فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال بیست و نهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1397)
  • سال بیست و نهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • مقاله پژوهشی
  • محمداسماعیل ریاحی، سمانه اسکندری، بهزاد حکیمی نیا * صفحات 1-18
    احساس عدالت، از مهم ترین عامل های موثر بر ثبات اجتماعی، بهره وری اقتصادی و مشروع بودن سیاسی است. مطالعه حاضر قصد دارد رابطه بین میزان مصرف رسانه ای (روزنامه چاپی، تلویزیون داخلی - ماهواره ای و اینترنت) با میزان احساس عدالت را بررسی کند.
    این پژوهش با روش پیمایش انجام شده است. جامعه آماری آن، شامل همه دانشجویان شاغل به تحصیل در پردیس دانشگاه مازندران در سال تحصیلی 92 - 91 است که تعداد 400 نفر براساس نمونه گیری طبقه ای متناسب، انتخاب و پرسش نامه های خوداجرا بین آنها توزیع شد؛ سپس اطلاعات جمع آوری شده به کمک نرم افزار SPSS و با استفاده از روش های آماری توصیفی و استنباطی تجزیه و تحلیل شدند.
    یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند بین میزان تماشای تلویزیون داخلی و احساس عدالت، رابطه مثبت برقرار است؛ اما میزان تماشای تلویزیون ماهواره ای و استفاده از اینترنت، رابطه ای منفی با میزان احساس عدالت دارند. میزان مطالعه روزنامه نیز رابطه معناداری با میزان احساس عدالت ندارد؛ همچنین نتیجه های تحلیل رگرسیونی چندمتغیره، نشان می دهند پس از متغیر میزان تماشای تلویزیون داخلی که بیشترین تاثیر معنادار را بر میزان احساس عدالت دارد، متغیر های میزان تماشای تلویزیون ماهواره ای و میزان استفاده از اینترنت در رده های بعدی قرار می گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس عدالت، عدالت رویه ای، عدالت توزیعی، رسانه های جمعی، مصرف رسانه ای
  • محمد گنجی*، محسن نیازی، امین حیدریان صفحات 19-40
    یکی از مهم ترین مولفه های توسعه فرهنگی، مشارکت فرهنگی است که در سال های اخیر بسیار به آن توجه شده است. این مقاله برخی عوامل اجتماعی موثر بر مشارکت فرهنگی را ازنظر نظری و تجربی بررسی می کند. مباحث نظری این پژوهش مبتنی بر مجموعه ای دیدگاه ها در زمینه مشارکت فرهنگی و سایر متغیرهای اجتماعی مطالعه شده است و روش تجربی آن، پیمایش اجتماعی است. جامعه آماری این مطالعه شامل دانشجویان و استادان دانشگاه کاشان بوده است که از این میان تعداد 300 نفر برای حجم نمونه آماری به صورت نمونه گیری سهمیه ای انتخاب شده اند. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل رگرسیونی در بخش دانشجویان، تاثیر مستقیم متغیرهای استفاده علمی از اینترنت و رضایت مندی از سیاست های حمایتی دانشگاه بر مشارکت فرهنگی دانشجویان و در بخش استادان تاثیر مستقیم متغیرهای استفاده علمی از اینترنت، سرمایه فرهنگی و رضایت مندی از سیاست های حمایتی دانشگاه بر مشارکت فرهنگی استادان را نشان می دهند. در مجموع متغیرهای واردشده به معادله رگرسیونی، 32 درصد از واریانس مشارکت فرهنگی دانشجویان و 59 درصد از واریانس مشارکت فرهنگی استادان را تبیین کردند.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت فرهنگی، رسانه های جدید ارتباطی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سلامت اجتماعی، سیاست های حمایتی دانشگاه
  • الهه شعبانی افارانی، مسعود کیانپور *، سهیلا صادقی فسایی صفحات 41-66
    تلفن همراه مناقشه برانگیز ترین تکنولوژی معاصر است که مرزهای خانواده را درهم شکسته و تغییرات چشمگیری در مناسبات، ارزش ها و هنجارهای خانوادگی ایجاد کرده است. در این پژوهش، بخشی از نتایج این فرایند باتاکیدبر نقش تلفن همراه در روابط بین همسران واکاوی شده است. با به کارگیری روش کیفی و رهیافت تئوری زمینه ای 24، مصاحبه عمیق در شهر اصفهان انجام شد و سپس داده ها با کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی در الگویی پارادایمیک سامان داده شدند. «بومی سازی تلفن همراه»، مقوله هسته این الگو، فرایندی را به تصویر می کشد که همسران تلاش می کنند مصرف تلفن همراه را در راستای اولویت ها، ارزش ها و انتظاراتشان از زندگی مشترک تعدیل و تنظیم کنند. شرایط شکل دهنده این فرایند در سه دسته شرایط علی (سرمایه اجتماعی بین همسران، مصرف چالش برانگیز تلفن همراه و روند زندگی مشترک)، زمینه ای (سرمایه اطلاعاتی همسران و جنسیت) و میانجی (ساختار خانواده، زمینه های پیش / پس از ازدواج و منش مذهبی همسران) قرار گرفتند. استراتژی هایی که همسران در این فرایند به کار می برند، در چهار مقوله استراتژی های پیشگیری از چالش، کنترل، مدیریت احساس نبود اطمینان و نجات اتاق خواب، دسته بندی شدند. پیامدهای این فرایند نشان می دهد تلفن همراه برحسب زمینه ارتباط پیشینی همسران، به تحکیم و تقویت ارتباط بین آنها کمک می کند یا به تشدید اختلاف ها و ناسازگاری ها منجر می شود. همچنین، تلفن همراه به حیطه وظایف و انتظارات زندگی مشترک وارد شده است و گاهی به تحکیم سلطه مردانه منجر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: تلفن همراه، زن و شوهر، انطباق، تکنولوژی مداخله گر، بومی سازی تکنولوژی
  • عهدیه اسدپور *، علی انتظاری، کاظم احمدی اهنک صفحات 67-86
    مشارکت اجتماعی از پدیده های اجتماعی مهم است که در پژوهش حاضر، عوامل موثر بر آن در شهرستان آمل بررسی و تجزیه وتحلیل شده است. داده ها با بهره گیری از روش پیمایشی و فن پرسش نامه جمع آوری شده اند؛ بدین ترتیب که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای، از 386 نفر از شهروندان بالای 18 سال شهرستان آمل، اطلاعات جمع آوری شده اند. نتایج آماری پژوهش نشان می دهند میانگین مشارکت اجتماعی جامعه آماری مطالعه شده در حد متوسط بوده است. میانگین مشارکت اجتماعی رسمی (با میانگین 91/3 از 10) نشان دهنده میزان مشارکت متوسط روبه پایین بوده است و میانگین مشارکت اجتماعی غیررسمی در سطح متوسط روبه بالا ارزیابی شده است (میانگین 74/5 از 10). مشارکت اجتماعی ازنظر محل سکونت متفاوت و در روستا بیشتر از شهر بوده است؛ همچنین بین میزان مشارکت اجتماعی رسمی با متغیرهای ساخت قدرت اقناع گرا در خانواده، استفاده از رسانه های داخلی، پایگاه اقتصادی – اجتماعی و گرایش خانواده به مشارکت، رابطه معنادار و مثبت و بین متغیرهای ساخت قدرت استبدادگرا در خانواده و میزان استفاده از رسانه های خارجی، رابطه معنادار و معکوس وجود داشته است. بین میزان مشارکت اجتماعی غیررسمی با متغیرهای مدت اقامت در محل، گرایش خانواده به مشارکت، ساخت قدرت اقناع گرا در خانواده و میزان استفاده ار رسانه های داخلی، رابطه معنادار و مثبت و با متغیر ساخت قدرت استبدادگرا در خانواده، رابطه معنادار و منفی وجود داشته است. تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیره نیز مشخص می کند متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش، در تبیین میزان مشارکت اجتماعی رسمی و غیررسمی سهم عمده ای داشته اند و مقدار تبیین به دست آمده به ترتیب برابر با 21 و 9/23 درصد است.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت اجتماعی، ساختار قدرت در خانواده، استفاده از رسانه های داخلی و خارجی، گرایش خانواده به مشارکت، شهرستان آمل
  • ریحانه رضاپور فریدیان، رویا رسولی *، وفا مصطفی صفحات 87-100
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه میزان حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده و رضایت از زندگی در افراد مبتلا به بی قراری جنسیتی با توجه به جنسیت و مرحله های درمان آنهاست. روش پژوهش از نوع علی - مقایسه ای و جامعه آماری شامل همه افراد ایرانی مبتلا به بی قراری جنسیتی در سال 1393 است. نمونه شامل 47 نفر مرد به زن و 47 نفر زن به مرد (94 نفر) است که با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و گلوله برفی انتخاب شده اند. ابزارهای استفاده شده شامل مقیاس رضایت از زندگی داینر و همکاران (SWLS) و مقیاس چندبعدی حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده زیمت و همکاران (MSPSS) است. برای تحلیل داده ها از تحلیل واریانس یک راهه استفاده شده است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند میزان حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده میان افراد مبتلا به بی قراری جنسیتی مرد به زن و زن به مرد متفاوت است؛ اما میزان رضایت از زندگی میان این افراد، تفاوت معناداری ندارد. همچین میزان حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده ازطرف خانواده و دوستان و نیز رضایت از زندگی در افراد مبتلا به بی قراری جنسیتی که دوره درمان تغییر جنسیت را تمام کرده اند، بیشتر از سایر آزمودنی هاست. براساس این یافته ها، عمل جراحی تغییر جنسیت برای این افراد پیشنهاد می شود؛ البته با توجه به محدودبودن نمونه، تعمیم دادن نتیجه ها باید با احتیاط صورت بگیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: بی قراری جنسیتی، حمایت اجتماعی ادراک شده، رضایت از زندگی، تغییر جنسیت
  • مهری شمس قهفرخی * صفحات 101-116
    مقدار ساعت کار زنان یک عامل مهم در رفتار فرزندآوری زنان شاغل شناخته شده است. هدف از این مقاله، بررسی تفاوت در باروری برحسب ساعت کاری زنان شاغل شهر اصفهان است. داده ها از یک پیمایش گذشته نگر از تاریخچه اشتغال و باروری اخذ شده است که 552 نمونه از زنان 40-20 سال را شامل می شود. برای برآورد اثر متغیر ساعت کاری، بر احتمال و الگوی باروری، از الگوی تحلیل بقا زمان گسسته استفاده شده است.
    نتایج کلی با محاسبه میزان باروری جزئی نشان داد زنان شاغل پاره وقت نسبت به زنان شاغل تمام وقت تعداد فرزند بیشتری به دنیا می آورند و هنگامی که تفاوت ها برحسب رتبه موالید بین دو گروه شغلی بررسی شد، نتایج نشان داد شغل پاره وقت، فاصله ازدواج تا فرزند اول و فرزند اول تا فرزند دوم را کاهش و احتمال رسیدن به فرزند دوم را افزایش می دهد؛ اما احتمال رسیدن به فرزند اول را کاهش می دهد. به عبارت دیگر، شغل پاره وقت، با بیشتر شدن احتمال به دنیا آوردن فرزند، در زنانی مرتبط است که قبلا یک فرزند داشتند. این امر، ناشی از این حقیقت است که این زنان در هنگام به دنیاآوردن فرزند اول به دلیل نگرانی از ثبات خودشان در بازار کار به صورت تمام وقت کار می کردند و کمبود زمان برای مسئولیت خانوادگیشان را تجربه کرده اند. پس با افزایش شغل های پاره وقت و درنتیجه آن، کاهش سطح فشار شغلی زنان، زمینه افزایش باروری فراهم می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: باروری، اشتغال زنان، اشتغال پاره وقت، اشتغال تمام وقت، تحلیل بقا زمان گسسته
  • جعفر ترک زاده *، فائزه فریدونی صفحات 117-138
    هدف این پژوهش پیش بینی شیوع رفتارهای سیاسی در جوهای سازمانی مختلف است. جامعه آماری آن شامل همه کارکنان دانشگاه شیراز است. با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای ساده، 250 نفر انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش شامل دو مقیاس نوع جو سازمانی (محرر، 1391) و مقیاس محقق ساخته رفتارهای سیاسی سازمانی است. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند تنها یک جو در دانشگاه شیراز غالب نیست و انواع جو توسعه ای، داخلی و منطقی به طور نسبی در دانشگاه رواج دارد. رفتارهای سیاسی سازمانی نیز در دانشگاه شیوع نسبی دارند؛ اما هنوز شیوع آنها به وضعیت بحرانی نرسیده است. این پژوهش نشان می دهد میان شیوع انواع جو سازمانی و میزان شیوع رفتارهای سیاسی سازمانی، رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. از دیدگاه کارمندان، جو داخلی و منطقی به طور مثبت و معناداری رفتاهای سیاسی سازمانی (بازی های سیاسی، بازی های قدرت و تاکتیک های سیاسی) را پیش بینی می کند. جو گروهی نیز به گونه ای مثبت و معنادار، بازی های سیاسی و تاکتیک های سیاسی را و به طور منفی و معنادار، بازی های قدرت را پیش بینی می کند. جو توسعه ای، هیچ یک از رفتارهای سیاسی سازمانی را به طور معنادار پیش بینی نمی کند.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتار سیاسی سازمانی، جو سازمانی، بازی های سیاسی، بازی های قدرت، تاکتیک های سیاسی
  • مهدی ستوده فر*، ناصر جدیدی، آذر قلی زاده صفحات 139-156
    صفویان پس از دوره فترت در ایران دولتی متمرکز تشکیل دادند و با تقویت هویت ملی ایرانیان و استفاده از عنصر هویت بخش دین، تحولاتی اساسی در ساختار حکومت و جامعه ایجاد کردند. رسمی کردن مذهب تشیع امامیه، مهم ترین اقدام حکومت صفویه در شروع کار بود که موجب تحول اساسی در ارزش ها و هنجارهای جامعه ایران شد. درنتیجه، بسیاری از ارزش ها جنبه دینی و مذهبی پیدا کردند و همراه این تحولات، برخی باورهای نادرست نیز رواج یافت. ساختار جهان بینانه حکومت صفویه با توجه به جنبه های دینی آن، تا جایی در زمینه خرافه گرایی پیش رفت که موجب ایجاد سستی در مبانی تشیع شد. نزدیکی فرهنگی ایران امروز با دوره صفویه، موجب ماندگاری و پایائی بسیاری از آداب و رسوم، اعتقادات و سنت ها شده است؛ درنتیجه باید ریشه برخی خرافه های موجود را در دوره صفویه جستجو کرد که به دلایل مختلف تا امروز ادامه پیدا کرده است. با توجه به تاریخی بودن موضوع، این پژوهش با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای استقرایی، به صورت کیفی و به شیوه تاریخی - تطبیقی انجام شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان دادند نفوذ باورهای خرافی میان نخبگان و دربار، موجب شیوع خرافات در سطح جامعه شده است. در کنار این عوامل، برداشت سطحی از دین و توجیه اعتقادات خرافی به وسیله باورهای دینی، ضمن گسترش خرافات، زمینه سقوط حکومت صفویه را فراهم کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ، صفویه، خرافات، تشیع، مرشدشاه
  • مهناز فرهمند*، معصومه توانگر صفحات 157-180
    به باور بسیاری از صاحب نظران، با تغییرات گسترده اجتماعی و فرهنگی دهه های اخیر، هویت ها در مرز سنت و مدرن متحول شده اند و تحولات اساسی را در روابط، باورها و انتظارات افراد از امر ازدواج و زناشوئی پدید آورده اند. به طوری که امروزه نهاد خانواده و زناشوئی را با چالش ها و تعارضات زیادی روبه رو کرده اند. بر همین مبنا، پژوهش حاضر درصدد واکاوی این مسئله است که پویائی و تحول هویت زنان شهر مذهبی و سنتی یزد چقدر است و چه نقشی در تعارضات زناشوئی دارد؟ جامعه آماری این پژوهش را همه زنان متاهل 20 تا 55 سال دارای فرزند ساکن یزد تشکیل داده است. روش نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای و حجم نمونه برابر با 394 انتخاب شده است. نتایج نشان می دهند بیشترین تعارضات زناشوئی در ابعاد تعارض ارتباطی و امور مالی است و همچنین 3/19 درصد از زنان هویت سنتی، 68 درصد هویت بینابین و 7/11 درصد هویت مدرن دارند. داده ها همچنین نشان می دهند میان دو متغیر پویائی هویت زنانه و تعارضات زناشوئی رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد. به طوری که با پویاترشدن ابعاد هویت زنانه و تغییر هویت سنتی به هویت مدرن، تعارضات زناشویی نیز افزایش می یابد. در ابعاد سه گانه هویت زنانه نیز داده ها نشان می دهند هویت های جنسیتی، نقشی، شخصی و مدرن در مقایسه با ابعاد سه گانه هویت سنتی زنان با تعارضات زناشوئی رابطه بیشتر و مثبتی دارند. از دیگر نتایج پژوهش حاضر این است که تعارضات زناشوئی زنان شاغل بیشتر از زنان غیرشاغل است و تعارضات زناشوئی با افزایش تحصیلات کاهش می یابد. نتایج تحلیل معادلات ساختاری برای ارزیابی الگوی پژوهش نیز نشان می دهند الگوی پژوهش به طور کلی برازش مطلوبی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تعارضات زناشوئی، پویائی هویت زنانه، هویت مدرن، بنیابین و سنتی
  • سیروس احمدی*، محسن اخوان مهدوی، مریم مختاری صفحات 181-202

    افزایش بی سابقه میزان بیکاری بین دانش آموختگان دانشگاهی از یک سو و توانایی نداشتن دولت در استخدام آنها ازسوی دیگر، نشان دهنده این است که باید به طور جدی تری به کارآفرینی توجه شود. بر این اساس، هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی فرصت های کارآفرینانه در علوم اجتماعی و تبیین جامعه شناختی عوامل موثر بر بهره برداری از فرصت هاست. در فرایند انجام این پژوهش از روش کیفی و کمی استفاده شده است. در چارچوب روش کیفی، تعدادی از استادان و کارشناسان اجرایی باتجربه علوم اجتماعی شناسایی و پس از انجام مصاحبه های عمیق با آنان، برخی از مهم ترین فرصت های کارآفرینی در علوم اجتماعی ایران شناسایی شدند. پس از تنظیم فهرستی از فرصت های مدنظر، فرایند کمی در قالب روش پیمایشی آغاز شد. جامعه آماری پژوهش، دانشجویان دوره دکتری جامعه شناسی در سراسر کشور است که 121 نفر از آنان به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش برای سنجش متغیرهای مستقل سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اقتصادی و روحیه کارآفرینی، پرسش نامه های محقق ساخته است که با استفاده از اعتبار محتوا و اعتبار سازه، تعیین اعتبار و با استفاده از همسانی درونی به روش آلفای کرونباخ تعیین پایایی شدند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهند سرمایه فرهنگی و روحیه کارآفرینی به ترتیب با ضریب 54/0 و 36/0 بر بهره برداری از فرصت های کارآفرینانه تاثیر معنادار دارند؛ ولی سرمایه اقتصادی تاثیر معناداری ندارد. همچنین ضریب همبستگی چندگانه الگوی معادله ساختاری نشان می دهد متغیرهای مستقل قادرند 33/0 تغییرات بهره برداری از فرصت های کارآفرینانه را تبیین کنند. نتیجه به دست آمده چنین است که برای ایجاد زمینه های کار و اشتغال در علوم اجتماعی باید ابتدا فرصت های مختلف کار و کارآفرینی شناسایی شوند؛ سپس سرمایه فرهنگی و روحیه کارآفرینی دانشجویان ارتقا داده شود.

    کلیدواژگان: تشخیص فرصت، بهره برداری از فرصت، روحیه کارآفرینی، سرمایه فرهنگی، سرمایه اقتصادی
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  • Mohamadesmaeil Riahi, Samane Eskandari, Behzad Hakiminya * Pages 1-18
    Introduction
    The issue of justice has long been one of the main concerns of human thought and its nature and mode of realization are essential and fundamental questions of history. Like many philosophical, political, and social questions, the discussion of justice can be tracked in ancient Greece (Plato and Aristotle). Aristotle's view of justice is influenced by his general theory of the hierarchical nature of the world. In his view, since creatures differ in terms of ability and merit, therefore, justice means to treat each person as they deserve it (Tinder, 1995: 54).
    Justice in social life has two special effects: the implementation of justice and the sense of justice. The implementation of justice is the same as what is sometimes given in the definition of justice at the legislative level, that is, the construction, structure and system of judicial system. In this case, it is not only about the law of justice or the issuance of a just sentence, but rather the general perception and belief that the executive and the judiciary in the courts have adhered to.
    The present study, considering the importance of the sense of justice in different areas of social life, as well as the important role of mass media in shaping beliefs, ideas and patterns of thinking and collective action in contemporary societies, investigates the relationship between media consumption with the feeling of justice among students of Mazandaran University. Students are considered to be the most important human capital of any country. The historic record of nations had made it clear that any country with interest in human capital achieves high levels of welfare with speed and quality. On the contrary, countries that have suffered stagnation due to their structural weakness or any other reason in developing their thoughts have not performed well in this area (Kalantari, 1993: 55). Accordingly, the questions that this article attempts to answer is: how media consumption can influence audience's feeling of justice? Is the relationship between the amount of media consumption and the feeling of justice differs with different types of media (newspaper, satellite / Internet TV)?
    Material &
    Methods
    A survey method has been used to investigate the relationship between media consumption and feeling of justice among students of Mazandaran University. For this purpose, using the available literature, an appropriate questionnaire was first developed and then data was collected. After questionnaires were filled out, the data were analyzed using SPSS. The population of this study consists of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of Mazandaran University in the first semester of the academic year 1391-92. The number of students enrolled in the campus of Mazandaran University was 9819 at that time. To determine the sample size, Cochran formula was used with 95% confidence level and 5% confidence interval. Based on this, using the Cochran formula, a sample of 370 was nominated, but more than 450 questionnaires were distributed in order to be sure that we could at least have 400 acceptable questionnaires to work on. Sampling was random and proportional in terms of the study major and gender. We divided the students into 10 classes according to their major .
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Out of a total of 400 individuals, 66.3% (265) were female and 33.7% (135) were male. The highest number of respondents (48%) was in the age group of 17-17 years and the lowest number of respondents (1%) were in the age group of 29 years and more. In terms of marital status, single respondents were much more, with 91.7% of them never married, while 7.7% were married and 0.6% had divorced or their spouse had died. Also, the number of undergraduate students was 85.5%, while 13% and 1.5% of the students were in postgraduate studies. Finally, regarding the socio-economic status of the family, more than half of the students (52.5%) belonged to lower class families, while the number of students belonging to families with middle and high socio-economic status were 40.3% and 7.2% respectively.The result show that there is a significant relationship between watching national TV and feeling of justice (P = 0/176, Sig = 0/001) and also the feeling of justice distribution (P = .137, Sig = 0/008). This is a positive relationship which means watching national TV increases the feeling of justice and justice distribution. In contrast, there is a meaningful but negative relationship between watching international TV (satellite) and feeling of justice (P = -0.143, Sig = 0/006) and distributive justice (P = .151 / 0, Sig = 0/004). Also, the relationship between Internet use and feeling of justice is not significant (P = 0.127, Sig = 0.127). Also, the relationship between reading newspaper and feeling of justice is not significant (P = 0.122, P = 0.824).
    The results of this study show that the overall feeling of justice in 48.2% of students is low. Meanwhile, the average overall feeling of justice (35.40 out of 100) was also relatively low. These findings are consistent with the results of Ghasemi and others (2010), Hazard Jirobi and Austin Fashan (2009) and Seddiq Sarvestani and Dhaghkele (2008). These results reflect the critical condition of the country in terms of the feeling of justice that is one of the essential components of social stability. The great feeling of injustice may also challenge the legitimacy of the system and increase social misery and unrest, social deviations and reduce the sense of social security (Ahmadi et al., 1393; Delna and Ghanbari, 2006; Rafi Pour, 1998). ). So in addition to the effect of media consumption on the feeling of justice directly, this variable can also affect the feeling of justice through feeling of security; the media consumption variable in a structural model has a direct and significant effect on the sense of justice (Khwaja Nouri And Kaveh, 1392). The results of this study also show that there is an inverse relation between the age of respondents and their sense of justice. These findings are consistent with previous research such as Sediq Sarvestani and Dhaghkele (2008).
    Keywords: Feeling of Justice, Mass Media, Media Consumption
  • Mohammad Ganji *, Mohsen Niazi, Amin Heydarian Pages 19-40
    Introduction
    Cultural participation is one of the main components of cultural development that has been emphasized by many scholars in the field of culture and development in recent years. Cultural participation has a special position among educational and cultural institutions such as universities objectively and practically and has been used as a criterion for measuring development-oriented social action. This article addresses the theoretical and empirical role of some social factors on the level of cultural participation of students and professors. The theoretical topics of this research have been based on the theoretical issues of this research in terms of Ronald Inglehart’s theory of modernization and cultural change, Mark Poster’s second media age theory, Pierre Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory, Corey Keyes’ social health theory and Bhikhu Parekh’s cultural diversity theory. The main objectives of the present research, in addition to assessing the level of cultural participation of the university and the impact of some of the most important social and cultural factors on it, have been the empirical comparisons between students and professors’ participation in cultural activities.
    Materials and Methods
    The research method is social survey (using a questionnaire) and the statistical population is the students and professors of Kashan University in the academic year 2014-2015. The sample size is estimated as n=300 by Cochran formula which includes 250 students and 50 professors. The applied sampling method is quota and the validity of the measurement tool, the face validity method, is devised and Cronbach's alpha method is applied to estimate the reliability of the questionnaire. Since the obtained coefficients for all variables are above 0.7, it can be concluded that the questionnaire has a good validity and reliability.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The results obtained in the experimental part of this study indicate that the average cultural participation of students is 41.30 and the average cultural participation among professors is equal to 45.62, which indicates the higher participation of professors in cultural activities than students (the average variable range of participation is between 18 and 90). Accordingly, the results of the correlation test of the research hypotheses show that there is a significant difference between the two groups of students and professors in terms of “duration and extent of use of the Modern Mass Media”, “scientific use of the internet”, “social health”, “satisfaction with supportive policies of university” and “cultural participation” variables. Examination of other hypotheses among students shows that the “scientific use of the internet”, “the use of satellite TV programs”, “cultural capital”, “satisfaction with supportive policies of university”, “duration and extent of use of the Modern Mass Media” and “social health” variables have direct and significant relationship with "cultural participation”. Testing hypotheses among professors also shows that the “scientific use of the internet”, "cultural capital", “satisfaction with supportive policies of university” variables have direct and significant relationship with "cultural participation”. Also, the results of the regression analysis in the student’s section bespeaks of the direct effect of “scientific use of the internet”, “satisfaction with supportive policies of university” on "cultural participation of students" and in the professor’s section the direct effect of “scientific use of the internet”, "cultural capital" and “satisfaction with supportive policies of university” on "cultural participation of professors" are highlighted. Generally, the variables introduced into the regression equation could predict or explain 23% of the variance of “student's cultural participation” and 59% of the variance of the "professors’ cultural participation".
    In general, the obtained experimental data confirmed most of the hypotheses. In particular, these data showed that modern socio-cultural mass media (such as the Internet and satellite TV) and cultural capital affect university level participatory activities through redefining social and cultural values ​​of participation. At the individual level, the social health of the individual, with its various dimensions prepares them for participation in cultural affairs while preparing people for the acceptance of individual values ​​of participation. Also, the university’s supportive policies in the scientific and cultural sectors, in addition to satisfaction and creating the motivation for participation, can provide grounds for the presence of academics in the field of cultural activities.
    Keywords: Cultural Participation, Modern Mass Media, Cultural Capital, Social Health, Supportive Policies Of University
  • Elaheh Shabani Afarani, Masoud Kianpour *, Soheila Sadeghi Fasae Pages 41-66
    Introduction
    Mobile technology has been turned into one of the most important aspects of everyday life. It is considered as the most controversial technology that has become the integral part of mainstream family, and has led to noticeable changes in norms, values, and structures of the family. While there is a wealth of research into family relationships and mobile phone separately, minimal attention is paid to the mobile phone’s interplay with the context of family life. Mobile phone provides people with a life style which is accompanied by emerging limitations and opportunities. Individualism and privacy are two important outcomes of mobile phone use that affect the family the most. In this research, we study the process of mobile phone adaptation in the family by concentrating on the relationship between parents-children and husband-wife in Isfahan City.
    According to the last census provided by the main Iranian telecommunication company, the penetration rate of mobile phone in Iran is 115%. Also, more than half of the mobile SIM card holders use Smartphone and are engaged in social messaging apps. In Isfahan, as stated by the official news agencies, the rate of mobile phone penetration is 88.5%. Although Isfahan has a rich traditional and religious heritage, nowadays it is experiencing considerable changes in the realm of family life. According to the comparison made by the central registration office of Isfahan, the rate of divorce has increased, the rate of fertility has declined, the average age of marriage has increased, and the marriage rate has fallen in 2016.
    In the current era, family life is changing so drastically due to the external and internal factors that some theoreticians talk about “the death of the family”. ICTs and especially mobile phones are an important part of the process of family change. Although normally people bring mobile phone to their family as a device of caring and controlling, the effects of mobile phone usage are much further.
    The way a person perceives mobile phone, uses it to communicate with family members and others, and benefits from it as a source of information technology; shape the image of the person in the family. It means, family members judge each other according to the way one member uses their mobile phone.
    While some may postulate that mobile phone influences are pulling family members apart, others contend that mobile phone has become an integral part of mainstream family life that can have positive as well as negative effects on family.
    Family and its wellbeing is a top priority in all societies. A society will not succeed unless the family performs its functions effectively. For this reason, it is critical to discover how mobile phone may affect the process of family change.
    Materials And Methods
    The exploratory nature of the study requires an inductive technique used in qualitative researches. We applied grounded theory strategy, and conducted semi-structured interviews with people, including parents, couples and single adults above 16 years of age. The participants explained whether or not (and if so how) mobile phones have impacted their family life and relationships. Data was analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding and then arranged in a paradigm-based model and a narrative line. According to theoretical sampling, we selected new cases to compare with cases that have been already studied. This provides a sample with adequate cases that can lead to theoretical generalization and construction of theory. Data saturation determined the final sample. The data for the study was obtained from 42 deep interviews that lasted between 60 to 90 minutes, during December 2015 to May 2016 in Isfahan city.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    Asking about the role of mobile phone in the family, respondents talk about both pleasant and unpleasant aspects of mobile phone usage. They believe mobile phone is a very useful technology to connect family members when they are away from each other. In contrast, when family members at present at home, challenges over mobile phone use arise. Here is a short summary of the main categories of the research.
    At the end of coding process, we selected “the culture of mobile phone phobia” as the core category. This theme lies on two aspects. On the one hand, some of the family members worry about the negative effects of mobile phone culture on family, like wives’ fear of their husbands’ access to pornographic themes through mobile phone. On the other hand, others were afraid that mobile phone culture may limit their individual rights and liberties. For example, some respondents found it unpleasant that family members can contact them anytime and anywhere when they are not at home. The causal conditions that shape the core category include “mobile phone etiquette/anti etiquette” (mobile phone addiction and mobile phone privacy), “internal social capital of family” (trust, conversation and family rituals), and “mobile phone uses among family members” (instrumental/expressive and entertaining uses).
    Contextual conditions including “gender”, “information-communication capital” (access and accessories), “value consensus” and “digital divide”; and intervening conditions such as “family structure” (power structure and demographics), and “pre/post marriage factors” shape the strategies that family members employ to manage this phenomenon. These strategies are named: “controlling cycle of mobile phone”, “preventing challenges of mobile phone use”, “digital bedroom”, and “stereotyping” (age and gender based stereotypes).
    The outcomes of this process demonstrate that according to the family contexts mentioned above, mobile phone may play a role in family life in dualities of: disruptive/facilitating, integrating/ dispersive, controlling/emancipating, creating/losing the opportunities, hiding/revealing, and creating expectations/responsibilities.
    Findings of this study show that as an information-communication technology, mobile phone carries a variety of meanings and implications that leads to specific conversations and interactions in families. In this process, family members experience adaptation to mobile phone culture and try to domesticate the outcomes and effects. Therefore, mobile phone is the subject of power, negotiation, norms, rules, and battles in families.
    Keywords: Mobile Phone
  • Ahdie Asadpour *, Ali Entezari, Kazem Ahmadi Ahank Pages 67-86
    Introduction
    Achieving progress without having a collective life and engaging with other people and in the form of a multi-disciplinary interactive process is not possible. In other words, with the assumption of a society, in order to achieve development, one of the essential conditions must be provided: the presence of participation. A bond or partnership between members of the community leads to the development of society. Therefore, participation in all its dimensions, in particular social participation, is one of the requirements of social life. In this paper, participation in social dimension is examined. Therefore, it is important to achieve a precise cognition of the extent of social participation and factors affecting it and it is essential to achieve a sustainable development, especially sustainable development. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to study the social participation of people over the age of 18 who live in Amol city. The influence of factors such as power structure in the family, family orientation on social participation and the use of communication media on the level of social participation. In other words, we can say that the present article seeks to answer the following questions: a. What is the rate of social participation? b. What are the factors influencing social participation? The researchers are determined to identify the ways to strengthen social participation by finding a scientific and experimental response to the above questions, in order to portray the prospect for officials and practitioners in order to achieve a thorough and comprehensive planning on the path to urban and rural development. Take great strides.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method is a survey and a cross-sectional research design, using a questionnaire technique to collect data. Based on the latest census in the Statistical Center of Iran in 2011, the population of the research is all individuals over the age of 18 living in urban and rural areas of Amol, which is 281,457. In order to select the sample size, a multi-stage cluster sampling method was used and the sample size was calculated using Cochran formula 382 (222 samples in the city and 160 samples in the village). Finally, 386 questionnaires were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t test, analysis of variance and multiple regression) were used to analyze the collected data using SPSS software. In order to investigate the validity of the questionnaire, the faculty credentials were used and referring to experts in this field. Also, in the present study, to obtain acceptable reliability, Cranach’s alpha statistic, matched consistency and internal consistency of the questionnaire were provided.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Regarding the purpose of this study and the findings, the total social participation among respondents was moderate. But the rate of informal social participation is greater than the level of formal participation. Regarding the historical context of our society, it has been observed that traditional (informal) partnerships and collaborations have long existed among tribes, villagers, and townspeople in various mourning and weddings, as well as economic and livelihood activities. Also, the statistical results of the research show that social participation in the rural areas has been more than urban ones. The social participation between the variables of power in the family, the domestic media, education, socio-economic status and length of stay in the location and had a positive significant relationship. But the authoritarian power structure in the family, use of foreign media has been significant inverse relationship. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the independent variables to study social participation of citizens Amol played a major role in explaining and explaining the derived value of 24.1 percent.
    Keywords: Social participation, Family Power Structure, The Use of Domestic, Foreign Media, Socialization, City of Amol
  • Reyhane Rezapour Faridian, Roya Rasouli *, Vafa Mostafa Pages 87-100
    Introduction
    The term “gender identity” denotes the consistency of one’s emotional and cognitive experience of one’s own gender and the objective manifestations of a particular gender (Hess, et.al, 2014). Gender dysphoria is a condition where an individual experiences significant distress because his or her sex assigned at birth does not align with his or her gender identity. This condition was previously referred to as gender identity disorder until the recent publication of diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). DSM-5 renamed the condition to emphasize that gender nonconformity is not a mental disorder in itself. Many patients with gender dysphoria, however, greatly benefit from both psychological and medical treatment to reduce their distress (Strandjord, Ng, & Rome, 2015). However, the most recent research has found that the sex reassignment surgery has positive impacts on patients with gender dysphoria (e.g. Ruppin & Pfäfflin, 2015; Johansson et al, 2010; Colizzi et al, 2015), whereas there are some findings and ideas that disapprove the sex reassignment surgery (Levin et al, 1990; Levey & Curfman, 2004), because of some negative serious side effects. Regarding to the importance of this issue, the present study aimed to compare the level of perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with gender dysphoria.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method is casual-comparative and the statistical population includes Iranian Patients with Gender Dysphoria in 2016. Sample included 47 Male-To-Female and 47 Female-To-Male (94 people) who were selected by purposive sampling and snowball sampling method. The tools used in this study include life satisfaction scale. Diener et al (SWLS) and multidimensional scale of perceived social support, Zimet and colleagues (MSPSS) respectively. To analyze the data, statistical evaluation was performed using SPSS.
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    The results showed that the level of perceived social support in FTM individuals was more than MTF, which is consistent with the results of research by Parola et al. (2010). According to psychoanalytic theorists, gender differences in using of social support are rooted in different childhood experiences and in the face of different developmental tasks (Pins & Zeidman, 2003). These results can also be explained by the fact that FTM individuals with gender dysphoria instability have less difficulty to find the social position than MTF (Parula et al., 2010). People with gender dysphoria who were at different treatment steps, had no significant difference in the level of social support that perceived by important others. This probably means that important others in all condition, including before, after and during the treatment, provide supports for people with gender dysphoria. The life satisfaction among MTF and FTM individuals also had no significant difference. This finding is consistent with the results of Neg et al. (2009); Ghahreman (2010), Iman and Kaveh (2012). However, some studies have shown that there is a significant difference between men and women in terms of life satisfaction, but most findings are in contradiction with each other. The contradiction in the findings probably indicates the impact of cultural, social and economic differences, as well as the difference in the age of the subjects. Finally, findings indicated that among people with gender dysphoria who had completed the course of treatment to change gender, the perceived social support from family and friends and life satisfaction were more than other people. Sex reassignment surgery helps people with gender dysphoria to match their physical sex with their sexual identity and social activities (Younes and Khalkhali, 2015; Ruppin & Pfäfflin, 2015). Thus the person becomes psychologically relaxed and his/ her behaviors are aligned with his or her gender. The achievement of a new sexual identity restores his connections with the community and others. This people find normal life by gaining a reputation and position in society and passing the basic needs. These findings suggest surgery, for people with gender dysphoria. However due to the limited sample, generalization should be used with caution. In addition, it is necessary to do more research on this issue, especially longitudinal research.
    Keywords: Gender Dysphoria, life satisfaction, Perceived Social Support, Sex Reassignment Surgery, Female To Male, Male To Female
  • Mehri Shams * Pages 101-116
    Introduction
    Women’s working hours is known as an important factor on childbearing. The question this paper tries to address is “whether the available part-time working schedule in Isfahan has any impact on fertility to better understand women’s behavior regarding fertility and their situation in the labor market?” The paper examines differences in fertility in terms of employed women’s working hours, trying to understand if part-time job is a good way to reconcile work and maternity. The effects of working hours on fertility is measured through probability (parity progression ratios) of first and second birth, mean of closed birth intervals at first and second birth, and the cumulative fertility rate (CFR). However, the real impact of these measures on fertility is yet to be examined empirically.
    Some theoretical considerations regarding the relationship between employed women’s working hours and fertility are used, including McDonald gender equality theory, role theory, Becker microeconomic theory and the risk aversion theory.
    Materials And Methods
    The data are derived from a retrospective survey using a questionnaire, which included histories of childbearing and employment of 552 married women aged 20-40, in the year of 2014 in Isfahan. The dependent variable is fertility, the explanatory variable is work hours, while other socio-economic variables including job's position, type of career relationship, sector, wages/salaries and job experience in the model are all controlled.
    Research method is based on discrete-time survival models (the complementary log-log model), that are used to construct multivariate life tables of parity progression. A woman’s parity is defined as the number of children that she has ever borne. Parity transitions are transition from woman’s own marriage to her first birth (0-1), transition from first to second birth (1-2), and so on. The basic dimensions of these life tables are age and parity. By multivariate it is meant that a life table can be constructed by values or categories of one socioeconomic predictor while holding the other socioeconomic variables constant. These multivariate life tables yield various measures of fertility. Parity progression ratios (PPRs) and the total fertility rate (TFR) and mean closed birth intervals are measures of fertility (Retherford et al, 2010).
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusions
    The results of the calculation of the cumulative fertility showed that part-time employed women had more children than full-time employed women (for part-time = 0/98 and for full time = 1/06), and when fertility behavior was examined by parity by looking at the transition to first births and then to the second, results showed that part-time work among women would be associated with lower likelihood to first transition (probability for full time= 0/76 and probability for part-time = 0/72) and higher likelihood to second birth in the case of women who already have one child (probability for full time= 0/29 and probability for part-time = 0/48). This was due to the fact that these women are more likely to have already experienced time scarcity in full-time employment due to their family responsibilities. Women who do not have children are expected to be more concerned about establishing themselves in the labor market and building a career. Mean age at first and second birth in part–time employment is shorter than full-time employment. In other words, mean age at first birth for part–time employment is 4/92 year and for full-time employment is 5/21 year and mean age at second birth for part–time employment is 4/1 year and for full-time employment is 5/26 year. So by increasing part-time jobs and as a result, lower levels of job strain in women, fertility may tend to increase.
    The lesson to be learned from this study is that if policy makers want to implement adequate part-time schedules so as to enhance fertility, they should look at the part-time schedule available in other countries, because it clearly enhances fertility for women who decide to make use of this flexibility measure.
    Keywords: Fertility, Working Hour, Part-Time Employment, Full-Time Employment, Discrete Time Survival Analysis
  • Jafar Torkzadeh *, Faezeh Fereidooni Pages 117-138
    Introduction
    Organizations have been formed according to social needs and for meeting those needs and every organization actualizes its general or particular objectives for the society by performing specific duties (Kodisinghe, 2010). To do this, staff of organizations take fundamental responsibilities to meet organizational objectives and they are considered as the most vital elements and the most fundamental strategies in increasing the effectiveness of the organization (Nabatchi 2007, Zhang & Lee 2010). In other words, organizations are formed by individuals with their personal plans acting as if to achieve power and influence on others. Such work plan or game is called the organizational policy world (Rezaeian, 2010). Moreover, individuals’ attempts in meeting their own objectives lead to appearance of political behaviors in an organization. Besides, one of the variables effective on staffs’ political behavior is the type of climate governing the organization (Litween & Strinch 2005) so that it has the same result and it determines the political behavior of individuals and groups in the organization (Pritchardand, R and Karasick 1973; Schneider 1972). Therefore, studying and analyzing the prevalence of organizational-political behaviors in different organizational climates are of great importance. In other words, organizational climate surrounds all aspects of the work life of the members of the organization and also has a significant effect on employees’ behavior and therefore the effectiveness and efficiency of the university. So the organizational climate affects the employees’ organizational, social, administrative and political dimensions. This study is to investigate the relationship between different types of organizational climates and the prevalence of organizational political behaviors at Shiraz University.
    Material &
    Methods
    The present study is descriptive and correlational. The statistical society of the research includes the whole staff of Shiraz University, of whom research subjects were selected randomly based on gender, working background, and educational status. The data was gathered by two scales of organizational-political behavior based on political games aspects, political tactics, and power games in form of 60 questions of five options from the type of Likert Spectrum and also Moharer’s organizational climate scale (2011) based on four types of developmental, internal, logical, and collective climates in the form of four-option questions similar to Likert Spectrum. Validity and reliability of tools were measured by Question-Analysis Method and Cronbach’sAlpha. Besides, the Variance Analysis Method, repeated measurements, mono-sample T-test, and Multi-Variable Regression Analysis were used to analyze the research questions.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    From staffs’ view, the prevalence level of political behavior in Shiraz University has been relative but it has not reached the critical status. The dominant political behavior is political tactics. Other findings demonstrate that there is not only one dominant organizational climate in the university, but a combination of different developmental, internal processes and a rational organizational climate is prevalent in different departments. Moreover, the ability to predict different organizational climates in the amount of political behaviors prevalence proves the fact that the developmental climate is not the significant predictor of any organizational-political behaviors (political games, power games, and political tactics). The internal process climate is the positive and significant predictor of political behaviors (political games, power games, and political tactics). The rational climate is also the positive and significant predictor of political behaviors (political games, power games, and political tactics) and the collective climate is the positive and significant predictor of political games and tactics and the negative and significant predictor of power games.
    Keywords: Organizational Climate, Political Behaviors, Political Games, Power Games, Political Tactics, University
  • Mehdi Sotoudefar *, Naser Jadidi, Azar Gholizadeh Pages 139-156
    Introduction
    Beliefs, traditions, and customs are important components of every culture. However, these beliefs sometimes become illogical and irrational. Irrational cultural beliefs are called superstition. Following a power interregnum in Iran, Safaivds managed to start a strong central government that politically transformed Iran. Declaring Shiite as the formal religion of Iran was by far the most important measure taken during this dynasty. This radically transformed the social values and norms of the Iranian society. As a result, many values were associated with religious concepts and teachings. The linkage of customs with the religious beliefs of the government and the people led to their consolidation and acceptance into the society’s culture. The significance of this study lies in the search for causes of the combination of superstitions with religious beliefs. The establishment of the Shiite religion in the beginning of this period and the spread of superstitious beliefs led to the suspicion that religion was the origin of the propagation of superstition. Nevertheless, both the Qur’an and Islamic narratives have emphasized on the importance of thinking and reasoning.
    Material &
    Methods
    In this research, we have tried to study the social structure of the Safavid period in order to identify effective cultural factors in promoting superstitions. Although the study seems merely historical, it seeks to eliminate these superstitions from today’s society by rooting them and showing their uncertainty and unacceptability from the perspective of religion, society, and of course, reason and thought. By studying various sources about Safavid social history, we tried to identify common superstitions and then analyze and explain them through inductive qualitative content analysis, in order to clarify the cultural factors affecting the prevalence of superstitions. Theoretical information was gathered from books, travelogues, and other relevant documents. Samples in this study include travelogues and books about the Safavid period. Considering the fact that this study has been carried out in the area of religious beliefs, as well as the diversity of topics, the abundance of examples, and the lack of a standard categorization framework, the content of these resources has been meticulously studied and analyzed, and the themes and topics of each book and travelogue were separately written down, and eventually the related examples were extracted.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Considering the prevalence of religious values in the society and the relationship between politics and religion in the Safavid period, the Shah (Iranian king) was known as a holy and innocent person, and obeying him was the same as practicing religious orders. As a result, religion became an instrument for enforcing the power of the king and the court. The promotion of some superstitions in the form of religion provided for the belittlement (‘Vahn’) of Shia foundations, which is widely observed in religious rituals and ceremonies. One of the reasons for the prevalence of superstitions in religion, and in particular the Shia religion, was the influence of the Qizilbashes (A group of Turk soldiers) in the structure of the Safavid government, which was more prevalent in religious fanaticism and anti-Sunni actions. In addition, during the Safavid period, there were many non-Muslim minorities in Iran, each with a different culture, who added some of their beliefs to Iranian culture. In the Safavid period, religious beliefs got mixed with superstitions in a way that it was difficult for the commons to distinguish between the two. In general, it can be concluded that the abuse of religious beliefs in this period was a means of spreading superstitions, to the point where many believe that religion and superstition have a cause-and-effect relationship, while many Quranic verses and Islamic narratives are devoted to the importance of reasoning and negation of superstitious beliefs and justifications.
    Keywords: culture, Safavid, Superstition, Shia, Morshed's kingdom
  • Mahnaz Farahmand *, Masumeh Tavangar Pages 157-180
    Introduction
    According to many scholars, with the widespread socio-cultural changes of recent decades, Identities have evolved on the border of tradition and modernity and fundamental changes are created in relationships, beliefs and expectations of the marriage and marital lives. Continuous reflection on women’s identity, the inseparable processes of presence in community and education, questioned the traditional structure of the family, which was largely based on gender differences, and caused difficulty in coordinating traditional roles with new family-personal roles. Based on this, the present study seeks to understand that what are the dynamics of women’s identity in the religious and traditional city of Yazd and what role they play in marital conflicts?
    Materials and Methods
    The method in this study is survey. The sample consisted of all married women in 20 to 55 years of age with children in Yazd. The sampling method was multi-stage cluster sampling method. Thus, at first three Yazd Municipality areas were considered as three main clusters, and in the next step, the main streets of each area of the municipality were considered as districts for clusters. In the final step, using a simple random method and visiting the homes, the respondents were recruited to be 394 individuals. The tool used in this study was a questionnaire. The questionnaire after validation and its reliability in the preliminary stages of the research, was used to collect the required data at the final stage. Content validity has been used in this research. Cronbach’s alpha has also been used to measure instrument reliability. The marital conflicts variable was measured with 0/94 alpha in the form of Likert scale. Also, the Female Identity Dynamic variable was measured with 0/90 alpha in the form of Likert scale.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The results of this study show that marital conflicts among women of Yazd are less than average, 65% have a low conflict, 29% have middle-range conflict and 6% have high conflict. Overall, it can be expressed that 35% of women with a middle to high conflict are a significant percentage and it needs attention and consideration to reduce its negative effects in marital life. Also, most conflicts exist in the aspects of communicational conflicts with a mean of 14/88, finance with a mean of 10/53, and parenting with a mean of 9/82. Also, 19.3% of women have a traditional identity, 68% have an intermediate identity and 11.7% of them have a modern identity. The results of the present research confirm that the intermediate identity of Yazdi women is neither in fact entirely traditional nor completely modern. This result also affirms that women in Yazd depart from their traditional identity, while their modern identity is strengthened and this factor lead to conflicts in their family backgrounds. The data show that there is a significant relationship between the two variables of the female identity and marital conflicts. And with more dynamics of women’s identity from traditional to modern, marital conflicts increase. In the three dimensions of women’s identity, data also indicate that gender, role, and personal identity have a positive and meaningful relationship with marital conflicts. The possible reason for this is that the family in Yazd did not change with the changes in the identity of women, causing conflicts in women’s marital life. The research results also show that marital conflict is reduced with increasing educational level. Marital conflicts of employed women is more than non-employed women. The results of the analysis of structural equations for assessing the research model show that the research model has generally a good fit.
    Keywords: Marital Conflicts, Dynamic of Female Identity, Traditional Identity, Intermediate Identity, Modern Identity
  • Siroos Ahmadi *, Mohsen Akhavan Mahdavi, Maryam Mokhtari Pages 181-202

    Introduction

    Social Sciences is one of the majors of humanities in most universities in Iran with many students. According to the ruling discourse in Iran, graduates of the humanities expect to be recruited by the government  after graduation. However, according to Article 65 of the Five-Year Development Plan of the Islamic Republic of Iran (2011-2015), which emphasizes organizing and reduction of manpower and the slow down of the government size, this discourse is not feasible. Given the increasing unemployment of graduates of the social sciences, on the one hand, and the availability of acceptable capacities in the country, on the other hand, the areas for the expansion of employment among graduates of the social sciences can be created by identifying entrepreneurial opportunities and exploiting them. But this has been under less attention. Therefore, the fundamental question of the present research is that, firstly, what entrepreneurial opportunities can be identified in the social sciences of Iran? And secondly, what factors influence the exploitation of these entrepreneurial opportunities? Puhakka (2010) believes that, opportunity recognition is composed of components such as competitive environment for collecting and analyzing information; a pioneering search of opportunities of future values ​​that relate to a brief image of the future and creation of an innovative strategy of opportunity strategy that are related to different economic activities. The exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities is the process of entrepreneurial decision-making, the creation of required entrepreneurial resources, policy and value creation. After finding entrepreneurial opportunities, entrepreneurs need to decide on development opportunities (Yefei, 2013). The exploitation of opportunities is influenced by several factors that some of them are as follows:Entrepreneurial spirit is a set of personality-psychological factors of entrepreneurs. In this regard, Parker (2004) and Davidsson (2006) argue that these features have a great influence on people's decision to start a business (Mueller, 2006). Therefore, the first hypothesis of the research is that, there seems to be a significant relationship between the entrepreneurial spirit and the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences.Cultural capital is defined as symbolic resources or goods that are passed from a generation to another generation among middle and upper classes in order to maintain the base of the class (Bourdieu, 1977; Farkas, 2003). According to Shane (2003), the education and experience of a person that is one of the aspects of cultural capital affects the decision to exploit opportunities. Therefore, the second hypothesis of the research is that, there seems to be a significant relationship between cultural capital and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences.Economic capital represents financial assets of any form that is directly convertible into money (Bourdieu, 1986; Jary & Jary, 1995), and Reynolds and White (1997) believe it to be significant in launching an enterprise. Therefore, the third hypothesis of the research is that, there seems to be a significant relationship between economic capital and the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences.

    Material & Methods

     In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies was used for the research. Accordingly, the qualitative research stage was first started to identify entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences. Population of the qualitative research stage was the relevant experts (including all university professors and entrepreneurs of the social sciences in different universities) who were selected using purposive sampling (Flick, 2006). The research tool for the qualitative section was a deep interview, whose validity was obtained through internal validity based on the selection of appropriate samples and its reliability was guaranteed through accurate guidance of the interview for information gathering (Rao & Perry, 2003). The data from the qualitative approach were analyzed according to Smith's (1995) method in three stages of data generation, information analysis and integration of the items. After extracting entrepreneurial opportunities, the quantitative part of the research began as a survey method. Population of the study was PhD students of sociology from all over the country and 121 subjects were randomly selected as the sample. The research tool for assessing the independent variables of cultural capital, economic capital and entrepreneurial spirit are researcher-made questionnaires, whose validity was confirmed using content validity and construct validity and its reliability was confirmed through internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

    Discussion of  Results & Conclusions

    In order to identify entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences, after interviewing 10 experts and reaching the theoretical saturation, interviews were recorded. In the first stage, 45 (primary) sub-themes related to various areas of social sciences that were capable of becoming entrepreneurial opportunities were identified. After integrating and clustering the primary themes, 16 main (final) themes that represent entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences were extracted. According to descriptive results, the mean of entrepreneurial spirit and its dimensions, except for the tolerance of ambiguity, was higher than the average value of 3. The mean of the cultural capital and its dimensions, except for the visualized dimension, is below the average value of 3. The average economic capital of respondents including income, housing and real estate and amenities was about 75 million Tomans, and the average income of respondents alone was about 2 million Tomans. The greatest interest and ability of students to exploit the opportunities identified in the social sciences is teaching in schools (public and private) and in universities as a lecturer in social sciences with a mean of 4.35 and 4.36, respectively. Also, the students' least willingness and ability is carrying out studies and social advisers in the field of housing, petroleum industries (training people for exposure to the host society) and insurance with an average of 2.30 and 2.20, respectively. These results also apply to both men and women. In the present research, theoretical model of the research has been developed in the form of a structural equation model to explain the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. According to this model, cultural capital and entrepreneurial spirit have a significant effect on employing entrepreneurial opportunities with a coefficient of .54 and .36, respectively; but economic capital has no significant effect. Also, the correlation coefficient of the structural equation model shows that independent variables can account for .33% of the changes in exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities. Given the ruling discourse in Iran that graduates of the social sciences in the undergraduate and postgraduate degrees must be a teacher and they should be appointed as the university professor or in some government departments as administrative staff without the least relevance to the university's specialty at the Ph.D. level, it becomes clear that there are no jobs for graduates of the social sciences in the nongovernmental sector. Regarding the results of the qualitative section of this research and the identification of 16 entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences, it was found that, contrary to the general impression, there is a wide range of occupations and employment opportunities in the social sciences and nongovernmental sector that with support of Iranian Sociological Association and consultation with government as well, have the ability to become formal.According to research findings, entrepreneurial spirit has a significant and positive effect on utilizing entrepreneurial opportunities. Existence of features such as success, internal control, risk-taking, creativity, and tolerance of ambiguity in students leads them toward more entrepreneurial work and activity in their field of study, and the expectation of individuals for government jobs is largely blurred. Also, cultural capital has a significant and positive effect on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Accordingly, individuals who are skilled in the preservation and transmission of scientific concepts and who use modern and up-to-date research methods to respond to new scientific questions and easily provide material, are of more interest and academic ability to benefit from exploiting entrepreneurship opportunities in their field of study. Finally, economic capital has no significant effect on the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities in the social sciences. The result of this hypothesis can be explained due to the nature of the entrepreneurial opportunities identified in the social sciences, the allocation of facilities to the owners of the ideas, and the situation of the global economy. Based on the results of the research, it is suggested to all social sciences departments of the universities of the country, to identify and categorize the job and entrepreneurship opportunities of this field by the professors. After the aggregation of the views of all academic departments, the final identified opportunities that are the result of the expert opinions of all professors of the field of social sciences in the country can be published in the form of a pamphlet or book and taught as 1 or 2-units in the final semester. In such a way, each student is guided to one or several opportunities given his interest and academic ability and can manage his future job without any expectations of limited government recruitment.

    Keywords: Recognition of Opportunity, Exploitation of the Opportunities, Entrepreneurial Spirit, Cultural Capital, Economic Capital