فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue:2, 2000
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1378/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Seyyid Muhammad Reza Ahmadi Tabatabai* Pages 7-40
    One of the most fundamental subjects relating to humankind’s social life is justice. From the early days of human civilization, this topic has been intertwined with the most basic philosophical and sociological thoughts developed by the human mind. The great intellectuals of human history-whose contributions in the field of knowledge should truly be viewed as humankind’s collective heritage, not merely tied to the pride of a particular region or nationality-have all sought to address this topic in some way-in view, of course, of their peculiar social, ethical, philosophical, and political considerations-in an attempt to offer a precise definition of it and an accurate description of its role in the general arena of the human being’s social life. Divine and monotheistic religions have also been champions of justice in human societies. The Qur’an-as the final heavenly book revealed to God’s final prophet-enumerates three objectives in Surah Jum‘ah for which God appointed His prophets: to purify the human being’s soul from vice, to teach him God’s decrees and signs, and to edify him with knowledge and wisdom so as to enable him to uphold social justice. This demonstrates clearly that, in their religious endeavors, all the prophets pursued the same end, for the above-cited Surah does not restrict these objectives to Prophet Muhammad’s ministry; they are put forth as the objectives of all previous prophets as well.In this light, the comparative study of the principles that the monotheistic and Abrahamic faiths-particularly the two great faiths of Islam and Christianity-share in common or at least come very close to sharing is an especially important interdisciplinary field of study. In this article, I attempt to examine, in summary fashion of course, the tenets Islam and Christianity posit with regard to the concept of justice. (I should note in advance that my study of the Christian doctrine rests mainly on the thought and works of Saint Augustine.) This article should be viewed as a preliminary work, an introduction to a more extensive study on the principles these two faiths define regarding justice and, more particularly, social justice
    Keywords: Justice, justice in Islam, justice in Christianity, Saint Augustine, social justice
  • Jalal Dorakhshah* Pages 41-77
    A constant yet complex question in the history of political thought is that of justice, which has been discussed by all political thinkers. Yet, different answers have always been provided to the question what justice or a just act is or what decision can be considered to be a just one. Nevertheless, as a concept throughout history, justice is also a topic constantly dealt with in divine religions, especially in Islamic thought. In Islamic thought, justice is by itself of such significance that it has been frequently discussed in the Holy Quran as well as in the tradition and, subsequently, has been one of the most controversial religious concepts analyzed by Islamic thinkers including philosophers, theologians and Islamic jurisprudents. The present article studies the concept of justice according to Imam Ali, especially because he is the only Infallible Imam throughout the history of Islam who functioned as the head of the political power and led the Islamic society through complex political events and with wide gaps
    Keywords: Imam Ali, Justice, piety, wisdom, sagacity, equitableness, denial of discrimination
  • Gholamreza Khajesarvi* Pages 79-114
    The Islamic Revolution, which is a breakthrough in the history of Iran, introduced some new concepts in the arena of national debate. Founded on Shi’ite political thought, this Revolution has in recent years followed a particular theory of justice that has its roots in Shi’ite doctrines, and this is evident in the ideas of Imam Khomeini (r) and the current Supreme Leader. While preserving its originality, the Shi’ite concept of justice has been subject to new readings befitting the requirements of each government. Mahdi Bazargan’s administration considered small government to be the necessary condition for the realization of justice. Muhammad Ali Rajaei’s government, which ruled the country in conditions of war between Iran and Iraq, interpreted justice within the context of struggle against the enemy, and hence adopted as its own policy some doctrines of equity. Mir Hossein Musavi’s government introduced social justice and concern for the oppressed as the main instances of Shi’i justice. Hashemi Rafsanjani saw [economic and industrial] development as the most important requisite for the actualization of justice. Seyyed Mohammad Khatami persued justice under the auspices of some more important concern, namely political development. Finally, in Dr. Mahmud Ahmadinejad's government, the concept of justice refound an Islamic revolutionary and ideological definition. In spite of [continued] developments in the discourse on Shi’ite justice under various governments, Shi’ite principles of the concept of justice have nonetheless been kept intact in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and this shows the presence of a complete theory in the field of political thought in the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran
    Keywords: Islamic Republic of Iran, iustice, Shii, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, government, discourse, equity, politics
  • Muhammad Hasan Khani* Pages 115-132
    Justice has invariably been one of the most contentious concepts of religious and political literature among the various schools of thought and philosophy throughout the entire history of humankind. The different definitions, interpretations, and applications philosophers and intellectuals have postulated in relation to the topic of justice have constituted the focus of profound and contentious debates, the result of which has been the formation of numerous intellectual trends and schools. One of the more specific topics of discussion among these different schools of thought has been the scope of implementation of justice and the boundaries in which it ought to be enforced. It has been the conviction of many scholars and intellectuals that the enforcement of justice is necessarily confined within the boundaries of the state and as such to seek the rule of justice on a border scale in the international arena would be impracticable and unrealistic. In the course of the present article this author intends to examine Islam’s perspective and approach on the topic of justice in international relations, thereby underscoring Islam’s distinctive theoretical principles and approach, which differentiate it from other schools of thought concerning this topic
    Keywords: Justice, Islam, International Relations, Realism, idealism
  • Farshad Shariat* Pages 133-166
    This article attempts to study the interactions between the two religious and secular domains in three intellectual periods in the history of Western political philosophy before Christ, in the ecclesiastical period and in the modern era, in which the separation of religion and state in Western political thought is a two-tier phenomenon in theory and practice. In other words, the internal layer of the philosophy seeks to reread and mentally separate political from nonpolitical matters so as to prescribe a just or a relatively not unjust criterion for political actors although, in practice, political actors and the others cannot avoid interacting. Again in other words, this article, while researching the just rights of citizens and the need for interaction and a link between political and nonpolitical actors, shows why and how in order for politics and the like to outline a moral theory that would fit a political theory in practice, cannot avoid separating and distinguishing the two in theory
    Keywords: Western political philosophy, religion, politics, political matter, Secularism, Justice