein, immanent critique, which has its roots in Hegelian-Marxist tradition, is a means of detecting the societal contradictions which offer the most determinate possibilities for emancipatory social change (Antonio, 1981).
    However, these studies are now encountering a serious challenge in the process of analyzing and assessing the discursive practices of ‘power elites’. In other words, as reason and the ideals of liberty, equality and justice which support social ideals decline decade-by-decade, immanent critique loses its whole power to challenge social systems and practices.
    To find a complement to immanent critique, the thematic exegesis of the Holy Quran was considered in terms of philosophy, aims and application. A thematic exegetist does his best to discover and bring together the ideals, suggestions, and solutions - presented in a non-organized way in the Holy Quran - to particular individual/social problems and issues under investigation. In this article, we will introduce an approach called ‘Topic-based Discourse Analysis’ (TDA), intending to generalize the philosophy and application of Shahid Sadr’s Approach to Thematic Exegesis (SSATE) to the field of social/ political discourse analysis.
    TDA is recommended for the researchers to compile the ideals, comments, and theories of acknowledged (charismatic) leaders on a particular issue to be applied as a complement for immanent critique or as a guidebook for ‘power elites’.
    Methodology
    TDA is a blend of analytical tools/strategies designed by Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA) and the operational phases of SSATE. It is introduced from these three dimensions: a) the Model’s theoretical basics: these basics were drawn out of DHA and SSATE philosophies of application; b) its analytical tools: Four-level Theory of Context, Argumentation Theory, and Wodak’s five discursive strategies were adopted from DHA. Another discursive strategy called Reverse Statement Strategy was added to the Wodak’s set which was drawn out of exegesis’ analytic tools; and c) its operational phases: the TDA steps were designed based on those of SSATE together with some necessary adjustments.
    TDA Operational Steps
    The holy Quran much like any other heavenly book is full of instructions from a variety of different fields of study. As mentioned above, a thematic exegetist brings into focus the Quran’s non-organized ideals and solutions to a particular individual/social problem under each of his investigations. This process is primarily based on these three sides: 1.a discursive topic based on which the exegetist’s research questions are designed;
    2.the Almighty Allah as a knowledgeable reference;
    3.the holy Quran a macro-text believed by Muslims as the words of Allah in different parts of which the answer to the question(s) can be found;
    This three-side base of the Quran’s thematic exegesis was adopted and generalized to make up a three-side base for Topic-based Discourse Analysis Model: 1.a discursive topic based on which the analyst’s research questions are designed;
    2.a charismatic knowledgeable human reference e. g. a political leader;
    3.a macro-text i. e. the book(s) written by the human reference in different parts of which the answer to the questions can be found;
    Having faced with a social or individual, political or religious, cultural or economic problem, a topic-based analyst is to ideally pass through these operational analytic phases recursively: 1.Forming the 3-side base for a particular research problem as described above.
    2.Literature review i. e. recollection and consultation of preceding theoretical/practical knowledge.
    3.Designing research questions and their specification for the given research problem based on the corresponding research literature.
    4.Systematic collection of data and context information related to the time when the selected macro-text was written as well as a complete biography of chosen the charismatic leader. (Depending on the research questions, various discursive events, social actors & fields as well as corresponding genres and texts are focused on).
    5.Macro-text data collection: the analyst’s careful reading of the macro-text to firstly identify the data which are explicitly or implicitly capable to answer research questions, and to secondly classify them in accord with the discursive topics, sub-topics, and genres, etc.
    6.Collected data analysis: the classified data from the macro-text are to be subjected to the application of Four-level Theory of Context, Argumentation Theory, and 6 discursive strategies.
    Theorization by formulation of critique (answering research questions, taking into account the relevant context knowledge and referring to the DHA’s three dimensions of critique). 8.Application of results (if possible, the obtained results might be applied or proposed for application)
    Conclusion
    In this article, we designed an approach called ‘Topic-based Discourse Analysis’ (TDA) to generalize the philosophy and application of Shahid Sadr’s Approach to Thematic Exegesis to the field of social/ political discourse analysis as a complement for immanent critique.
    Keywords: Topic –Based Discourse Analysis, Discursive-Historical Approach, Thematic Exegesis, Internal Critique, Ideal. Keywords: Topic –Based Discourse Analysis, Discursive-Historical Approach, Thematic Exegesis, Internal Critique, Ideal.
  • Naeime Parandavaji, Nahid Nasihat Pages 35-61
    Quran artistic literature – especially prophets` stories- as a rich speech series with meaning layers provides the capacity of semiotic analysis for Qurans` researchers. This approach studies the production, perception and function of meaning in discourse disciplines, with the aim of making Quran concepts more practical, with an updated language relying on semiotics strategies. The present study tries to make it possible and clarifies and studies the Quran with more details. In this way, by the aim of applying Quran concepts with modern languages studies, the story of Queen of Sheba believing in Allah has been explored based on semiotics findings. This unique story gathered religious aim and artistic techniques beautifully.
    Present approach investigates to explain management and religious governance that have a main role in transforming a person and a society. The main problem is finding the role of emotional and cognitive presence in How Queen of Sheba believed in Allah and reached monotheism. In this way, the author tries to investigate the process of semiotic change by investigating form- content approach, analyzing the process of content change and regime in power of this story. Present study with such an objective and using descriptive method and semiotics approach analysis ( based on Tension based discourse analysis) wants to answer two main questions: - How interweaving of cognitive and emotional perspectives makes the process of discourse? – Which intelligent schema are made or dominated based on this process? The hypothesis is that cognitive and emotional reaction, bring about tensive process and intelligent schema that is dominated with amplification construction of two perspectives.
    The findings of the current research showed that in studying the meaning of this story, tensive process acts as a more significant basis. The Queen intends to reconstruct the type of her presence in the new experience and the position of the court Solomon, the prophet. Mingling this emotional and cognitive presence in fluctuant and spectral reaction, causes the process of the meaning of the story which tends towards the tensive discourse. In this interaction, through a step by step operation, the discourse moves from the first meaning (following the discipline of shirk) to the second meaning (faith to Allah) and in this way, meaning change occurs. This change associates with the discourse connections and discontinuities. In these connections and discontinuities tensive process leads to the formation of three intelligent schemas; amongst them, intelligent process schema is dominated with constant amplification construction in two perspectives of density and spectrum.
    Keywords: Semiotics, Discourse system, Tensive process, Solomon, Queen of Sheba
  • Shima Ebrahimi, Reza Pishghadam, Azam Estaji, Seyyed Amir Aminyazdi Pages 63-97
    Granted that senses and emotions are key components in facilitating the process of language learning and teaching, it is essential for different models of instruction to take language learners’ emotions into account. It is in fact believed that emotions could be generated from the involvement of senses. A pertinent concept which juxtaposes senses and their resultant emotions is emotioncy. The concept of emotioncy (emotion), pioneered by Pishghadam, Tabatabaeyan, and Navari (2013), is based on the psychological findings of the Developmental Individual-Differences Relationship-based (DIR) model, suggesting that sensory emotions are the cornerstones of evolution and learning. Following the assumptions of this model, when a language learner has never heard of a concept/item, s/he has no emotions for it (Null emotioncy). When s/he hears about the concept/item, the degree of emotioncy for that word increases to the auditory level, and if s/he sees or touches that item, the emotioncy may surpasses the auditory level to the Visual and Kinesthetic levels, respectively. Direct involvement with the concept/item engenders Inner emotioncy which can be maximized by doing research (Arch emotioncy). At this stage, an accurate understanding of the subject will be formed which may lead to profound learning. Drawing upon the emotioncy model, in this study, the researchers made an attempt to teach a number of Persian language issues and, thereafter investigate the effect of this model on the emotions of the Persian language learners and their learning outcomes. To do so, 60 non-Iranian female students with the same Persian level (7th grade) from 16 different countries (including India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Turkey, Egypt, Madagascar, Burundi, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Libya, Tajikistan, Lebanon, Iraq, Guinea-Bissau, Syria, and Indonesia) who were studying at Al-Mostafa International University were categorized into 4 groups of 15 and participated in classes for a period of 6 weeks. Different concepts were taught during each session according to each level of emotioncy. At the end of each session, the learners’ emotions were evaluated via the academic emotions questionnaire Pekrun, 2002) and emotioncy scale (Pishghadam, 2015). The results related to the auditory session revealed that the learners did not show very positive emotions for the relevant subject. Yet, their emotions improved in the Visual session. The change in the emotions of the learners from negative to positive was also evident in the kinesthetic session. At this stage, learners were more actively involved with the subject and gave convincing reasons for their emotional experiences. In the fifth session (Inner), having brought the necessary and relevant instruments to the class, the instructor asked the learners to simulate the instructed subject. In the final session (Arch), the learners were asked to explore the resources available (cyberspace, library, etc.) about the topics taught during the fifth session. Overall, the results indicated significant differences in the emotions of non-Iranian female students, concluding that by involving senses in the process of teaching, the learners’ emotioncy level increases and positive emotions are thus produced. As a result, there was a positive correlation between emotioncy-based instruction and the amount of positive emotions on the part of non-Iranian Persian language learners. Taken together, the emotioncy model seems to help enhance the positive emotions of Persian language learners, providing a more successful learning environment for them.
    Keywords: Emotion, Sense, Emotioncy, Emotioncy, Based Instruction, Teaching Persian.
  • Samira Shafiee, Gholamhosein Gholamhoseinzade, Hamidreza Shairi, Saeed Bozorgh Beigdeli Pages 99-127
    Narration of the Risalat al-tayr (TREATISE OF THE BIRDS) has an important place among the educational works in Persian Literature. In each story, value/s are defined by means of actors trying to achieve them. The narrator makes an attempt to get the actor to the axiological system of story and create narrative periods. By Narrative periods we mean that from the 1960s (the peak of structuralism till now), narrations have been based on a model, each period is different from the other in terms of theoretical and semeiotic and semantic aspects. Semiotics and semantics tries to categorize the narrative periods of classic and modern literature. Identification and exploration of narrative periods of Farsi and Arabic Risalat al-tayr with focus on investigation of axiological system of dialogue allows us to move beyond this generation and provide a model for narrative division of the literary texts.
    In this regard, the purpose of this research is to investigate the narrative periods based on Manṭiq al-ṭayr (conference of birds) by Attar in order to explain the related model to study the narrative systems. Narrative periods make us encounter with the transformation of the narration. For this purposes, one of the research goal is to provide the narrative periods based on Manṭiq al-ṭayr in order to provide a comprehensive method to literary text analysis. It is assumed that in Manṭiq al-ṭayr this function has a multiple concept. In other words, the actor experiences different periods to reach the value. Other questions are also as follows: what are the underlying components of the axiological system in Risalat al-tayr? How these components are organized? With investigation of Risalat al-tayr, which is the suitable method to measure the effect of the stories on each other. Risalat al-tayr uses a unique similitude in storytelling, for this reason, it benefits from a special kind of narration. So, by investigating the narration of this text, it is possible to understand the mentality of the narrator and depict the effect of these stories based on their narrative style in order to reach a model of studying the narrative transformation. To this end, the authors have adopted Paris school Semiotic approach. The findings of the present research indicate that the Risalat al-tayr is totally composed of narrative periods including “Programmed Actional Regime, “Interactional system based on dialogue and negotiations” “ Actional regime based on competence” , “ Passive tension” , “ Sensible paradigm based on subject adjustment to the existence”, and “ attraction- correlation and assessment”. First and second periods are called tension periods and are an introduction to the periods of action, sensation, and assessment. Only Manṭiq al-ṭayr by Attar contains all these periods. In other treatises, only some of these periods are observed. In the first three periods and the period of assessment, the value of thing is outside the actors and in the periods of tension, sensation and attraction, the value is in the subject. In all of these texts, the value is added one by one to the text.
    Keywords: Keywords: Keywords: Risalat al tayr, Axiological System, Narrative Periods, Manṭiq al ṭayr, Semiotics
  • Avideh Talaei, Farrah Habib, Seyed Mostafa Mokhtabad-Amrei Pages 129-158
    In order to investigate the concept and function of the Iranian market, which is one of the important and influential elements in Iranian cities and has many social, economic, political, physical and cultural functions, it is possible to examine it in the framework of text analysis approaches such as linguistics and semiotics. The context of the Iranian market has implicational features; in other words, the context itself and its constructive factors all have the ability of meaning association. Now, given that the purpose of this research is to implement a conceptual model for proper reading and to examine the effective components in creating concept in the Iranian market like a context and as a shear of the city with a layered semiotic framework, its layers must be Identified and objective representation of the code network must be specified in a communicative action. Therefore, after explaining the basic concepts and outlining the theoretical necessities in the field of architectural semiotics, the layers involved in this reading will be identified and will be subjected to a precise analysis of the layered semiotic approach. The semiotics methodology of the foundation theory helps the researcher, in the form of an analytical method, identify the layers of Iranian market and examine the factors affecting the proper reading and decoding of it by identifying the signs and codes presented in the Iranian architecture, while investigating the signs and changing the types of them. The results of the current research showed that the market is a context in which various layers are slipping over each other and the monopolistic and separatist relations of the building elements have become overlapping and penetrating relations. The physical, functional, environmental, temporal, and semantic layers have been combined and unified and created a systematic whole in the name of Bazaar. In fact, the sets of the companion layers and the systems involved in this building are mutually supportive, and the coherence and creativity and proper reading of the Iranian market is possible due to the combination of the physical, functional, semantic, environmental and temporal layers; in such a way that the reading of this epitaxial semiotic complex relies on the audience's sense of movement within the physical and ultra-physical codes of the Iranian market
    Keywords: Traditional, Bazaar, Layered Semiotics, Architectural Reading
  • Zahra Talebi, Nader Asadi, Hanieh Davatgari Pages 159-178
    One of the most controversial issues in applied linguistics since the past two decades concerns the role of genre-based writing instruction and its applications in the area of second language (L2) teaching and learning (Correa & Echeverri, 2017; Derewianka, 2015; Lin, 2016; Tardy, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2011; Truscott, 2012; Thompson, 2014). Genre has been variously defined by different scholars in the field of second language acquisition. Swales (1990) introduced genre as a class of “communicative events” characterized by a sequence of segments with each move accomplishing some part of the overall communicative purpose of the text, in order to produce distinctive structural patterns.The main theoretical background of the study lies on Halliday’s (1994) Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), which offers the most theoretically sophisticated and pedagogically developed approach of the three, underpinned by a highly evolved and insightful theory of language and motivated by a commitment to language and literacy education (Hyland, 2004; Paltridge, 2001). Paltridge (2002) concluded that writing genre-based tasks, help learners achieve some genre knowledge and develop their awareness to reflect on the acquisition of the genres they need. Although previous studies have contributed to different aspects of language pedagogy in L2 writing, much remains to be investigated regarding the impact of genre-based approach on EFL learners’ written production. Bearing the gap in the literature in mind, specifically, investigation of genre-based instruction could contribute to SLA literature theoretically and practically
    This study aims at addressing the following research questions
    RQ1: Are product, process, and genre-based approaches differentially effective in the improvement of accuracy in writing among intermediate EFL learners?
    RQ2: Are product, process, and genre-based approaches differentially effective in the improvement of fluency in writing among intermediate EFL learners?
    RQ3: Are product, process, and genre-based approaches differentially effective in the improvement of complexity in writing among intermediate EFL learners?
    One-way ANOVA was employed as the statistical means of analysis for comparing the means of accuracy of product, process, and genre groups in written task.
    Discussion
    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of three modes of developments (product, process, and genre-based) on written task performance across linguistic domain of accuracy, fluency, and complexity in EFL context. The results of the study are in line with the findings of Swales (1986), Martin (2009), Martin & Rose (2008), Johns (2003), Hyland (2007), and Kuhi (2014) who supported the effectiveness and merits of genre-based approach on learners’ written performance. Similarly, in line with the findings of the study the results of the study conducted by Paltridge (2001) revealed that learners outperformed and produced coherent writing in the genres taught, relying on the model texts provided. Also, Yayli (2011) observed a group of EFL learners. He proposed that the students displayed awareness of generic features and applied such knowledge to the practice of genres. Similar findings were reported by Huang (2014), he found that the student developed knowledge of the research article genre through assimilating explicit genre instruction. Yayli (2011) and Huang (2014) both confirmed that genre-based pedagogy could effectively foster students’ genre awareness. In line with this arguments, Yasuda (2011) focused on a task-based syllabus design and investigated its effect in a genre-focused writing. Yasuda’s (2011) study demonstrated the effectiveness of a task-based instructional framework in genre learning. Also, Cheng (2008a) revealed that, a key finding was that the concept of genre functioned as an explicit and supportive learning tool in the student’s growing awareness.
    However, the findings ran against Freedman & Richardson (1997) that centered on the disjuncture between the claim that meaning is encapsulated in textual objects, genres as autonomous systems, and the avowal of a social constructionist functional model of language. Also, Dovey (2010) conducted a design-based research and the results obtained revealed that students who learned with the process-based curriculum design had better performance in writing than their counterparts in genre group. According to Byram (2004) genre underestimates the skills required to produce content, and learners’ self-sufficiency. Similarly, Bawarshi (2000), and Badger & White (2000), adopted an approach as a synthesis of the three approaches which could lead to important development in the writing classroom. As Badger and White argue, effective communication involves knowledge about language, knowledge of the context in which the writing happens and especially the purpose for the writing (as in genre approaches), and skills in using language (as in process approaches) (2000, pp. 157-158)
    Keywords: Result –based, Process, based, Genre, based, Writing Skill.
  • Fatemeh Bahrami Pages 179-202
    Number is a grammatical concept, whose singular/plural distinction has been mentioned in many Persian grammar books; but less attention has been paid to various semantic functions of plurality. So it is often interpreted as referring to more than one entity. The present article is an attempt to investigate mopho-semantic aspects of “h┠as one of the most frequent plural-making morphemes, particularly with the aim of examining two questions hereunder: What are the morpho-semantic functions of “h┠plural-marker in Persian?
    To what extend does Persian number system follow from the range of cross-linguistic varieties?
    Assessment of data (collected from written texts, grammar books and author’s intuition) according to Acquaviva’s framework (2008) clarifies that Persian follows from typological semantic functions and plural-making with “h┠represents different interpretations in relation to basic lexical meaning of nouns it attaches to. In sum, plurality in Persian conceptualizes one or more functions as follows: - referring to more than one entity;
    - representing imperfect aspect;
    - expressing cohesion;
    - representing blurred perceptual boundary;
    - reflecting concrete reading of abstract and spatio-temporal nouns;
    - affirming instantiation, quantitative and qualitative abundance of the referent;
    - indicating distributive-dispersal interpretation of mass nouns, similarity; and
    - highlighting emphasis on the referent.
    It is worth mentioning that some aforementioned functions such as representing aspect, quantitative abundance, emphasizing and approximate temporal extension have not been introduced in the Acquaviva’s framework and they can just be found in Persian. Nevertheless, it is also possible to explain these by extending the conceptual modules of the framework
    Keywords: Number, “hâ” morpheme, Semantic typology, Morpho, semantic features
  • Ali Darzi, Majid Abbasi Pages 203-225
    The question of whether the subject stays in its base position within the vP or moves to its derived position at Spec TP/IP is difficult to answer with respect to free word order languages such as Persian, because the surface constituent orders in these languages do not necessarily provide sufficient information to determine syntactic positions (Koizumi & Tamaoka, 664:2010). The discussions in this regard has led to formulating two competing analyses: One is that the subject in canonically ordered sentences in Persian obligatorily moves from its base position within vP to its derived position at Spec TP/IP for the purpose of Nom Case or EPP checking (Anushe, 2008; Darzi, 1996; 2006; 2009; Tafakori R. 2007; Darzi & Beiraqdar, 2007). The other one, however, is that the subject does not have to move out of vP and stays in its base position within it (Karimi, 2005). In the present study we test these analyses by performing two off-line experiments, involving a sentence completion task and a grammaticality judgment task. Analyzing the data obtained from the sentence completion task revealed that in %90.89 of the experimental sentences, completed by participants, subjects were located in Spec TP/IP. It also revealed that in %9.11 of the experimental sentences, produced by participants, subjects were located within vP. Furthermore, studying the data gained from the grammaticality judgment task divulged that the sentences with their subjects within vP took longer to process than the sentences with their subjects in Spec TP/IP; It took 2.871 and 3.801 seconds for the participants to process these two groups of sentences respectively. These results present psycholinguistic evidence for the analysis according to which the subject must move to Spec TP/IP in canonically ordered sentences in Persian
    Keywords: Keywords: Keywords: Scrambling, Reaction time, Grammaticality Judgment task, Derivational
  • Afsar Rouhi, A.R. Nemat Tabrizi, Manoochehr Jafarigohar, Fatemeh Hemati, Esmaeil Ghaderi Pages 227-249
    Task-based language teaching (TBLT) characterized by involving language learners in meaning-focused activities with some focus-on-form has enjoyed increasing popularity in the past two decades. Meanwhile, ample theoretical and empirical evidence has been presented to account for different task design features that influence language learning and learners’ performance. However, selecting and sequencing suitable tasks as well as recognizing appropriate task combinations that can provide a good opportunity for learning are still topical issues in SLA research (Robinson, 2011; Skehan, 2014).
    Considering this interest, this study set out to examine whether changes in the cognitive demands of tasks and their implementation condition (operationalized by individual and collaborative writing) would lead to differential improvement in language learners’ writing performance. The study also explored the relationship between an under-researched learner factor (self-regulation) and EFL learners’ written performance in individual and collaborative tasks varying in terms of cognitive complexity. The novelty of the present study lies primarily in its considering the combined effect of task complexity and task condition on writing—which is a somewhat neglected mode in research on TBLT—of EFL learners.
    Although different models and criteria have been proposed to account for task complexity, psycholinguistic rationales have drawn more support recently. Skehan’s (1998, 2009) trade-off hypothesis and Robinson’s (2001, 2003, 2009) cognition hypothesis are two influential models in vogue toady. Different views on attentional capacity of human beings have led Skehan and Robinson to have almost contradicting predictions on learners’ performance in tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity. Robinson (2001, 2003), assuming multiple-resource model of attention, holds the view that performing some complex tasks (e.g., those made complex by the number of elements) pushes learners to make efficient use of their attentional resources and produce more accurate and complex output. Contrarily, Skehan (1998), acknowledging the limited attentional capacity of learners, claims that simultaneous increase in accuracy and syntactic complexity of linguistic output is not feasible just due to the manipulation of task complexity. He claims that learners carrying out cognitively demanding tasks have to prioritize one (accuracy or complexity) at the expense of the other.
    Two research questions were formulated for the present study: (a) Do task complexity, task condition, and their interaction affect the accuracy, syntactic complexity, and fluency (CAF) of language learners’ written performance? (b) Is there any relationship between self-regulation of language learners and their performance in individual and collaborative writing tasks varying in terms of cognitive complexity? To answer these questions, 122 EFL learners whose homogeneity was ensured by Nelson English Language Proficiency Test were recruited. They were randomly assigned into four groups. The participants in four groups carried out the tasks which were different in terms of cognitive demands (simple/complex) and their implementation conditions (individual/collaborative). Task complexity was manipulated by the number of elements that participants had to consider while performing the writing task.
    The collected data were analyzed by MANOVA and Pearson correlation after checking for the assumptions underlying these statistical analyses. Findings revealed that task condition had a significant effect on the writing accuracy of language learners but manipulation of task complexity did not affect three writing dimensions, i.e., syntactic complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) significantly. These findings lent partial support to Skehan’s (2009) trade-off approach toward task design and also Vygotsky’s (1978) social constructivism. Moreover, self-regulation of learners who performed the complex writing task in isolation showed a positive significant correlation with the accuracy of their writing. Robinson (2011) has made a similar prediction regarding the role of individual differences in learners’ performance in complex tasks. The findings add support to the view that selecting appropriate levels of task complexity and suitable task implementation conditions enhance different dimensions of the written performance of language learners. The study calls for more prominent place for task condition and individual differences of learners in the frameworks and models put forward for task designing and sequencinG
    Keywords: Task Complexity, Task Condition, Writing, Self, regulation
  • Mehdi Sabzevari Pages 251-271
    Polysemy is one of the most important, and traditional area in the semantic and lexical relations studies. Polysemy is a lexeme or word which has several meanings which are all somehow related. Regarding distinctive features of the words which are seen as polysemy cases, the study of these concepts and meanings specifically, and lexical relations in general is in the focus of the two recent decades researches in the cognitive linguistics, and also for psycholinguistics. We could find a rather rich literature in the study of polysemy in the field of lexical semantic and also cognitive semantics. In the traditional lexical semantics, collocation and the adjacent words are very important to add to the meaning of a word. In cognitive semantics, different concepts of an expression is connected to a central or proto typical concept in a network like connections which represents the fact that one concept is central, and the rest are non-central or secondary but related somehow to this primary meaning or concept. Indeed, the metaphorical extensions have no place among the actual concepts of a word. Polysemy could not include the figurative meanings of a word. Polysemy typically is a matter of nonfigurative and lexical meaning. In Persian, it has been always a tendency toward semantics and the lexical relations surveys. This tendency reveals the subject as a demanding area. In this descriptive and analytic paper, the types of polysemy of Persian with a cognitive approach, and classification of Evan's study will be considered, and discussed with the examples to testify if this classification will also be applicable to Persian or not. Evans suggests that polysemy might be one of the three kinds of conceptual, lexical and inter-lexical. What is important in Evan's approach is the semantic components of a word which could be activated in the relevant contexts, and this activation may represents some kind of conceptual polysemy. What is traditionally considered as polysemy is mostly treated as lexical polysemy in Evan's study. Conceptual polysemy with regards to the features as size, color, shape etc. of a single concept, and different activations of these features proposes a new look at the polysemy. In lexical polysemy, one meaning is central or primary from which other meanings emerge in a radial manner. Most of the polysemy cases in a language could be found as a lexical polysemy in Evan's terms. Different categories in language including nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs represent polysemy. Inter-lexical polysemy includes the possible polysemy relations between two words with different usages. A cognitive approach as Evan's consider polysemy in a language is based on a primary or central concept, selection and activation of some features of a concept, the effect of context, mental and cognitive accessibility of the speakers to a definite cognitive pattern to come to a specific interpretation. A point worth to mention here is that regarding polysemy, a word might have a figurative or metaphorical meaning in a context which is not often mentioned among the meanings in a lexical entry. This meaning is totally context- based. Polysemy is not mainly related to a special context but it is the second or third or even more actual, and inherent meaning of a word and it could be found in a dictionary. Although context plays an important role for the selection of the right meaning, metaphorical meaning is a selection which is dependent on the paradigmatic relations due to some conceptual similarities. However, this metaphorical meaning is not part of the central meaning and as a result the polysemy. This paper, with the identification of these types of polysemy in Persian, is to analyze, and evaluates a semantic subject with a cognitive approach.With evidences presented in this paper from Persian ,Evan's approach is proved to be useful for and applicable to the polysemy analysis in Persian, and more it represents a different, and innovative method for studying polysemy
    Keywords: Polysemy, Primary concept, Radial category, Cognitive approach, Theory of Lexical Concepts, Cognitive Models (LCCM theory)
  • Eessa Motaghizadeh, Khalil Parvini, Seyed Reza Mousavi Pages 273-296
    Reading skills is one of the most important language skills. The Success in learning a second language depends on this skill. But it is noted that the final semester students of the Arabic language and literature department who are ready to be graduated and even many graduates of this field are not able to read the Arabic texts correctly and fluently. Therefore, the authors of the present study intend to use the descriptive-analytical method and survey method to evaluate the reading skill of Arabic of undergraduate students to identify their weaknesses on reading and offer some suggestions for developing them. It should be noted that different studies have been conducted on reading skill in Iran and Arabic countries, but none of these studies investigate the weaknesses of Arabic language and literature students of Iran state universities in reading skill. So the present study is completely different from previous studies. The main question of the study is: how weak are Arabic language and literature students in reading skill and what are the reasons of these weaknesses? The statistical sample of the present study has been formed by124 undergraduate students in the Arabic language and literature department in 12 Iranian state universities, 41 of them are male and 83 are female. The tool used in the study is a researcher-made test, which has been designed for the first time for reading skill in Arabic language and literature and the existing models in the Arabic countries have been used to design the test. The results reflected the weakness of students and their lack of mastery in this skill. Although the students who are ready to be graduated, faces weakness in all levels of reading. There is a kind of consensus amongst the experts of Arabic language on this issue. The most important reason of this problem is that there is no special lesson for reading skill in the syllabus
    Keywords: Reading skills, Recognition skills, Comprehension, Criticism skills, Arabic Language, Literature.
  • Morteza Babak Moein Pages 297-317
    Eric Landowski; the postgreimassien semiotician, defines his semiotic and interactive model as the program of discipline, conviction, coincidence and adjustment, according to the principles of "rule", "intentionality", "luck" and " sensible" paradigm respectively. Naturally, this model can be encompassed in the social domain in which we encounter with the interactive practices of subjects.
    If we accept that basically educational activity is defined on the basis of the interaction between the three different factors: the subject of the educator, the subject of the learner, and the object and method on which the training is based, we can study and explore the diversity and the difference for the training practices with this model.
    In the present article we tried to examine carefully this model and the characteristics of each of these semiotic and interactive systems. We will present another model, the virtuous and vices one in order to read the possible interactions between the educator's actor and the educator actor in a social welfare class to say the classroom.
    Accordingly, different educational methos of analysis and fundamental philosophy upon which each of them has been founded will be explored and examined by introducing various educational goals and patterns.
    Keywords: Program, Conviction, Coincidence, Adjustment, Landowski, Education