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پژوهشهای علوم دامی ایران - سال دهم شماره 1 (بهار 1397)
  • سال دهم شماره 1 (بهار 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان
  • امیر موسائی، رضا ولی زاده، عباسعلی ناصریان، محمد حیدرپور، حسین کاظمی مهرجردی صفحات 1-10
    به منظور بررسی اثرات تغذیه مکمل های آلی سلنیوم و کروم بر عملکرد و پاسخ بره به شرایط تنش انتقال، تعداد 24 راس بره ماده بلوچی در سن چهار ماهگی با میانگین وزن اولیه4/0 ± 2/24 کیلوگرم در قالب یک طرح کاملا تصادفی به 4 تیمار با 6 تکرار اختصاص داده شدند. تیمارها شامل جیره پایه فاقد مکمل آلی سلنیوم و کروم (کنترل)، جیره پایه + 5/1 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم مکمل آلی سلنومتیونین (گروه سلنیوم)، جیره پایه + 8/0 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم مکمل آلی کروم متیونین (گروه کروم) و جیره پایه حاوی 5/1 میلی گرم سلنومتیونین + 8/0 میلی گرم کروم متیونین (گروه سلنیوم-کروم) بود. طول دوره پژوهش شامل 2 هفته سازگاری و 9 هفته آزمایش بود. در ابتدای هفته 8، آزمایش تنش انتقال به مدت 30 دقیقه انجام شد و خونگیری قبل و بعد از تنش انجام شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تغذیه بره های ماده با مکمل های آلی سلنیوم و کروم سبب افزایش وزن زنده و بهبود ضریب تبدیل غذایی شد (ضریب تبدیل برای گروه های کنترل، سلنیوم، کروم و سلنیوم-کروم به ترتیب 99/5، 41/5، 22/5 و 45/5 بود). در بین تیمارها، بره های تغذیه شده با مکمل کروم-متیونین بیشترین مصرف خوراک روزانه و افزایش وزن زنده را نشان دادند. گروه تغذیه شده با مکمل کروم غلظت گلوکز کمتری نسبت به گروه کنترل داشت. پاسخ فیزیولوژیک بره ها در شرایط تنش انتقال حاکی از اثرات کاهش دهندگی غلظت کورتیزول و گلوکز مکمل های آلی سلنیوم و کروم بود. گروه تغذیه شده با مکمل کروم-متیونین غلظت گلوکز خون را بطور معنی داری نسبت به گروه کنترل کاهش داد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، استفاده از مکمل آلی کروم-متیونین و سلنیوم-متیونین می تواند سبب بهبود عملکرد و کاهش اثرات نامطلوب تنش بر فراسنجه های خونی و عملکرد بره های ماده شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بره ماده بلوچی، تنش انتقال، سلنیوم، متیونین، ضریب تبدیل غذایی، کروم - متیونین
  • کیان صادقی، اکبر تقی زاده، حسین جانمحمدی، غلامعلی مقدم صفحات 11-22
    در این تحقیق پتانسیل نرخ تجزیه پذیری ورمی کمپوست حاصل از محتویات شکمبه به صورت مکمل شده با ضایعات میوه و سبزیجات و ضایعات قارچ صدفی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایشی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی عبارت بودند از: تیمار 1 یا تیمار شاهد، حاوی 100 درصد محتویات شکمبه، تیمار 2، حاوی 60 درصد محتویات شکمبه + 40 درصد ضایعات میوه و سبزیجات، تیمار 3، حاوی 60 درصد محتویات شکمبه + 40 درصد ضایعات قارچ صدفی و تیمار 4، حاوی 60 درصد محتویات شکمبه + 20 درصد ضایعات میوه و سبزیجات + 20 درصد ضایعات قارچ صدفی، که هر کدام از تیمارها در سه تکرار انجام شدند. بیشترین و کمترین بازده ورمی کمپوست به ترتیب مربوط به تیمار 4 و 1 بود. بعلاوه تیمار 4 بیشترین درصد پروتئین خام و چربی و کمترین درصد الیاف خام، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی و خاکستر را در بین تیمارها داشت. نتایج حاصل از کیسه های نایلونی نشان داد که کنیتیک هضم تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی بوده، بطوری که بیشترین مقدار تجزیه پذیری موثر ماده خشک با نرخ عبور 2، 5 و 8 درصد در ساعت، با بیشترین میزان نیز مربوط به تیمار 4 بترتیب برابر 90/62 ، 45/46 و 10/38 درصد بود و تجزیه پذیری موثر پروتئین خام، با همان نرخ عبور بترتیب برابر 37/62 ، 25/41 و 12/35 درصد گزارش شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که می توان با مخلوطی از مقادیر مناسب از ضایعات آلی (منبع سلولزی) به همراه محتویات شکمبه در جهت تولید ورمی کمپوستی با ارزش غذایی مناسب (انرژی و پروتئین بالا) بعنوان خوراک دام اقدام نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: ضایعات و پسماندها، کیسه های نایلونی، محتویات شکمبه، ورمی کمپوست
  • جمال سیف دواتی، مطلب جهان آرا، صیاد سیف زاده، حسین عبدی بنمار، فرزاد میرزایی آقجه قشلاق، رضا سید شریفی، وحید واحدی صفحات 23-33
    هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثر نانواکسید روی بر عملکرد رشد و فراسنجه های خونی در گوساله های شیرخوار هلشتاین بود. بدین منظور تعداد 24 راس گوساله هلشتاین با میانگین سنی 1 الی 10 روز و میانگین وزنی 2±38 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی انتخاب و به مدت 70 روز اجرا گردید. در جیره گوساله ها سه سطح از مکمل نانواکسید روی شامل صفر (شاهد)، 30 و 60 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ماده خشک به بخش کنسانتره ای افزوده شد. گوساله ها هر دو هفته یک بار وزن کشی شدند و جهت اندازه گیری فراسنجه های خونی در روزهای 30 و 70 آزمایش، از آن ها خونگیری به عمل آمد. نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از سطوح مختلف نانواکسید روی تاثیر معنی داری بر مصرف خوراک نداشت. نتایج مکمل کردن نانواکسید روی بر جیره آزمایشی گوساله های شیرخوار اثر معنی داری بر وزن نهایی و افزایش وزن روزانه گوساله های شیرخوار داشت (05/0>P). در حالی که ضریب تبدیل خوراک تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. تفاوت معنی داری بین غلظت فراسنجه های خونی (گلوکز، کلسترول، تری گلیسیرید، آلبومین، اوره، آلکالین فسفاتاز، آسپارتات آمینو ترانسفراز، آلانین آمینو ترانسفراز، گلوبولین و فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی کل، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز، کاتالاز مشاهده نشد (05/0>P). نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که مکمل کردن نانواکسید روی در جیره آزمایشی وزن بدن، افزایش وزن روزانه و غلظت سوپراکسید دسموتاز را در گوساله های شیرخوار هلشتاین بهبود بخشید.
    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد رشد، فراسنجه های خونی، گوساله هلشتاین، نانو اکسید روی
  • حسن علی عربی، فرشته علی پور، پویا زمانی، داریوش علی پور، مصطفی ملکی، خلیل زابلی صفحات 35-46
    کهور پوشش گیاهی غالب مناطق بیابانی جنوب ایران می باشد. میوه کهور (غلاف) دارای ارزش غذایی زیادی است و می توان آنرا به مصرف دام رساند. این آزمایش جهت بررسی ارزش غذایی و خصوصیات تخمیر شکمبه ای غلاف کهور در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی انجام شد. غلاف کهور از مناطق مختلف استان هرمزگان تهیه شد. سپس، ترکیب شیمیایی، کینتیک تخمیر شکمبه ای در زمان های مختلف انکوباسیون (به روش آزمون تولید گاز) و قابلیت هضم به روش دو مرحله ای (برون تنی) در اجزای مختلف آن در 3 تیمار (غلاف کامل، پوسته غلاف و دانه) و در 3 تکرار تعیین شد. در نهایت، اجزای مختلف پروتئین در غلاف کامل و پوسته غلاف برآورد گردید. نتایج نشان داد پروتئین خام در غلاف کامل، پوسته غلاف و دانه به ترتیب 15/12، 65/10 و 53/36 درصد بود. حجم گاز تولید شده در طول 120 ساعت انکوباسیون و پتانسیل تولید گاز در پوسته غلاف به طور معنی داری بیشتر از سایر بخش ها بود (05/0P
    کلیدواژگان: ارزش غذایی، آزمون تولید گاز، غلاف کهور، قابلیت هضم
  • علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور
  • مریم ربانی شکوه، محمد امیر کریمی ترشیزی، علیرضا علیزاده صفحات 47-59
    در مطالعه حاضر اثرات آنتی اکسیدانی کرم خاکی (Eisenia fetida) به صورت برون تنی و درون تنی با طراحی دو آزمایش و با استفاده از 20 قطعه خروس بومی آذربایجان غربی، در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی، با 5 تیمار و 4 تکرار، طی 13 هفته بررسی شد. در آزمایش اول ماده خشک، چربی، پروتئین، خاکستر و الگوی اسید چرب و توان آنتی اکسیدانی کرم خاکی در شرایط برون تنی اندازه گیری و مشخص شد کرم خاکی حاوی 26 نوع اسید چرب است که در این بین اسیدهای ایکوزاپنتاانوئیک (29/14 درصد)، استئاریک (83/11 درصد) و آراشیدونیک (50/9 درصد)، اسیدهای چرب غالب بودند. فنل کل کرم خاکی نسبتا زیاد و حدود 72/169 میلی گرم معادل گالیک اسید در هر گرم عصاره بود. اندازه گیری توان آنتی اکسیدانی احیاء آهن نشان داد فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی کرم خاکی 242 میکرومول آهن در هر میلی گرم عصاره خشک بود. در آزمایش دوم اثر پودر کرم خاکی، در دو سطح 10 و20، و عصاره الکلی کرم خاکی، در دو سطح 65/5 و 3/11 گرم بر کیلوگرم جیره، بر فراسنجه های بیوشیمیایی پلاسمای خون و شاخص های پراکسیداسیون خون، کبد و بیضه و آنزیم های سرمی کبد بررسی شد. نتایج حاکی از پایین بودن غلظت مالون دی آلدهید خون و کبد و بیضه خروس های تمام تیمارها نسبت به گروه شاهد بود. در بین فراسنجه های بیوشیمیایی خون، تنها مقدار کلسیم تحت تاثیر پودر کرم خاکی (سطح 2) قرار گرفت و به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. غلظت پلاسمایی آنزیم های لاکتات دهیدروژناز، آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز و آلکالین فسفاتاز در تمام تیمارها نسبت به شاهد کاهش نشان داد. با اینحال غلظت آلانین آمینوترانسفراز تحت تاثیر قرار نگرفت. بطور کلی می توان نتیجه گیری کرد که پودر یا عصاره الکلی کرم خاکی واجد اثرات آنتی اکسیدانی بوده و موجب حفاظت خون، بافت بیضه و کبد در برابر تنش اکسیداتیو می شود و انتظار می رود به باروری جنس نر کمک نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: آنزیم های کبدی، خروس بومی، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی، کرم خاکی
  • سمیه سالاری، زینب پورآزادی صفحات 61-68
    این مطالعه به منظور بررسی پرتوتابی بیم الکترون بر میزان گوسیپول، ترکیب شیمیایی و الگوی اسیدهای چرب تخم پنبه انجام گرفت. در این آزمایش 12 کیسه پلی اتیلنی در ابعاد 2015 سانتی متر مربع برای دزهای 10، 20، 30، 40 کیلوگری استفاده شد. میزان 250 گرم از نمونه تخم پنبه توسط هر یک از دزهای نام برده پرتودهی شدند. پس از اعلام نتایج حاصل از دزیمتری، میزان گوسیپول آزاد و گوسیپول کل توسط دستگاه اسپکتوفوتومتری اندازه گیری شدند. همچنین ترکیب شیمیایی نمونه ها شامل پروتئین خام، فیبرخام، خاکستر و الگوی اسیدهای چرب نیز قبل و پس از پرتوتابی اندازهگیری شدند. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که با افزایش دز پرتوتابی میزان گوسیپول کل و آزاد تخم پنبه به شکل معنیداری کاهش یافت. اثر پرتوتابی بیم الکترون بر میزان پروتئین خام، عصاره اتری و خاکستر تخم پنبه معنیدار نبود، ولی مقدار فیبر خام را به طور معنی داری کاهش داد. همچنین در این آزمایش مقدار اسیدلینولئیک تخم پنبه پرتوتابی شده با دز 30 و 40 کیلوگری در مقایسه با تخم پنبه پر توتابی نشده (شاهد) و دزهای 10 و 20 کیلوگری افزایش معنی داری را نشان داد. به طور کلی، استفاده از پرتوتابی بیم الکترون میتواند اثرات مفیدی بر تخم پنبه از طریق کاهش میزان گوسیپول و فیبر و افزایش اسید لینولئیک داشته باشد و می توان آن را به عنوان یک منبع پروتئینی در جیره غذایی دام و طیور استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: اسیدهای چرب، پرتوتابی بیم الکترون، تخم پنبه، گوسیپول
  • احسان امیربیک، احمد حسن آبادی، حسن نصیری مقدم صفحات 69-80
    این مطالعه به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف پودر عصاره گیاه یوکا شیدیگرا در جیره غذایی بر عملکرد، متابولیت های خونی، سیستم ایمنی و صفات لاشه جوجه های گوشتی در دوره آغازین (10-1روزگی)، رشد (24-11روزگی) و پایانی (42-25روزگی) انجام شد. از تعداد 250 قطعه جوجه گوشتی سویه راس 308 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 5 تیمار، 5 تکرار و 10 قطعه جوجه در هر تکرار استفاده شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل مکمل کردن 5 سطح پودر عصاره گیاه یوکا شیدیگرا (0، 01/0، 015/0، 02/0و 025/0 درصد) به جیره بود. نتایج نشان داد که پودر عصاره گیاه یوکا اثر معنی داری بر ضریب تبدیل غذایی در دوره رشد دارد و جوجه ها در تیمار 01/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا بهترین و در تیمار شاهد و 025/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا بالاترین ضریب تبدیل غذایی را داشتند. میانگین وزن بدن و افزایش وزن روزانه در دوره رشد بین تیمارها اختلاف معنی داری داشتند. وزن جوجه ها در تیمار 01/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا نسبت به تیمار 025/0 درصد بطور معنی داری بیشتر بود. میزان ایمنوگلوبولین M در تیتر اول (35روزگی) در تیمار 01/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا بطور معنی داری بیشتر از تیمارهای 02/0 و 025/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا بود. غلظت LDL خون بین تیمارها اختلاف معنی داری داشت. کمترین غلظت مربوط به جوجه های تیمار 015/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا و بیشترین مربوط به جوجه های تیمار 025/0درصد بود. سطوح مختلف پودر عصاره یوکا در جیره تاثیر معنی داری بر صفات لاشه و ایمنی سلولی جوجه ها نداشت. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده، سطح 02/0 درصد پودر عصاره یوکا عملکرد بهتری نسبت به سایر سطوح داشت ولی اختلاف آن تیمار شاهد معنی دار نبود.
    کلیدواژگان: جوجه گوشتی، سیستم ایمنی، صفات لاشه، متابولیت های خون، یوکا شیدیگرا
  • علمی پژوهشی- ژنتیک و اصلاح دام و طیور
  • رضا سید شریفی، فاطمه نور افکن، مصطفی فولادی، جمال سیف دواتی صفحات 81-95
    بهترین راه برای حداکثرکردن سود آوری از طریق اصلاح نژاد، استفاده از ضرایب اقتصادی صفات به همراه ارزیابی ژنتیکی است. هدف تحقیق حاضر، تحلیل هزینه فایده در گله های این نژاد در شرایط پرورش عشایری می باشد. در این مطالعه پارامترهای تولیدی، مدیریتی و اقتصادی حاصل از رکوردگیری پنج گله به تعداد 500 راس میش داشتی گوسفند نژاد مغانی در طول چرخه تولیدی از شهریور سال 1394 تا شهریور 1395 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. ضرایب اقتصادی صفات با استفاده از گرایش حداکثر سود، توسط نرم افزارMATLAB محاسبه گردید. برای تعیین ضرایب اقتصادی نسبی، ضریب اقتصادی مطلق هر صفت، به ضریب اقتصادی مطلق صفت وزن پشم تقسیم گردید. آنالیز اقتصادی سیستم تولید نشان داد که هزینه ها، درآمدها و سود حاصل به ازای هر راس میش در سال به ترتیب 88/9437617، 49/10637654و 61/1200036ریال بود. هزینه های مربوط به تغذیه و مدیریت به ترتیب 65/73 و 35/26 درصد از کل هزینه های جاری ودرآمد حاصل از فروش وزن زنده، شیر، کود و پشم به ترتیب 39/86، 64/9، 85/2 و 15/1 درصد از کل درآمد را شامل شدند. ضرایب اقتصادی نسبی برای صفات مختلف به ترتیب بازده لاشه ، وزن دوازده ماهگی ، زنده مانی میش، وزن شیرگیری بره ، وزن تولد ، میزان آبستنی ، زنده مانی بره بعد از شیرگیری ، زنده مانی بره تا شیرگیری، تعداد بره در هر زایش، دفعات زایش درسال، افزایش وزن روزانه بعد از شیرگیری، وزن بیده پشم، وزن شیر، افزایش وزن روزانه قبل از شیرگیری، وزن جایگزین ماده و وزن میش بالغ 30/7، 27/4، 08/3، 85/2، 44/2، 35/2، 07/2، 85/1، 54/1، 42/1، 05/1، 1، 55/0، 34/0، 06/0-، 81/1- گزارش شد.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزش اقتصادی، پرورش عشایری، صفات تولیدی، صفات تولیدمثلی، گوسفند مغانی
  • حسین حسینی نصر، هدایت الله روشنفکر، جمال فیاضی، محمد تقی بیگی نصیری صفحات 97-107
    هدف از این پژوهش، برآورد ضرایب اقتصادی صفات تولید شیر، درصد چربی، درصد پروتئین و طول عمر در گاوهای بومی استان ایلام بود. با استفاده از مدل زیست- اقتصادی قطعی و پارامترهای تولیدی واقتصادی گاوهای بومی، ضرایب اقتصادی صفات تولید شیر، درصد چربی، درصد پروتئین و طول عمر گله در استان ایلام در سال 1392 برآورد شد. ضرایب اقتصادی هر صفت با افزایش یک واحد از میانگین صفت استفاده شده برای مقدار تغییر سود سالانه، برآورد شد. به طوری که سایر صفات ثابت بودند. ضرایب اقتصادی نسبی از طریق تقسیم ضرایب اقتصادی مطلق هر یک از صفات بر مقدار ضریب اقتصادی پروتئین محاسبه شد. ضرایب اقتصادی نسبی صفات تولید شیر، درصد چربی، درصد پروتئین و طول عمر گله به ترتیب برابر 002079/0، 999782/0، 1 و 000351/0- برآورد شد. در سیستم پرورش گاو بومی منابع درآمد، شامل فروش شیر سالانه، گوساله نر، تلیسه مازاد، گاو مولد حذفی سالانه و کود سالانه می‏باشد. درآمد حاصل از فروش شیر سالانه معادل 54/43 درصد از کل درآمدها بود، که بیشترین سهم را در بین منابع درآمدها به خود اختصاص داد. سایر منابع درآمدها شامل گوساله نر، تلیسه مازاد، فروش گاو حذفی و کود به ترتیب برابر 23/11، 37/32، 04/10 و 81/2 درصد از درآمدها را به خود اختصاص دادند. هزینه‏ها به دو بخش هزینه ثابت سالانه که شامل هزینه ساختمان‏ها، تاسیسات، تجهیزات و تعمیرات بود. و هزینه جاری سالانه که شامل هزینه‏های تغذیه‏ای، بهداشت و تولید مثل، نیروی کار، فروش دام و حمل و نقل کود از جایگاه به ازای هر راس گاو مولد بود، تقسیم شد. هزینه ثابت سالانه به ازای هر راس گاو مولد برابر 56/4572556 ریال بود، که 44/14 درصد، کل هزینه‏ها را شامل می‏شد. هزینه جاری سالانه به ازای هر راس دام مولد برابر 46/27094514 ریال بودکه 56/85 درصد از کل هزینه‏ها را به خود اختصاص داد. در بین هزینه‏های جاری، هزینه تغذیه‏ای با 25/84 درصد، بیشترین سهم را به خود اختصاص داد. سایر هزینه‏های جاری شامل نیروی کار، فروش دام و حمل ‏و نقل کود از جایگاه برابر 38/9 درصد و هزینه‏های بهداشت و تولید مثل برابر36/6 درصد از هزینه‏های جاری را در بر ‏گرفت. درنتیجه سود سالانه سیستم تولید برای گاو بومی 005/1801718- ریال برآورد شد. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می‏دهد که با توجه به مقدارمثبت ضریب اقتصادی صفت تولید شیر پایه، انتخاب در جهت افزایش میانگین این صفت سبب افزایش سوددهی سیستم تولید گاو بومی می‏شود. با توجه به اهمیت صفت فاصله گوساله‏زایی و بویژه تاثیر این صفت در شرایط محدودیت در سیستم‏ها پیشنهاد می‏شود که اصلاح نژاد در جهت کاهش آن انجام گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: استان ایلام، صفات تولیدی، ضرایب اقتصادی، گاوهای بومی
  • مریم بازگیری *، محمد تقی بیگی نصیری، جمال فیاضی صفحات 109-115
    دوپامین در طیور ترشح پرولاکتین را در مغز مهار می کند. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی چند شکلی گیرنده ی1D ژن دوپامین با استفاده از روش PCR-RFLP در مرغ بومی خوزستان صورت گرفت. به منظور اجرای این آزمایش نمونه خون از 100 قطعه مرغ بومی مرکز مرغ بومی خوزستان (شرکت نهاده های دامی جاهد) به صورت تصادفی اخذ گردید. DNA ژنومی با استفاده از روش نمکی بهینه شده، استخراج گردید. واکنش زنجیره ای پلیمراز جهت تکثیر قطعه 283 جفت بازی گیرنده ی 1D ژن دوپامین انجام گرفت. جهت تشخیص ژنوتیپ های گیرنده ی 1D ژن دوپامین، محصولات PCR با استفاده از آنزیم برشیBseNI هضم شدند. با مشاهده نتایج الگوی باندی ناشی از هضم مشخص شد که جهش مسئول گیرنده ی 1D ژن دوپامین به وسیله این روش قابل شناسایی نیست اما با تعیین توالی در Clastal W2، دو جهش در بازهای 123 و 198 ) به ترتیب از نوع A به G و C بهT ) مشخص شد.
    کلیدواژگان: چندشکلی، دوپامین، کرچی، مرغ بومی، PCR-RFLP
  • ژیلا حسانی، محمدرضا نصیری *، محمدرضا بختیاری زاده، مجتبی طهمورث پور، علی جوادمنش صفحات 117-130
    در این مطالعه با استفاده از داده های توالی یابی RNA-seq، به دست آمده از 12 قطعه مرغ ماده، بومی اصفهان و تجاری راس به بررسی ژن های با بیان متفاوت ،به شناسایی مهمترین ژن های موثر در سیستم آپوپتوزیز و تقویت آن پرداخته شد. در این بررسی کیفیت داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار FastQC سنجیده شد. پس از حذف خوانش های بی کیفیت، با استفاده از نرم افزار Trimmomatic، نقشه یابی داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار TOP HAT2 انجام گرفت. شبکه ژنی آپوپتوزیز توسط پایگاه استرینگ رسم و آنالیز شد. تحلیل شبکه نشاندهنده معنی داری شبکه بوده و میزان و چگونگی ارتباط ژن ها مشخص شد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی ترنسکریپتوم های سیستم ایمنی با استفاده از Cuffdif نشان داد که از بین 1328 ژن دارای تفاوت بیان معنی دار در سیستم ایمنی، 11 ژن مربوط به آپوپتوزیز بود. همچنین ژن PIK3CD دارای بیشترین مقدار بیان در دو نژاد بومی و تجاری و PIK3CB دارای کمترین مقدار بیان در نژاد بومی بودند. بیشترین معنی داری در فرایندهای بیولوژیکی بر اساس آماره Bonferroni، مربوط به مسیر علامت دهی وابسته به اینوزیتول و بر اساس آماره P-value مربوط به مسیر تنظیم موضعی کردن پروتئین به سمت هسته می باشد. آنالیز شبکه ژنی آپوپتوزیز، منجر به شناسایی دو زیر شبکه (کلاستر) گردید که ژن شاخص آنها به ترتیب PIK3R1 و IL1R1 می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: آپوپتوز، نژاد مرغ بومی و راس، هستی شناسی ژنها، RNA-seq
  • فاطمه بحری بیناباج، گلناز بی همتا، زانا پیرخضرانیان صفحات 131-139
    توالی یابی ژنوم میتوکندری یکی از رایج ترین روش های طبقه بندی تکاملی حیوانات می باشد. به منظور بررسی تاریخچه تکاملی گوسفند نژاد بلوچی واقع در منطقه شرق کشور ایران، از 30 نمونه گوسفندان واقع در مرکز اصلاح نژاد شمال شرق کشور به صورت تصادفی خونگیری شد. بعد از استخراج DNA توسط کیت DIAtom DNA Prep و تکثیر ناحیه D-loop میتوکندری ژنوم به کمک پرایمر های اختصاصی، تولی یابی انجام پذیرفت. بررسی کیفیت توالی ها، ساختار نوکلئوتیدی و جهش های مربوطه با استفاده از نرم افزارهای مختلف انجام شد. هشت زیر گروه هاپلوتایپی هر یک با فراوانی 4/7، 4/7، 81/14، 11/11، 51/18، 81/14، 11/11 و 81/14 مشاهده و تنوع ژنتیکی موجود در بین 27 نمونه 005/0± 0131/0 محاسبه شد که این مقدار در محدوده ی متوسط تنوع نوکلئوتیدی در یوکاریوت ها قرار داشت. آنالیز فیلوژنتیکی این نمونه ها نشان داد که گوسفند نژاد بلوچی در گروه هاپلوتایپی A واقع شده است. از آنجا که خاستگاه اصلی هاپلوتایپ A مربوط به آسیا و خاور میانه می باشد و با توجه به نتایج مطالعات قبلی بر روی گوسفندهای بومی ایران که حاکی از قرار گرفتن این گوسفندان در هاپلوتایپ مذکور می باشد، قرار گرفتن گوسفند بلوچی نیز در این هاپلوتایپ قابل توجیه است.
    کلیدواژگان: ژنوم میتوکندری، فیلوژنتیک، گوسفند بلوچی، هاپلوتایپ
  • علمی پژوهشی- سایر
  • زهرا بلوکی، حسین دقیق کیا، ابوذر نجفی، مهدیه مهدی پور صفحات 140-151
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تاثیر آنتی اکسیدانی الاژیک اسید بر کیفیت اسپرم قوچ در طول فرآیند انجماد-یخ گشایی بود. در این مطالعه از 5 قوچ نژاد قزل در 5 تکرار (2 بار در هفته) بوسیله واژن مصنوعی اسپرم گیری شد. بمنظور حذف اثرات فردی هر دام نر، نمونه های منی پس از ارزیابی اولیه و در صورت داشتن شرایط یکسان، با هم مخلوط شدند. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: الاژیک اسید در چهار سطح 25/0، 5/0، 1 و 5/1 میلی مولار و گروه شاهد (بدون آنتی اکسیدان). رقیق کننده بر پایه تریس-لستین مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. انجماد نمونه های منی بدنبال دو ساعت سردسازی و تعادل سازی دما تا 5 درجه سانتی گراد صورت گرفت. یخ گشایی در دمای 37 درجه سانتی گراد به مدت 30 ثانیه انجام شد. پارامترهای جنبایی کل، زنده مانی، یکپارچگی غشاء، میزان اسپرم های غیرطبیعی، پارامترهای جنبایی، میزان مالون دی آلدهید، ظرفیت تام آنتی اکسیدانی اسپرم، فعالیت آنزیم های گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز بعد از یخ گشایی اندازه گیری شدند. آنالیز داده ها به کمک نرم افزار SAS انجام گرفت. یافته های این تحقیق بیانگر بهبود زنده مانی، تحرک اسپرم ها و ظرفیت تام آنتی اکسیدانی در چهار سطح 25/0، 5/0، 1 و 5/1 میلی مولار نسبت به گروه شاهد بود. فعالیت آنزیم های گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، غلظت مالون دی آلدهاید و یکپارچگی غشاء پلاسمایی در هیچ یک از سطوح تفاوت معنی-داری با گروه شاهد نداشت. میزان اسپرم غیرطبیعی در سطح 5/0 میلی مولار کاهش یافت و در صفات سرعت در مسیرمنحنی، سرعت در مسیرمستقیم و خطی بودن حرکت اسپرم با گروه شاهد تفاوت معنی داری داشت. بطورکلی، سطح 5/0 میلی مولار نسبت به سایر گروه های تیماری مورد مطالعه، سبب بهبود کیفیت منی قوچ بعد از فرآیند انجماد-یخ گشایی شد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسپرم، الاژیک اسید، انجماد، قوچ
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  • Amir Mousaie, Reza Valizadeh, Abbas Ali Naserian, Mohammad Heidarpour, Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi Pages 1-10
    Introduction
    Most parts of Iran are located in arid and semi-arid areas which animals undergo feed shortage due to poor natural vegetation. Metabolic modifiers such as anabolic steroids, somatotropin, beta agonists, vitamins and minerals, fed in extra-nutritional levels, increase growth rate, feed efficiency, carcass leanness, profitability of livestock production and decrease carcass fatness. Moreover, heat and transportation stress results in decreased feed intake, body weight, average daily gain and reproductive performance of animals. Chromium (Cr) and selenium (Se) are micronutrients which could be considered as metabolic modifiers. It has been reported that dietary Se supplementation improves reproductive performance, oxidative stress, immune system, as well as growth performance of the animals. Cr supplement, as a constituent of low-molecular-weight Cr-binding substance (LMWCr) or chromodulin, also increases glucose tolerance by potentiating the action of insulin. However, there are a few information regarding the effects of organic Se and Cr supplements on performance and blood metabolites of ewe lambs under transportation stress. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the impacts of feeding selenium-methionine (Se-Met) and Chromium-methionine (Cr-Met) supplements on growth performance and blood metabolites of ewe lambs.
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty-four Baluchi ewe lambs with mean body weight of 24.2 ± 0.4 kg and 4 months old were allocated randomly to 4 dietary treatments including (1) control diet (no Se or Cr supplementation), and control diet supplemented with (2) Se-Met (1.5 mg kg-1 dry matter (DM)), (3) Cr-Met (0.8 mg kg-1DM) and (4) Se-Cr-Met (1.5 mg of Se-Met plus 0.8 mg of Cr-Met kg-1DM).The whole experimental period divided into two periods of adaptation (2 weeks) and data collection (9 weeks). A transportation stress was applied by transporting the animals in a truck in a bumpy road for 30 minutes in 8th week of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at commencement and the end of experiment. For transportation stress, blood samples were obtained just before the lambs were loaded and unloaded from the truck. Serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer and cortisol by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS software. A mixed model with fixed effects of treatment, time and random effect of lamb within treatment × time were used. A paired T-test was used to compare the blood metabolite concentrations pre-transportation with post-transportation stress.
    Results And Discussion
    The results indicated that, feeding ewe lambs diets contained organic Se and Cr supplements improved average daily gain )ADG( and feed conversion ratio (FCR: control, Se, Cr, and Se-Cr were 5.99, 5.41, 5.22, 5.45 respectively). Lambs in Cr-Met group showed the highest feed intake and live weight gain compared those in the control. Blood glucose concentration decreased in Cr-Met fed lambs in comparison with control animals. Feeding Se-Met and/or Cr-Met supplements had no effect on blood urea, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein and albumin concentrations. Based on the findings, blood glucose and cortisol concentrations were increased in response to transportation stress. Feeding Cr reduced the concentration of blood cortisol. It seems that the beneficial effects of Cr are associated with its role in carbohydrate and protein metabolisms. Chromium potentiates insulin action by enhancing its binding to target cell receptors and also by improving its post-receptor signaling. Insulin increases protein synthesis, efficiency of amino acid transport, and carbohydrate and lipid utilization and reduces protein degradation. Selenium supplements also improve feed efficiency by increasing triiodothyronine activity and enhancing antioxidant status. Moreover, Cr can prevent the deleterious effects of transportation stress.
    Conclusion
    It could be concluded that feeding ewe lambs with organic selenium (0.8 mg kg-1) and chromium (1.5 mg kg-1) supplements may improve feed to gain ratio and ameliorate the changes in blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in response to transportation stress.
    Keywords: Baluchi ewe lambs, Chrome-methionine, FCR, Selenium-methionine, Transportation stress
  • Kian Sadeghi, Akbar Taghizadeh, Hossein Janmohammadi, Gholamali Moghaddam Pages 11-22
    Introduction
    Vermicomposting is the process of composting organic materials using various worms to decomposing vegetable, food waste, bedding materials and many organic waste materials. Many wastes and residues have been used to produce vermicompost. Using variety of left over products such as vegetable cuttings, food wastes and manure from cattle and chickens for vermicomposting can inhibit environmental pollution while producing valuable vermicompost. However, worms require specific conditions for activity and composting. Vermicast (worm manure) is the end product of the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms which usually applies as an organic and natural fertilizer. Due to appropriate protein and organic matter of vermicast or vermicompost, it is maybe possible to use vermicompost as a feedstuff in ruminant animals such as low producing cattle, sheep and goats. Then, the aim of the current research was to investigate the possibility of using rumen content which has been enriched with organic wastes (fruits and vegetables waste, oyster mushroom wastes) as a decomposing material for worms and nutritive value of the produced vermicompost for ruminants.
    Materials And Methods
    Experimental treatments were T1: rumen contents (control), T2: 60% rumen contents 40% fruits & vegetables wastes, T3: 60% rumen contents 40% oyster mushroom wastes, T4: 60% rumen contents 20% fruits & vegetables wastes 20% oyster mushroom wastes. Three boxes (65×35×30 cm) were made for each treatment and 8 kg of materials and 80 grams of worms (200 worms) were added to one of them. The boxes were kept for 75 days in a room with 25oC temperature and 65-70% of relative humidity. After 75 d, a sample of each replicated was chosen for pH and dry matter analysis. Another sample from each replicated was grounded and analyzed for chemical composition (crude protein, ash, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) and gas production measurement. Gas volume was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. The kinetics of in situ was estimated using model: P=a (1-e-ct). The effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein to feed was calculated by the following equation ED = a淏(c). Rumen rate of passage k which to calculated effective degradability of this study, from rate of 2, 5 and 8 percent per hour was used.
    Results And Discussion
    Vermicomposting efficiency was lower in T4 and higher in T2 and T3 treatments when compared with T1. The highest and lowest vermicomposting efficiency was in T3 and T4 treatments, respectively. Moreover, T3 treatment showed the highest crude protein and crude fat concentrations among the treatments. T3 treatment also had the lowest ash, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations among the treatments. The values of pH after 75 days were 6.76, 6.15, 7.55 and 7.02, respectively. The concentrations of crude protein for T1 to T4 were 16.50, 17.44, 17.05 and 18.45%, respectively. Also, the concentrations of neutral detergent fiber for T1 to T4 were 41.5, 40.18, 41.42 and 38.87%, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of acid detergent fiber for T1 to T4 were 27.33, 26.11, 28.64 and 26%, respectively. The results of effective degradability of dry matter with a pass rate 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08 with the highest in the T4, 62.90, 46.45 and 38.10 percent respectively, And reported effective degradability of crude protein, with same pass rate, 62.37, 41.25 and 35.12 percentage respectively (P
    Keywords: In Situ, Rumen content, Vermicompost, Wastes, residues
  • Jamal Seifdavati, Matlab Jahan Ara, Sayad Seyfzadeh, Hossein Abdi Benamar, Farzad Mirzaie Aghjeh Gheshlagh, Reza Seyedsharifi, Vahid Vahedi Pages 23-33
    Introduction
    The second element trace mineral in the body, which is stored in the body as well as regulator feed intake. In many of the vital functions of the body, including growth, building hormones, vitamins and enzymes plays a role and where involved is necessary in animal diets. Because the animal's body cannot take much more of this element in the body thereby providing a daily basis through the diet can be effective. Also, the most common combination of zinc element is its oxide form (ZnO), which is preferred for two reasons, one that has the highest concentration of zinc, and the other is that it is absorbed high in the body and is also better tolerated by the target tissues. Recently, Nano-zinc oxide has attracted much attention in animal nutrition studies. Different nanoparticles are new forms of materials with high biologic properties and low toxicity, which seem to have high potential for passing through physiological barriers and access to specific target tissues. The use of antioxidants, such as Nano-zinc oxide, can be important in reducing the production of free radicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano-zinc oxide on performance, growth and blood parameters in Holstein suckling calves.
    Materials And Methods
    The Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were purchased from Iranian agent of US Research Nanomaterial, Inc. Port Co., Ltd., USA. The sizes of elemental ZnO particles ranged from 10 to 30 nm, stock: US3590, in the form of white powder and Purity: 99%, APS: 10-30 nm, Color: white, Crystal Phase: single crystal, Morphology: nearly spherical, SSA: 20-60 m2/g, True Density: 5.606 g/cm3. In this study 24 Holstein calves with a mean age of 1 - 10 and an average weight of 38±2 were selected from pars Agro-Industrial and Animal Husbandry dairy herd to determine the effects of supplementation nano-zinc oxide on performance, blood parameters and some serum enzymes of them. Three levels 0 (control), 30 and 60 of the Nano-zinc oxide were added to the calves starter concentrate as mg / kg of dry matter. Calves were allotted to the experimental groups randomly and based on their age and weight to have similar age and weight average among the group. The calves were housed in individual pens and fed with whole milk approximately at 10% of birth weight and they had free access to the feed starter and water. Milk was offered in two equal meals daily at 08:00 and 19:00. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on the 30 and 70 day of the trial (4 h after the morning feeding) by heparinised venoject tubes, centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 15 min at 4 °C, and collected plasma was immediately transported to the laboratory and frozen at −20 °C until analysis. Blood concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, urea, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, globulin and total antioxidant activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase were measured using the commercial kits. Data were analyzed in a completely randomized design using the MIXED procedure of SAS. For variables measured over time (average daily gain, dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio), time was added to the model as a repeated factor.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the use of different levels Nano-zinc oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio, whereas on the experimental diet supplement Nano-zinc oxide suckling calves did show significant effect on final weight, weight gain. The significant difference was not observed between the concentration of blood parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, urea, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, globulin and total antioxidant activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase except superoxide dismutase). The results showed that supplementing with 60 ppm Nano-zinc oxide significant was increased in the concentration or activity of blood superoxide dismutase compared to the control group. Dietary nano-zinc oxide supplementation on Holstein calves compared to the control group increased concentrations of superoxide dismutase. Zinc-dependent antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase reduces the activity of this enzyme in the membrane of cells, including red blood cells, leading to increased damage of oxidative stress.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that supplementation of Nano-zinc oxide in the diet improved the body weight, daily gain and superoxide dismutase concentration in Holstein suckling calf. In general it can be concluded that the use of zinc to form nanoparticles had no effect on performance and blood parameters. Thus, nano-zinc oxide supplementation in suckling calf starter diet can effectively help to cope with the stress.
    Keywords: Blood parameters, Holstein calves, Nano-zinc oxide
  • Hasan Aliarabi, Fereshteh Alipour, Pouya Zamani, Daryoush Alipour, Mostafa Malecky, Khalil Zaboli Pages 35-46
    Introduction
    Mesquite is the dominant flora of southern Iran. Whole pod contains capsule and some seeds which its color, after ripen, is yellow and contains considerable protein and carbohydrate. One of the most important usage of this pod is as animal feed, because the ripen pod is palatable and has high nutritional value. This study was conducted to evaluate chemical composition, ruminal fermentation and digestibility of different parts of mesquite plant as a completely randomized design.
    Materials And Methods
    Mesquite pod was collected from different areas of Hormozgan province. Whole pod, husk and seed were grounded separately. Chemical composition of different parts of mesquite pod (dry matter, organic matter, ash, ether extract, crude protein, non fiber carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and lignin) was separately determined. In vitro gas production test (IVGPT) was conducted at two parts. For this purpose, rumen fluid was obtained from three fistulated rams before the morning feeding. The rams were fed twice daily with a diet containing alfalfa hay and commercial concentrate to meet their requirements. The collected ruminal fluid was pooled in a flask and was transported under anaerobic conditions to the laboratory. Rumen fluid was filtered through four layers cheesecloth and then mixed continuously with CO2 and maintained at 39 o C before the usage. After pre-incubation, the rumen fluid was mixed with buffered mineral solution at the ratio of 1:2 rumen fluid to mineral buffer (V/V). At first part of IVGPT to evaluate kinetics of ruminal fermentation at different incubation time (120 hours), 200 mg of dried and grounded sample was transfer to glass syringe. Syringes were filled with 30 ml of medium (consisting of 10 ml of rumen fluid and 20 ml of buffer solution). The values of produced gas at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after incubation time were determined. At second part of IVGPT, 500 mg sample with 40 ml medium incubated for 24 hour and amount of produced gas, apparent dry matter digestibility, true organic matter digestibility and partitioning factor of samples were measured. Total gas production of each syringe (at first and second parts of IVGPT) was corrected for blank which contained only rumen fluid. Two stages in vitro digestibility was done. Different parts of protein in whole pod and husk were estimated based on CNCPS method.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that there were significant differences for chemical compositions of different parts of mesquite pod except for dry matter (DM) and acid detergent fiber (P
    Keywords: Digestibility, gas test technique, Mesquite pod, nutritional value
  • Maryam Rabbani Shokouh, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Alireza Alizadeh Pages 47-59
    Introduction
    Oxidative stress is responsible for several health compromising conditions in livestock, resulting low performance, metabolic diseases, suppression of immune responses and fertility problems in males. It is known that the fatty acid composition of sperm membranes, especially their unsaturated components, determine their biophysical characteristics such as fluidity and flexibility as appropriate for their specific functions, including sperm motility and fertilizing capacity. The high levels of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membranes made them susceptible to oxidation. Usually, the natural anti-oxidant defense of the birds needs fortification by dietary supplementation of antioxidants. Althoughsynthetic antioxidants are available and very effective, but health concerns are associated with their consumption. Researchers are seeking natural antioxidants to control the oxidation stress in birds. Natural antioxidants are substantially of plant origin. Antioxidants originated from animal kingdom are interesting, because they are natural, and protein rich feed ingredient with potentially functional properties. The vermiculture industry is a new and attractive agricultural activity and its main product is vermicompost which is applied in farm lands as a natural fertilizer. Earthworms are harvested as co-product and have the several applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of earthworm meal (EM) and ethanol extract (EE), and effect of feeding earthworm meal and the extract on some oxidative parameters of native roosters.
    Materials And Methods
    In experiment 1, fresh earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were washed and air-dried in shadow and ground to produce the earthworm meal. Half of earthworm meals were soaked in 80 % (V/V) ethanol with continues shaking for 24 h. The extract was filtered and concentrated to produce the ethanol extract of earthworm meal. The proximate composition in content value of moisture, crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat was determined according to the methods of AOAC. The fatty acid profile of extracted lipid was determined by gas chromatography after methylation of fatty acids. The total phenolic compounds of earthworm meal were determined using folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity of extract was measured by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In experiment two, 20 preselected Western Azarbaijan native roosters (34 weeks of age) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments and 4 blocks. Each rooster considered as an experimental unit and received 0 g EM or EE, 10 or 20 g/kg EM, and 5.65 or 11.30 g/kg EE for 13 consecutive weeks. At the end of experiment blood samples were collected form brachial vein of roosters, and birds were killed. The tissue samples were collected from the liver and testis after recording the organ weights. The biochemical parameters of blood including phosphorus, calcium, hemoglobin, albumin, uric acid, glucose, total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride was determined using spectrophotometer and commercial diagnostic kits. The activity of liver enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase) in plasma was determined using spectrophotometer and commercial diagnostic kits. The malondialdehyde concentration was measured in blood plasma, liver tissue, and testis tissue of roosters as an indicator of lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid method.
    Results And Discussion
    The results indicated that earthworm had 26 different fatty acids, which eicosapentanoic, stearic, and arachidonic acid had the highest percentages, respectively. The total phenolic compounds in earthworm were 169.72 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. The results showed that FRAP was 242 μmol of Fe (II)/mg dry extract. The dry matter, crude fat, protein and ash of earthworm meal were determined 91, 1.7, 8.75 and 64.2 %, respectively.
    The blood, liver and testis malondialdehyde concentration in all of earthworm and earthworm extract treated groups were significantly decreased (P
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Biochemical parameters of blood plasma, Earthworm, Liver enzymes, Rooster
  • Smayyeh Salari, Zeinab Poorazadi Pages 61-68
    Introduction
    Whole cottonseed (WCS) is a byproduct of the cotton-fiber industry. It is readily available source of energy, protein and other nutrients for high producing dairy cows and other animals. The use of WCS in poultry diet is limited due to the presence of gossypol, cyclopropenoid fatty acids, high fibre and poor protein quality. Electron beam (EB) irradiation has been proved to be successful in decontamination, disinfestation and improvement of the overall quality of food and agricultural commodities. Recently, EB-irradiation was effective in reducing anti-nutritional factors. This study was completed to determine effects of EB- irradiation at doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy on gossypol, chemical composition and fatty acids of whole cotton seed.
    Materials And Methods
    WCS was packed in twelve 1520 cm2 polyethylene bags. The bags were exposed to various doses (10, 20, 30 and 40 kGy; three bags each per dose step) of EB- radiation with a fixed beam energy of 10 MeV using a Rhodotron accelerator. Feed samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF) and ash as described by AOAC. Gossypol was determined according to ISO assay. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) using a HP-6890 GC instrument. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design according to the general linear models (GLM) procedure of SAS. The Duncan test was used to separate the means at the significance level of 0.05.
    Results And Discussion
    Free and total gossypol content of WCS were decreased by EB-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Major detrimental effects of gossypol on animals are labored breathing, dyspnea, decreased growth rate, anorexia and reduced fertility. Therefore, EB-irradiated WCS may be used in animal rations at higher levels without occurring gossypol toxicity. References dealing with mechanism of gossypol decomposition due to irradiation were not found in the literature. Generally, in the literature four types of radiation effects on biomolecules are reported: fragmentation, cross-linking, aggregation and oxidation by oxygen radicals that are generated in the radiolysis of water. Formation of bonds between gossypol and gossypol (aggregation) or between gossypol and other molecules (cross-linking) and fragmentation or breakdown of gossypol may occur by EB-irradiation. Chemical composition of WCS except crude fiber was not affected by radiation processing. EB-irradiation at 40 kGy decreased crude fiber content of WCS. The reduction in crude fiber by EB-irradiation may be due to oxidation of the cellulose, and conversion of cellulose and lignin to the cell wall solution. The decrease in crude fiber may improve WCS utilization by animals. EB-irradiation had a substantial effect on the linoleic acid present in WCS.
    Conclusion
    The present study revealed that EB-irradiation had the potential to reduce the gossypol and crude fiber and had a positive effect on the linoleic acid of WCS. It can be concluded that irradiation may be beneficial for improvement nutritional value of WCS as a feed source of animals.
    Keywords: Electron beam irradiation, Fatty acids, Gossypol, Whole cottonseed
  • Ehsan Amirbeik, Ahmad Hassanabadi, Hassan Nassiri Moghaddam Pages 69-80
    Introduction
    The use of medicinal plants in poultry nutrition has been considerably increased in the recent years due to their beneficial effects, environmental compatibility and lack of adverse side effects. On the other hand, the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry production has been banned because of their residues in poultry productions and development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The plant yucca (Yucca schidigera) belongs to agavaceae family and is native of south-western of United States and Mexico. Yucca typically grows on rocky desert slopes and creosote desert flats between 300–1,200 meters altitude, rarely up to 2,500 meters. This plant thrives in full sun and in soil with excellent drainage. It also needs no summer water. The plant is known as one of the main sources of saponins. Steroidal saponins are accounted for approximately 10% of the dry weight of Yucca stem. Saponins, the main chemical component of YS extract, exist in steroidal form, whereas they are found in a triterpenoid form in other plants, such as Quillaja saponaria. Yucca saponins have antibacterial properties. The use of Yucca schidigera extract in poultry feed is a good alternative to improve feed efficiency and increased production. Yucca extract-supplemented diets have improved growth performance, relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and reduced mortality rate, breast muscle, caecal E. coli counts in broiler chickens. In the present study, the effects of different dietary levels of a commercial product containing Yucca schidigera powder on certain variables of broiler chicks were studied.
    Materials And Methods
    This experiment was conducted using 250 Ross 308 broiler chicks in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and five replicates of 10 chicks each. Different dietary levels of the Yucca extract powder (0, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, and 0.025 %) were tested in a three-stage feeding program including starter (0 to 10 days of age), grower (11 to 24 d) and finisher (25 to 42 d) phases. Blood samples were collected from one bird per replicate pen to determine the selected blood metabolites including cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) at the end of the experiment (42 days of age). On day 42, one chick per replicate was slaughtered and carcass characteristics were assessed. The effect of dietary yucca powder levels on cellular immune response was determined by a cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity test using phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). At d 42, one bird from each replicate was selected and thickness of the interdigital skin between the third and fourth digits of both feet was measured in millimeters with a Caliper (Measurement accuracy, 0.001). Immediately after the measurement, 100 µl of the PHA-P solution and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were injected into the interdigital skin of the left and right feet by insulin syringes, respectively. Thicknesses of the skin were measured 12h and 24h post-injection. At day 28, five chicks per treatment (1 chick/replicate) were selected and 0.5 ml of 10 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) solution was injected into their breast muscle and after seven days (day 35) blood samples were collected from brachial vein of the birds and then, an additional injection of SRBC was performed to induce the secondary anti-SRBC humoral response. At day 42, the second series of blood samples were collected. Sera separated from blood samples and were used to evaluate anti-SRBC total (Ig T), M (Ig M) and G (Ig G) immunoglobulins.
    Results And Discussion
    The effect of dietary Yucca powder on feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significant (P
    Conclusion
    According to results of this experiment, supplementation of 0.02% Yucca extract powder, improved growth performance of the broiler chickens. However, 0.01% Yucca extracts powder improved humoral immunity and decreased blood serum LDL concentration of broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Blood metabolites, Broiler chicks, Carcass traits, Immune system, Yucca schidigera
  • Reza Seyedsharifi, Fatemeh Nour Afkan, Mostafa Phouladi, Jamal Seifdavati Pages 81-95
    Introduction
    Improving animal performance should be sustainable and economically profitable, therefore economic selection indices have been used in most breeding programmes for livestock. For this purpose, economic weighting factors have to be estimated for all traits in the breeding objective.The best way to maximize profitability through genetic improvement is to use economic weights of the trait Involved. In this study, to estimate the economic values of production and reproduction traits, Costs, revenues and profit analysis in nomadic systems, determine the breeding objective for Moghani sheep. The human population is growing fast which it seems that in spite of the recent progresses in new issues and technologies, they are not enough to fulfill feed requirements of humankind. Planning a suitable breeding system would be an important practical method in using the production potential of local sheep flocks. Therefore, it is essential to estimate economic values of production traits in a one or multivariate selection scheme to evaluate the priority in-comes and costs of a breeding system. A bio-economic model was used to describe performance, revenues and costs and to calculate the economic values, economic values are determined from these models by simulating changes in the genetic level of a trait and noting the associated changes in overall economic outcome. As a first step in developing such a programme a suitable breeding goal for the cattle population has to be defined, giving emphasis to production as well as to functional traits in order to achieve a more sustainable production. For a sustainable production, traits that have been identified as important for selection are also functional traits. The economic value of a trait is defined as the increase in profit resulting from a unit genetic improvement in that trait, while all other traits in the breeding objective are kept constant in simple terms economic values are defined as the effect on the efficiency of production of a marginal unit increase in a trait, independent of changes in other traits. Economic efficiency of the production system was calculated as the difference between total revenues and total costs per cow and year at the stationary herd structure.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, production, reproduction, management and economic parameters resulted from recording of 5 flocks with 500 head of breeding ewes during annual cycle of production (August 2015 to August 2016) in extensive rearing system were used to determine the breeding objective and relative economic values.Traits included; fertility, pregnancy rate, weight lambs from birth to the end of period, survival rate of lambs, wool production weight, average daily gain and milk production. A bioeconomic model was written for rearing system and flock information, economic values using maximum profit orientation was calculated by partial derivative of the profit function by the MATLAB software. To calculate economic values, change in system profit per unit change in the trait while was kept the other characters in the average, and was considered the average change in profit as an economic value. To calculate the relative economic values, the absolute economic value of each trait divided by the absolute economic value of weight of wool.First all costs, revenues, profits and flock structure determined then intered input files and run the software.
    Results And Discussion
    Economic analysis of system indicated that, costs, revenue, and profit per ewe per year were 9437617.88, 10637654.49, and 1200036.61 Rials, respectively.The results showed that live weight, milk yield, manure and wool yield accounted for 86.36 %, 9.64 %, 2.85 and 1.15% of total revenue, respectively. Feeding and management costs (variable costs) represented 73.65% and 26.35 % of total cost, respectively. The relative economic values for Carcass yield, Lamb live weight at 12-month , ewe survival, Post-weaning lamb survival, Pre-weaning lamb survival, Lamb live weight at 4-month, birth weight, conception rates ewes, , little size, Lambing frequency per year, Average daily gain yearlings, Wool weight, Milk yield of ewe, Average daily gain lambs, Replacement female weight, Adult weight of ewes were7.30,4.27, 3.08,2.85,2.44,2.35,2.01,1.85,1.54, 1.42, 1.05,1, 0.55, 0.34,- 0.06, and ( -1.81) respectively.
    Conclusion
    Breeding objective in Moghani sheep breed were Carcass yield, Lamb live weight at 12-month, ewe survival, Post-weaning lamb survival, Pre-weaning lamb survival, Lamb live weight at 4-month, birth weight, conception rates ewes, little size, Lambing frequency per year, Average daily gain yearlings, wool weight, Milk yield of ewe, Average daily gain lambs, Replacement female weight and Adult weight of ewes respectively.
    Keywords: Economic value, Moghani Sheep, Nomadic system, Production traits, Reproduction traits
  • Hosein Hoseini Nasr, Hedayatola Roshanfekr, Jamal Fayazi, Mohammad Taghi Baigi Nasiri Pages 97-107
    Introduction
    The aims of interbreeding for the first level in planning interbreeding programs are generally maximize the improvement in the economical efficiency of the production system by means of increase the average of characteristics. The purpose of this research was to estimate the economic values for milk production traits, fat percentage, protein percentage, and lifetime of native cows of Ilam province and also consideration of their sensitivity to any change in productive and economical parameters in the production system.
    Materials And Methods
    Using a deterministic bio-economical model and economic and production parameters of Native cow, was estimated economic values of milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, herd life at the Ilam province in 2013. The economic values of each trait was estimated with increase of one unit of average traits used for the amount of annual profit change, so that were constant the other traits. Calculation of Revenues and Costs: Estimation of economical factors needs explanation of production system, revenue and costs sources and their relationship with existing characteristics for the aim of interbreeding. Costs are expressed as fixed and current. Current costs are depending on the level of cattle production. Fixed costs are independent of production level and including building and installations, machinery and so on.to calculate the nutritional costs for each age group of animals, four different levels according to the life style were defined by order. These levels include: from birth to weaning (bull calf and heifer before weaning),from weaning to selling age (bull calves in 8-months year old and heifers in 17 months of age, from selling age till the age of first delivery (for replaced heifers)and regenerator cows(over two years old). According to the definition, economical factor of each characteristic is described as a change in the net profit of factory for a unit of addition in the average considered characteristic in a way that the average of other characteristics in the population doesn’t change. In this research to calculate the economical factors of characteristics while other characteristics are in between in the population, the average for the considered characteristic was increased once by one unit and the difference of earned and profit or base mode was considered as the economical factor of that characteristic.
    Results And Discussion
    In the system of Native cows production, the economic values of milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, herd life were estimated 0.002079, 0.999782, 1 and - 0.000351 respectively. In the native cow's fostering system, revenue resources include annual sale of milk, bull calf, surplus heifer, annual, omitted regenerator cow and annual manure. Earned revenue out of annual milk sale equaled 43.54% of the total revenue which appropriated the greatest amount of revenue resources. Other revenue resources were including bull calf, surplus heifer and the sale of omitted cow that appropriated 11.23%, 32.37%, 10.04% and 2.81% of the revenues respectively. The costs were divided into two parts including annual fixed charge which contained the cost of building, installations, equipment and repairs. Annual current cost which contained nutritional costs, hygiene and reproduction, work force, cattle selling and transportation of manure from its place per each head of regenerator cow. Fixed annual cost per each head of regenerator cow equaled 4572556.56 Rial, which contained 14.44 percentage of the total costs .annual current cost per each head of regenerator cow equaled 27094514.46 Rials which appropriated85.56 percentage of the total cost. Among the current costs ,nutritional cost by 84.25% appropriated the most part .other current costs including workforce ,cattle sale and manure transportation from its place equaled 9.38% and costs of hygiene and reproduction appropriated 6.36% of the current costs.
    Conclusion
    Thus estimated the annual avenue of production system for Native cows -1801718.005 Rials. The results showed that positive amount of an economical factor to produce milk; selection of an average for an increase in the characteristic causes an increase in profiting in native cow's production system. According to the importance of interval in calving as a characteristic and specifically its influence in the situation of limitation in systems, it is suggested that interbreeding should be done to decrease it.
    Keywords: Economic values, Ilam province, Native cows, Production traits
  • M. Bazgiri *, M. T. Beigi Nassiri, J. Fayazi Pages 109-115
    Introduction
    This research was conducted at the Department of Animal Science in the Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University in 2014-2015. The elevation of egg production and the inhibition of incubation behavior are the aims of modern poultry production . Prolactin is postulated to play a critical role in the onset and maintenance of incubation behavior in birds .In avian, dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion in the brain. So far, at least five distinct dopamine receptor subtypes, DRD1-DRD5, have been identified and classically divided into two classes referred to as D1-like (DRD1 and DRD5) and D2-like (DRD2,DRD3, and DR 4) .DRD1 is located on chromosome 13 and contains an open reading frame of 1356 nucleotides encoding a protein of 451 amino acids. Dopamine stimulates prolactin secretion via activating DRD1 at the hypothalamus level by operating through vasoactive intestinal peptide and the inhibition effect of dopamine on Prolactin secretion is mediated through DRD2 receptors at the pituitary level.This study aimed at identification of the variants of dopamine D1 receptor gene and detection of the allelic frequency in the Khuzestan native chicken at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources of Khuzestan province.
    Materials And Methods
    For this research 100 laying hens from Khuzestan native chicken Breeding Center (Jahed Livestock Input Corporation) were randomly selected. DNA was extracted from whole blood using salting-out procedure. The PCR-RFLP method was used for allelic differentiation. Dopamine D1 receptor gene was amplified by a specific set of primer for this gene to produce 283 bp fragment. The PCR reactions were carried out in a total volume of 25 μL containing 150 ng of genomic DNA, 1 μL of each primer, .5 μL dNTP, 1 μL MgCl2, 2.5× PCR buffer and 1 U of Taq DNA polymerase. The amplification was performed in a Eppendorf Mastercycler under the following conditions: 95°C for 3 min; 35 cycles of 95°C for 30 s, 58/4°C for 45 s and 72°C for 30 s; and 72°C for 10 min. The amplified fragment was digested with BseN I restriction enzyme. The digestion mixture was composed of 10μL PCR products, 2μL digestion buffer, and 1μL of each enzyme, and then subjected to electrophoresis separation in 2.5% Agarose gel.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of the enzyme Restrictive BseNI showed only one A allele and AA genotype and polymorphism was not observed. To determine the quality and quantity of DNA, Nanodrop and Agarose gel was used and the results showed that the extracted DNA was suitable to continue the research. The results of this study were not in par with those of the previous research. Such non compliance could be due to the kind of population studied, the sample size and the type of marker based on which polymorphic was examined. Due to the limited number of cutting sites in restriction enzymes, various DNA fragments were not produced. Therefore, RFLP markers may have not been able to identify all mutations in this sequence. Dopamine receptor gene in Khuzestan native chicken was sequenced for the first time in the present study. Hence, alignment sequences of Khuzestan native chicken and alignment sequence in ClastaW2 were saved in the gene bank. The results of sequencing in ClastaW2 recorded two mutations of type A to G in the base 12 and C to T in the base 198.
    Considering the results of gene sequencing, it cannot be stated that a dopamine receptor in this research is monomorphic. However, the enzyme used for dopamine gene could not be able to recognize the restriction sites. Sequencing of dopamine D1 receptor gene in the native chicken population of Khuzestan showed mutation which normally causes genetic polymorphism. However, in this study due to the ineffective choice of the enzyme, monomorphism was detected. These results show the importance of restriction enzyme in detecting genetic variation. Since dopamine is one of the main factors known to reduce prolactin and decrease broodiness as well as the reports indicated that mutations in dopamine D1 receptor different genotypes were significantly associated with increased dopamine.
    Conclusion
    Due to the important role of restriction enzymes in identification of different mutations, selection of the suitable enzyme is recommended.
    Keywords: Broodiness, Dopamine, Native chicken, Polymorphism, PCR-RFLP
  • Zh. Hesani, M. R. Nasiry *, M. R. Bakhtiarizadeh, M. Tahmorespur, A. Javadmanesh Pages 117-130
    Introduction
    Economic pressure on the modern poultry industry has directed the selection process towards fast-growing broilers that have a reduced feed conversion ratio. Selection based heavily on growth characteristics could adversely affect immune competence leaving chickens more susceptible to disease. Native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. The immune system is an adaptive defensed at evolved in phylogenesis to control an organism’s integrity and apoptosis system is involved in many immune system mechanisms and diseases therefore this study has emphasized on apoptosis system. Recently, next generation sequencing technology (RNA-Seq) has become available as a powerful tool to investigate transcriptional profiles for gene expression analysis of many organisms. So, we performed comparative gene expression analysis of native and commercial chickens by RNAsequencing technology, in order to, detect differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis in native and commercial breed poultry.
    Materials And Methods
    The chicken in this study was female from Esfahani and Ross breeds (47 days of age). The blood samples were collected from Brachial/ulnar wing vein; 5 ml was taken. The total RNA was extracted by using Trizol (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacture's protocol. The RNA pool was prepared by mixing together equal quantities of three RNA samples per group/ Total RNA was sent to BGI Company (China) for paired-end sequencing by an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform and the raw reads were generated. Approximately 18 million fragments were sequenced with length of 150 bp. The quality of the row data was checked with Fast QC vol 0.11.2 and Trimmomatic (v 0.35) were used to remove Illumina adaptors, trimming of reads as well as quality or filtering reads by removing low-quality reads. The reads passed the quality control were mapped to the reference genome using Tophat2 (v2.1.1). For aligning and DE analyzing were used cufflinks, cuffmerge and cuffdiff. Then significant DEGs imported to String for creating gene expression network and use DAVID 6.8 for investigation gene annotation and pathway analysis and finally Cytoscape v. 3.5.1 was used for network and cluster analysis.
    Results And Discussion
    Among 1328 significant differentially expressed genes in immune system, 11 genes were identified in a pathway in KEGG database, which named apoptosis genes. Gene ontology has been shown that the most significant biological process term containing 4 genes in term of GO: 1900182 positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus. The apoptosis genes Network analysis showed that number of nods was 11, number of edges was 20, average of degree was 3.64, average local clustering coefficient was0.621. Furthermore, analysis of apoptosis gene networks by Cytoscape showed that PIK3R1 had the highest value by degree. Beside of this result, AKT1 and CSF2RB had the highest value by Beetwinness Centrality. The highest out degree and the lowest in degree were related to AKT1.
    Conclusion
    Overall, 3 apoptic genes including PIK3R1, AKT1 and CSF2RB were recognized as very important in breeding poultry. According to involving apoptic genes in disease and Innate immune system, we mayuse these genes in breeding plans. We can regulate them with appropriate cell and molecular methods or using epigenetic procedures.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Esfehan, Commercial Breeds of Chickens, Gene Ontology, RNA seq
  • Fateme Bahri Binabaj, Golnaz Bihamta, Zana Pirkhezranian Pages 131-139
    Introduction
    Native animals are part of the national capital and strategic reserves of any country which their diversity is very important. Mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) in sheep is 16.58 Kbp. MtDNA has a region named D-loop or control region with no coding gene. Rate of nucleotide mutation in this region is 10 times the nucleus DNA. D-loop has promotors to regulate mtDNA transcription. This region is consisted of HVR1 and HVR2 sites. As the mtDNA is haploid and no meiosis occurs in it, so D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome is a powerful and applicable tool to determine the level of genetic diversity, to study the phylogenetic relationship between the populations and species as well as study the origin and dispersion of animal species. Baluchi sheep breed is one of the important Iranian sheep breeds which has a major role in production of red meat. Due to high strength and resistance to water scarcity it has been able to adapt with hot and dry weather conditions in East and South East of Iran. Due to the high diversity of species and subspecies, the importance of maintaining the purity of native breeds and incomplete information on sheep domestication in Iran, this study was performed to investigate the variation in Baluchi sheep breed and phylogenetic analyzes of mitochondrial D-loop region.
    Material and
    Methods
    Blood samples collection was done randomly from 27 non relative sheep which were kept in Animal Breeding center of Northeast of Iran (Abbasabad breeding station). DNA extraction was done using Diatom DNA Prep kit. DNA quality and quantity were checked using 8% agarose gel and spectrophotometer Nano drop ND-200, respectively. Primers were designed using Primer Premier5 software to amplify 1180 bps fragment of D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Primers specificity was checked in BLASTPrimer of NCBI. To Sequence the amplified region, samples were send to Bioneer Company. To enhance the accuracy of sequencing, each sample was sequenced from both sides. Nucleotide sequences were edited with Chromas Lite 2.01 software. After proofing the quality of sequences they were reformatted from ab1 to FASTA. Then homology of the sequences with registered sequences of the same gene in NCBI and with the sequences themselves was determined using BLASTN in NCBI database and CLC Main workbench 5.5 software, respectively. To draw the phylogenetic tree of Baluchi sheep breed, 15 sequences from each 4 haplogroups were identified and along with consensus sequence from samples were used. To draw the phylogenetic tree with 1000 iterations, the Neighbor-Joining method of MEGA5 software was used and to determine the genetic distance the Create Pairwise Comparison procedure of CLC Main workbench 5.5 software was used.
    Results And Discussion
    Eight haplogroups were observed. The frequencies of haplogroups were 7.40, 7.40, 14.81, 11.11, 18.51, 14.81, 11.11 and 14.81. Haplogroups 2 and 7 had the highest difference between the nucleotides (10 nucleotides) with 99.15 percent genetic similarity, and haplogroups 1 and 4 had the highest genetic similarity (99.83 percent) with 2 nucleotide difference. The present genetic diversity among the 27 samples was estimated 0.0131±0.005. This level of diversity is in the average range of nucleotide diversity which is reported in eukaryotes. The Phylogenetic analysis in this study showed that Baluchi sheep breed is located in the A haplotype.
    Conclusion
    Since the origin of haplotype A is from Asia and Middle East, and according to the results of earlier studies on native Iranian sheep breeds shuch as Moghani, Shal, Sangsari and Afshari it can be concluded that the Baluchi sheep was in the mentioned haplotype therefore the placement of this breed in this haplotype is justifiable.
    Keywords: Baluchi sheep, Haplotype, Mitochondrial genome, Phylogenic
  • Zahra Blooki, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Abozar Najafi, Mahdieh Mehdipour Pages 140-151
    Introduction
    The highest damage to the sperm is caused by oxidative stress due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Semen cryopreservation causes some structural, biochemical and functional changes, which leads to various problems in sperm transport, survival and fertility rate in domestic animals. Also, sperm metabolism produces ROS, which is potentially harmful to the sperm plasma membrane integrity loss of motility .High concentrations of ROS have negative effects on sperm quality and increased degradation of DNA, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which inhibits sperm motility and changes in sperm infrastructure and finally the reduction of fertility.
    Seminal plasma contains enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) which have an important role in the inhibition of the deleterious effects of ROS. Lipid peroxidation may be due to lack of coordination between SOD, GPX, and CAT in seminal plasma or deficiency of total antioxidant capacity of the cell. Ellagic acid is a polyphenol compound that can be found in green tea and other natural resources such as pomegranate, strawberry, raspberry, walnut and eucalyptus bark. Ellagic acid showed antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, it can delay or prevent cellular oxidation; ultimately reduce oxidative stress.Ellagic acid increases the activity of enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx by preventing free radical attack to cells. This research was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of different levels of Elligic acid on microscopic, biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity of ram semen after freezing-thawing process.
    Materials And Methods
    Five Ghezel rams were used. Semen samples were collected twice a week using artificial vagina. In order to remove individual effects, the semen samples were pooled together. Different levels of ellagic acid (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mM) were added in diluent of tris-lecithin based. After processing and freezing, the samples were stored in liquid nitrogen until the time of evaluation. After thawing of semen samples, sperm motility parameters were evaluated using CASA system, viability by with Eosin-nigrosin staining, membrane integrity with a solution of hypo-osmotic, sperm abnormalities using a solution of Hancock, lipid peroxidation by measuring malondialdehyde and the seminal plasma antioxidant enzymes of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity using the RANDOX Laboratories kit. The data were analyzed with SAS (9.1.3) software using GLM procedures.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the levels of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM ellagic acid improved survival and total motility parameters (P
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed that the diluent containing 0.5 mM ellagic acid significantly improved sperm parameters compared to other levels, after freezing-thawing process.
    Keywords: Cryopreservation, Ellagic acid, Ram, sperm