فهرست مطالب

Addiction & Health - Volume:9 Issue: 4, Autumn 2017
  • Volume:9 Issue: 4, Autumn 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Prevalence of Internet Addiction in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Farhad Modara, Jalal Rezaee-Nour, Nader Sayehmiri, Fatemeh Maleki, Narges Aghakhani, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Fatemeh Koohi Page 0
    Background
    The internet has unique properties that include ease of access, ease of use, low cost, anonymity, and its attractiveness which resulted in problems such as internet addiction. Different statistics has been reported about internet addiction rate, but there is not a suitable estimation about the growth of Internet addiction in Iran. The aim of this study is to analyze the growth of Internet addiction in Iran using meta-analysis method.
    Methods
    At the first stage, by searching in scientific databases such as Magiran, SID, Scopus, ISI, Embase and use of keywords like Internet addiction, 30 articles were chosen. The outcomes of the study combined together with using meta-analysis method (random effects model). The analysis of the data was performed using R and Stata software.
    Findings: Based on 30 studies and sample size of 30439, the growth rate of Internet addiction based on the random effects model was 8% [with confidence interval (CI) of 95%]. The meta regression model showed that the trend of Internet addiction growth rate in Iran increased from 1385 to 1394.
    Conclusion
    This study showed that the prevalence of Internet addiction in Iran seems moderate. Therefore, the necessity of identification, treatment, and prevention of the age groups which are at the risk is being sensed by the responsible and related authorities.
    Keywords: Addiction Internet, prevalence, meta-analysis, systematic review, students, behavioral addiction, dependence
  • Maliheh Ghobadi, Mohammad Reza Farrokhi, Nouzar Nakhaei, Mohammad Jafari-Sirizi, Mohsen Barouni Pages 190-198
    Background
    Cigarette seems to be the least valuable of addictive drugs. It is easily accessible to the public, and its harmful personal and social effects have attracted less attention. Therefore, the present research was carried out with the aim of presenting cost estimations of smoking-related diseases in smokers who aged 35 or higher in Kerman City, Iran, in 2014.
    Methods
    Using the prevalence approach, the direct and indirect costs of smoking-attributable diseases including lung cancer, gastric cancer, myocardial infarction, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were estimated. The initial data were obtained from the information in documents of medical document units as well as the 2014 income statements of teaching hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman City.
    Findings: In this research, total economic costs of diseases attributed to smoking were estimated to be 50 million dollars in 2014 in Kerman City, and calculations suggest that this figure accounts for 0.02% of Iran’s gross domestic product (GDP). Total direct cost of diseases caused by smoking in Kerman City adds up to 17 million dollars, whereas the estimated indirect cost of diseases caused by smoking is 33 million dollars. The yearly per capita cost of any of the selected five diseases is 270 dollars.
    Conclusion
    Smoking places a high economic burden on health system and society as a whole. Therefore, stronger intervention measures against smoking should be taken without delay to reduce the health and financial losses caused by smoking.
    Keywords: Cost of illness, Smoking, Relative risk, Stroke, Cancer, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Myocardial infarction
  • Arezoo Saberi, Gholamreza Sepehri, Zohreh Safi, Behzad Razavi, Faranak Jahandari, Kouros Divsalar, Ehsan Salarkia Pages 199-205
    Background
    Methamphetamine (mAMP) as a recreational drug has devastating effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies have shown that mAMP has inhibitory effects on oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and causes impaired fertility. This study designed to investigate the effect of mAM Padministration on histological changes and spermatogenesis indices in the testis of adult male rats.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (received no treatment, n = 10), vehicle (received saline for 7 and 14 days, n = 20), and experimental group [received mAMP, 5 ml/kg, intraperitoneal (IP) for 7 and 14 days, n = 20]. Testicular tissue samples were stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) technique. For histological study, we counted the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Leydig cells. Spermatogenesis indices which include: tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SI), repopulation index (RI) and the mean seminiferous tubules diameter (MSTD) were studied. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, using SPSS software. P Findings: This study showed that mAMP caused a significant decrease in number of seminiferous tubules cells and spermatogenesis in treated group compared with the control group. Moreover, results showed a significant decrease in spermatogenesis indices including TDI, SI, RI, and MSTD in 14th day, compared to control group (P
    Conclusion
    The data showed the adverse effects of mAMP administration (for 7 and 14 days) on testes structure and spermatogenesis indices in rat testis tissue. The underlying mechanism(s) needs further investigation.
    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Histology, Spermatogenesis, Testis, Rats
  • Effat Ramshini, Shahriar Dabiri, Shokouh Arjmand, Gholamreza Sepehri, Mohammad Khaksari, Meysam Ahmadi, Mohammad Shabani Pages 206-213
    Background
    A number of neuroimaging studies on human addicts have revealed that abuse of Methamphetamine (METH) can induce neurodegenerative changes in various brain regions like the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Although the underlying mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity have been studied, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity remain to be clarified. Previous studies implicated that cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) exert neuroprotective effects on several models of cerebral toxicity, but their role in METH-induced neurotoxicity has been rarely investigated. Moreover, the cerebellum was considered as a potential target to evaluate the effects of cannabinoids on locomotion activity as the CB1Rs are most widely distributed in the molecular layer of cerebellum. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate whether neurodegeneration induced in the cerebellum tissue implicated in locomotion deficit induced by METH.
    Methods
    In the current study, open field test was used to examine locomotor activity. Using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, morphology of the cerebellar vermis was investigated after repeated exposure to METH. Then, the effects of CB1Rs antagonist [SR17141A, 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)] and CB1Rs agonist [WIN55, 212-2 (WIN), 3 mg/kg] against METH-induced neurodegeneration and locomotor deficit were assessed.
    Findings: The results of the present study demonstrated that repeated exposure to METH increased cerebellar degeneration level as compared to the saline and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) groups. In addition, METH-treated rats showed hyperactivity as compared to the saline and DMSO groups. Pretreatment with WIN significantly attenuated neurodegeneration and hyperactivity induced by METH.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study provided evidence that CB1Rs may serve as a therapeutic strategy for attenuation of METH-induced locomotor deficits.
    Keywords: Neurodegeneration, Methamphetamine, Cerebellum, CB1 receptor
  • Zeinab Heidari, Armita Shahesmaeili, Mohammad Reza Khajeh-Bahrami, Mandana Rezazadeh-Mehrizi, Mohammad Hossein Gozashti, Vahid Moazed Pages 214-221
    Background
    Osteoporosis and osteopenia are the most common metabolic bone diseases making the patients vulnerable to bone fragility and fracture. In this study, the association of opium consumption and osteoporosis adjusted for other risk factors was studied.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 619 cases including 73 men and 546 women referred to densitometry center in Kerman, Iran, were studied. Demographic information, history of opium consumption, medications, and other risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire.
    Findings: In a univariate analysis, opium consumption, aging, and having a body mass index (BMI) lower than 24 accompanied an increased chance of osteoporosis, while taking physical exercises on a daily basis reduces the chance of osteoporosis. Through multivariable analysis, the two variables of age group and BMI group turned out to be of significance; that is, the chance of osteoporosis or osteopenia in the age group of higher than 60 years and 45-60 years being placed in one of the levels of osteoporosis or osteopenia was 4.9 and 3.1 times higher than the age groups lower than 45 years, respectively, after being adjusted to the other variables.
    Conclusion
    Considering the results of this study, though the risk of bone density reduction in the individuals consuming opium was higher, due to the disparity between opium consumption in the two sexes, the difference was not significant between the two groups, and it is proposed that studies on larger samples and in the both sexes be conducted to determine the impacts of opium on the bone density.
    Keywords: Opium, Osteoporosis, Osteopenia
  • Mohammad Mohammadi, Najmeh Asghari, Mahtab Hashemipoor, Shima Borji, Molouk Torabi Pages 222-228
    Background
    Although evidence indicates that tobacco use is one of the risk factors for oral cancer, the relationship between opium addiction and oral cancer has not yet been evaluated. The present study was performed aiming to evaluate P53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in the gingival tissue of opium-dependent patients.
    Methods
    102 individuals (70 men and 32 women) were entered in the study. 63 and 39 individuals were included in the opium-dependent group and opium-independent group (control group), respectively. 1 gingival biopsy was taken from each individual. The biopsies were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution and embedded in paraffin at 56 C. The slides were then stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (H & E) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation was performed with the antihuman antibodies of P53 and EGFR. The protein expression level was later assessed and data were analyzed statistically.
    Findings: P53 expression was higher among the opium-dependent group, however the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.052). EGFR expression was significantly higher among the opium-dependent group compared to the control group (P = 0.006).
    Conclusion
    Opium dependency significantly affects EGFR expression in gingival tissue, however it seems to have no significant effect on P53 expression.
    Keywords: Opium, Oral cancer, P53 genes, EGFR genes
  • Omid Massah, Mohammad Effatpanah, Afsaneh Moradi, Mohammad Salehi, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Karami Pages 229-236
    Background
    Untreated Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has been reported among many Iranian female methadone patients. However, few of them report receiving HCV treatment. The present study is the first research from western Asia that explored the barriers to receiving HCV treatment among a group of Iranian female HCV-infected methadone patients.
    Methods
    This qualitative study was conducted in four main methadone treatment clinics in Tehran, Iran, in November 2016. Overall, fifty-six untreated HCV-infected women and eight clinicians from HCV and methadone treatment services were interviewed. Women either had not received HCV treatment or received HCV treatment but left it. Data were analyzed using NVivo software. This was based on the grounded theory of Strauss and Corbin.
    Findings: Barriers to receiving HCV treatment included factors related to individuals and factors related to the system. Individual factors included the perception that untreated HCV infection was not a serious health concern, family responsibilities, and self-perceived discrimination against HCV-infected women. System-related factors included the lack of referral from methadone treatment staff, and a long distance between HCV treatment centers and methadone treatment centers. Interviews with the health professionals also confirmed the women’ self-reports.
    Conclusion
    The results of this research confirm the necessity of providing HCV education and the delivery of comprehensive care for this group in methadone treatment clinics. Other services such as staff education and HCV treatment services at methadone treatment centers are suggested.
    Keywords: Drugs_Hepatitis C virus_Iran_Methadone_Treatment
  • Ali Bahramnejad, Abedin Iranpour, Mashallah Karbakhsh, Nouzar Nakhaee Pages 237-242
    Background
    Adolescence is the age of increased sensation-seeking and risk-taking. To prevent such behaviors, the adolescent tendency to engage in high-risk behaviors must be measureable. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire about risk-taking tendencies among Iranian students.
    Methods
    This study was conducted using cluster sampling of the tenth-grade students in three cities in Kerman province, Iran. The students were assured that the questionnaires would remain anonymous and unlinked. Construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and comparison of known groups. Corrected item-scale correlation and Cronbach's alpha were calculated to evaluate reliability.
    Findings: A total of 551 high school students participated in this study. Of these, 57 were excluded after checking the “non-existent drug” item (10.3%). Girls accounted for 49.2% of the sample. Of the 33 initial questions, 13 were removed due to factor loading of less than 0.5. Two factors were extracted using the scree plot (“drug abuse tendency" and "other risky behavior tendency"). The tendency toward high-risk behavior was significantly higher in male students than in female ones (P
    Conclusion
    The questionnaire measuring the tendency toward high-risk behavior among students showed acceptable validity and reliability.
    Keywords: Risk behavior, Adolescent, Students, Substance abuse