فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:8 Issue:5, 2018
  • Volume:8 Issue:5, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Hamideh Naghedi Baghdar, Mohsen Nematy, Mohammad-Mahdi Kooshyar, Ali Taghipour, Sayyed Abolghasem Sajadi Tabassi, Sadegh Shokri, Roghayeh Javan, Seyed Mohammad Nazari * Pages 389-398
    Objective
    Key hemorheological variables are associated with several life-threatening diseases including cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. A diet can influence the blood rheological variables. To compare the effectiveness of a vegetable soup on blood viscosity (BV), hematocrit (Hct), plasma fibrinogen, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and blood osmolarity in patients with polycythemia in comparison to a control group.
    Materials And Methods
    This randomized controlled trial study was conducted at Isar health clinics in Mashhad, Iran, during a 7-month period. Forty male participants (35 to 60 years old) with polycythemia, but without underlying diseases, were included. They randomly assigned to two groups and either received diet/phlebotomy or phlebotomy alone, for 6 weeks. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using parametric tests.
    Results
    A significant reduction in BV at 30s (p 0.001), BV at 40s (p 0.001), BV at 50s (p 0.001), Hct (p 0.001), plasma fibrinogen (p
    Conclusion
    This trial showed that the plant–based food used in this study could improve blood rheology.
    Keywords: Blood rheology, Blood viscosity, Polycythemia, Functional food, Diet
  • Majid Mirsadraee *, Afsaneh Tavakoli, Vahideh Ghorani, Shadi Ghafari Pages 399-407
    Objective
    The present study aimed to determine the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) and Platanus orientalis(P. orientalis) extracts on asthma.
    Materials And Methods
    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, active-comparator study to evaluate the effect of P. orientalis and R. officinalis extracts on asthmatic patients resistant to routine treatment.The subjects were randomly divided into three groups receiving P. orientalis and R. officinalis extracts alone or in combination. The primary endpoints were clinical findings, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) assessed over the one-month treatment period.
    Results
    ACT score showed significant improvement after treatment with R. officinalis (p
    Conclusion
    R. officinalis extract showed promising results in treatment of resistant asthma. Further studies to find the most effective components of these herbal medicines are recommended.
    Keywords: Asthma, R. officinalis, P. orientalis, Sycamore, Rosmarinic acid
  • Mohsen Minaiyan *, Sayed-Ebrahim Sajjadi, Kamran Amini-Dehkordi Pages 408-415
    Objective
    Zataria multiflora has been reported to have several medicinal properties including antioxidant, antibacterial, antispasmodic, and expectorant activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Z. multiflora hydro-alcoholic extract (ZMHE) on peptic ulcer caused by indomethacin in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    ZMHE was prepared by maceration, condensed by rotary evaporator and dried by a freeze-drier. In this study, 72 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, six in each including: normal rats, control rats, ranitidine-treated, and animals that were treated with ZMHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg). Parenteral and oral treatments were done 1 and 2 hours, respectively before gastric ulcer induction by indomethacin (25 mg/kg, i.p.). After 6 hours, animals were sacrificed, two sides of the stomach were ligated and gastric contents and tissues were investigated in terms of pH and biochemical and histologic parameters, respectively.
    Results
    ZMHE (at all doses) considerably decreased the ulcer area and ulcer severity in comparison to control group after oral and parenteral administration. Oral administration of this extract increased thepH of stomach contents while diminished pepsin activity in a dose-dependent manner. Following parenteral treatment, a significant difference in pH of stomach content was observed only by ZMHE 400mg/kg in comparison to control group. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity decreased in groups that received the extract via both oral and parenteral routes.
    Conclusion
    It might be concluded that ZMHE could protect against experimental gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin and this action is probably mediated via reducing acid secretion and pepsin activity besides enhancing tissue antioxidant capacity
    Keywords: Zataria multiflora, Gastric ulcer, Gastric acid, Pepsin, Ulcer index
  • Rathinam Prasanth, Pragasam Viswanathan * Pages 416-431
    Objective
    Considering the emergence of biofilm-associated pathogens with multidrug resistance, the objective(s) of the present study was to evaluate the anti-virulence property of Syzygium aromaticum extracts/fractions against 2 multidrug-resistant catheter isolates.
    Materials And Methods
    Pulverized clove buds were subjected to bioactivity-guided isolation to identify the bioactive extract/fraction(s) with significant anti-virulence property. The clove bud powder was subjected to Soxhlet extraction and all these extracts were investigated in terms of anti-virulent efficacy using initial readout assays. Bioassay-guided partial purification was performed through column and size exclusion chromatography. Detailed testing of the anti-virulence and anti-biofilm activity of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) levels of the active fraction, was performed besides the cytotoxicity profiling in RAW 264.7 cells.
    Results
    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the clove bioactive fraction-2 (CBF-2), done after the bioassay-guided fractionation, revealed eugenol as the major bioactive ingredient present in CBF-2. Reduced mRNA levels of virulence factor genes after CBF-2 (700 μg/ml) treatment correlated well with the respective phenotypic assays (p
    Conclusion
    The present study indicated that eugenol-rich CBF-2 has potent anti-virulence and anti-biofilm activity against urinary catheter isolates and can be regarded as an alternative for treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
    Keywords: Syzygium aromaticum (L.), Anti-virulence agent, Quorum sensing, Eugenol, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, CAUTIs
  • Heddy Julistiono *, Fani Gustiani Lestari, Rifki Iryanto, Puspa Dewi Lotulung Pages 432-438
    Objective
    Fruits of lemon pepper (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC., Rutaceae) have been traditionally used as a spice and in folk medicine for treatment of diarrhea and stomachache. Stomachache could be associated with mycobacterial infection. The present study was designed to investigate the activity of Z. acanthopodium fruits against a non-infectious Mycobacterium smegmatis and to identify the important phytochemical constituent that is toxic towards mycobacteria.
    Materials And Methods
    The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethyl acetate or hexane extract of green, young fruits of Z. acanthopodium. Effect of active extract (hexane) on cell membranee integrity was studied by measuring sodium and potassium leakage into extracelullar liquid using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer (AAS). Next, cell morphology was observedby using Scanning Microscope Electron (SEM). Column chromatography was used for fractionation and purification of hexane extract while the chemical structure of the active compound was determined using NMR technique. Rifampicin, an antimycobacterial compound, was used as positive control.
    Results
    Hexane extract was active against M. smegmatis with an MIC of 64 µg/ml. Plant extract at the concentration of 128 µg/ml caused ions leakage. Concentration of sodium in extracellular liquid of cells treated with plant extract was significantly higher than that of untreated cells. SEM observation revealed cell wall deformation in cultures treated with the extract. NMR spectroscopy analysis of the most active fraction revealed that the compound that exerted toxicity on M. smegmatis was geranyl acetate.
    Conclusion
    Geranyl acetate was an important constituent of Z. acanthopodium fruit that has antimycobacterial activity. Possibly, Z. acanthopodium fruit exert its toxic effects against M. smegmatisthrough damaging cell membrane.
    Keywords: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Anti – diarrhea, Antimycobacteria, Geranyl acetate
  • Seyed Hamid Forouzmand, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Vahid Vazifedan, Mahnaz Nourbakhsh, Jamshidkhan Chamani, Azar Hoseini, Azar Fani Pakdel * Pages 439-447
    Objective
    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women, worldwide; and for treatment of this type of cancer radiotherapy is commonly used. Ferula gummosa Boiss(“Barije” in Persian, from the family Apiaceae), (F. gummosa), is an extremely precious medicinal plant which naturally grows throughout the Mediterranean and Central Asia and is a native plant in Iran. The present study examined the cytotoxic effects of F. gummosa in terms of induction of apoptosis and radiosensitivity in HeLa cells.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to determine F. gummosa cytotoxicity in HeLa cells, the cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant resin(0-1000 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The role of apoptosis in F. gummosa cytotoxicity was investigated using flow cytometry following propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA. For radiosensitivity assessment, F. gummosa-treated cells were exposed to 2 Gy γ-rays, and cytotoxicity was determined in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) groups by MTT and the synergism factor was calculated.
    Results
    F. gummosa decreased cell viability in HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometryanalysisindicated that apoptosis is involved in F. gummosa-induced cytotoxicity. Co-administration of F. gummosa and radiotherapy, showed that this plantat non-toxic low doses, could result in almost 5-fold increment in sensitization of cells towards radiation-induced toxicity.
    Conclusion
    The concurrent use of F. gummosa and radiation increases radiosensitivity and cell death. Therefore, F. gummosa can be considered as a potential radiosensitizer agent against cervical cancer.
    Keywords: HeLa cell line, Ferula gummosa Boiss, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, Radiotherapy, Synergistic effects
  • Ali Soleimanzadeh *, Mehdi Kian, Sajjad Moradi, Farin Malekifard Pages 448-456
    Objective
    Exposure to heavy metals such as lead (Pb) results in oxidative stress induction in the male reproductive system. Herbal medicine can be utilized as antioxidant agents against oxidative stress. Quercus brantii (QB) has shown antioxidant activity in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of QB hydro-alcoholic extract against Pb-induced oxidative stress in the male mice reproductive system.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty-two NMRI adult male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals each. Group I was the control group that received no treatment. Group II was the sham group and received 0.2 ml distilled water. Groups III and IV received QB hydro-alcoholic extract 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw, respectively. Group V received Pb 1000 ppm/kg bw. Group VI and VII received Pb 1000 ppm/kg bw and QB extract 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw, respectively. All groups received treatment via oral gavage. After 35 days, sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology) were evaluated. Levels of sex hormones including LH, FSH, and testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in animals’ serum.
    Results
    Exposure to Pb negatively affected sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology), decreased serum concentrations of sex hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, and testosterone), TAC and SOD activity but increased MDA levels. However, co-administration of 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw QB hydro-alcoholic extract and Pb considerably improved sperm parameters (i.e. sperm motility, count and morphology), increased sex hormones (i.e.LH, FSH, and testosterone), TAC, and SOD activity while decreased MDA levels in animals’ serum.
    Conclusion
    Administration of QB extracts (Low dose and high dose) is able to protect the male reproductive system of mice against Pb-induced oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, Lead, Lipid Peroxidation, Oak Tree, Oxidative stress, Sperm
  • Nadar Shahrokhi, Zakieh Keshavarzi *, Mohammad Khaksari Haddad, Fereshteh Amirafzali, Shahriar Dabiri, Nava Shahrokhi Pages 457-464
    Objective
    In this study, we elucidated the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Mumiju against acetic acid-induced experimental colitis in male rats.
    Materials And Methods
    The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=7) including I: control group, II: vehicle group (injected with 2 ml acetic acid (4%) intra rectally), III and IV: treatment groups which received Mumiju (250 mg/kg) orally or intraperitoneally for 4 consecutive days after ulcer induction. Ulcer index, severity of inflammation, colonic levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 4 days.
    Results
    The ulcer index, severity of inflammation and colonic MDA levels were increased following intrarectal instillation of acetic acid. Also, acetic acid significantly decreased the SOD and GSH levels. Treatment with Mumiju for 4 days exhibited significantly lowered oxidative stress, while elevated of SOD and GSH levels. Regenerative-healing patterns also was seen by histopathological findings after treatment with Mumiju.
    Conclusion
    The present investigation demonstrates that Mumiju could be regarded as a herb with potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by modulation of oxidant- antioxidant system.
    Keywords: SOD, GSH, MDA, Mumiju, Rats, Colitis
  • Alireza Diba, Fahimeh Alizadeh * Pages 465-474
    Objective
    One of the major clinical problems is the resistance of Candida speciestowards most of antifungals. The search for new antifungal drug from plants have helped to overcome this problem. This study evaluated the effects of Allium hirtifolium and Allium sativumextracts on Candida tropicalis both in vitro and in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, clinical isolates of C. tropicalis were isolated and identified from immunocompromised patients with recurrent candidiasis. Antifungal susceptibilities assessment and time kill study of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. hirtifolium and A. sativumextracts were done against C. tropicalis. The in vivo activity of aqueous extracts of A. hirtifolium and A. sativumwere evaluated in a mouse model of systemiccandidiasis caused by C. tropicalis through estimating the host survival time, fungal burden and histopathologic analyses.
    Results
    The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. hirtifolium and A. sativum exhibited significant antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. In time kill study, A. hirtifolium and A. sativum extracts exhibited significant effects against C. tropicalis (p
    Conclusion
    These findings demonstrate the anticandidal properties of A. hirtifolium and A. sativumextracts in vitro and in vivo and suggest their potential to be used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of Candida infections.
    Keywords: Allium hirtifolium, Allium sativum, Candida tropicalis, Systemic candidiasis