فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - Volume:13 Issue: 3, 2018
  • Volume:13 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Anayatollah Salimi, Saeed Mohammad Soleymani * Page 1
  • Sanket J. Joshi *, Geetha S. J., Saif Al-Mamari, Ahlam Al-Azkawi Page 2
    Background
    Nanoparticles (NP) have been shown to have various useful applications. They are generally synthesized using chemical processes involving hazardous chemicals. Therefore, green synthesis of NPs using natural products can be an environmentally friendly alternative.
    Objectives
    In this study, green synthesis of silver NPs (AgNPs) using pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PE) and its application in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye were examined.
    Methods
    PE-mediated AgNP synthesis was studied using different analytical methods, including ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy (surface plasmon resonance or SPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Photocatalysis of MB dye was studied in the presence of synthesized NPs.
    Results
    The color changes, UV-VIS spectra (SPR at around 442 nm within less than five minutes), XRD peaks (2θ: 38.18, 44.31, 64.61, and 77.50), FE-SEM-EDX data, and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of AgNPs. PE-mediated AgNPs showed a high zeta potential (-68.93 mv), with an average particle size of 57.7 - 142.4 nm. The phytoconstituents of PE could act as both reductants and stabilizers. Photocatalytic degradation of MB dye was spectrophotometrically monitored using PE-mediated AgNPs as catalysts under sunlight irradiation. The absorbance of MB (2.557) was observed at 660 nm, which was reduced to almost 55 - 60% within one hour and degraded to almost 89% by 48 - 72 hours.
    Conclusions
    AgNPs were rapidly synthesized within five minutes using pomegranate PE, which could degrade almost 89% of MB dye within 48 - 72 hours under sunlight irradiation; this finding indicates the potential of this natural product, although further exploration is needed.
    Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Pomegranate Peel Extract, Silver Nitrate, Photocatalytic Degradation, Methylene Blue
  • Mojtaba Kalantar, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Heibatullah Kalantari, Layasadat Khorsandi, Ali Asghar Hemmati * Page 3
    Background
    Paraquat (PQ), a potent herbicide, is extremely toxic to humans when exposed orally and it is known to induce lung injury via a redox cyclic reaction.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at examining the effect of gallic acid (GA), a polyphenolic compound, which is a constituent of plant-derived foods, against PQ-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in association with its antioxidant activity.
    Methods
    Male rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups each containing 14 rats. Group 1 received normal saline for 21 days. Group 2 received a single dose of oral administration of PQ (50 mg/kg, only on first day) for 21 days. Groups 3 to 5 were treated with different doses of GA after PQ ingestion for 21 days. Seven animals from each group were sacrificed on the days 7 and 21.
    Results
    The results showed that paraquat gavage, significantly enhanced the inflammatory and fibrotic modifications, hydroxyproline (HP), levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), main proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 as a pro-fibrotic mediator in lung tissue. It also, significantly diminished enzymatic antioxidant amounts such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and non-enzymatic amounts such as glutathione (GSH) content in the rat lung tissue. However, after GA treatment all of these biochemical indices were diminished with a dose dependent manner and histopathological alterations were also close to normal status.
    Conclusions
    The current study indicated that the GA improved the PQ-induced lung injury and prevented the process of pulmonary fibrosis via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.
    Keywords: Paraquat, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Gallic Acid, Oxidative Stress
  • Shohreh Alipour, Shadab Dehshahri *, Afshin Afsari Page 4
    Background
    Considering increasing antibiotic resistance and periodontal diseases incidence, the need of a safe, effective, and economical alternative mouthwash seems necessary. Combination of Persian oak husk of Quercus brantii (Jaft) with astringent and antibacterial properties of its tannins and Zataria multiflora leaves with anti-bacterial activity related to its essential oil seems to be more effective.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a herbal mouthwash formulation containing the extract of Oak husk and essential oil of Zataria multiflora.
    Methods
    The essential oil of Zataria multiflora leaves was obtained by hydro-distillation. Oak husk powder of Quercus brantii was extracted by infusion and then the extract was freeze-dried. Determination of tannin amount in the extract was performed by the Folin-Denis method. The essential oil analysis was performed by GC/MS. Formulations were prepared at five different concentrations of tannin (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) with 0.15% v/v of essential oil in the base of polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. The selected formulations were subjected to screening against Candida albicans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans, using standard protocol of cell viability in comparison to the Persica mouthwash. Stability tests, such as tannin assay and pH, were done on days zero and forty-five after preparation of the formulations.
    Results and
    Conclusions
    The best formulations with 0.2% and 0.5% of tannin, which were more stable and showed significantly more antibacterial effects than Persica mouthwash may be safe and effective for future clinical studies.
    Keywords: Mouthwash, Thymol, Zataria multiflora, Quercus brantii
  • Mahsa Rouhani, Maryam Mousavi, Mohammad Mahdi Kooshyar, Soodabeh Shahidsales, Yasha Makhdoumi, Amir Amirabadi, Sepideh Elyasi * Page 5
    Background
    Medication errors are important in chemotherapy centers, which can cause excessive morbidity and extra cost for patients because of the high toxicity and low therapeutic index of antineoplastic agents. Using standardized forms for prescription and administration of medications is one of the ways of reducing medication errors in the chemotherapy process.
    Objectives
    In the current study, the authors aimed to evaluate the effects of the standard forms implementation and detect medication error and adverse drug event (ADE) rates involving in chemotherapy regimens used in breast cancer in the public/private outpatient chemotherapy settings.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional interventional study was performed prospectively at two adult outpatient cancer centers, Mashhad, Iran. To avoid errors, a standardized order sheet was established to document information regarding breast cancer chemotherapy. The effect of the standard sheet on decreasing errors in ordering and administering was evaluated. The epidemiology of the errors and adverse drug events was reported.
    Results
    Of the 217 visits (164 at a public hospital and 70 at a private clinic) of 84 adult patients (64 at the hospital and 20 at the clinic) involving 385 medications, 41% were associated with a medication error. Of these errors, 5% occurred in the private clinic compared to 95% of the errors occurring in the public hospital. A standardized approach helped to reduce errors in the selection of the regimen type. However, physicians did not calculate doses based on the standard sheets so the most common error type was improper dose prescription (38.2% of the 89 cited error types). The effect of standard sheets in the administration phase could not be assessed due to the incomplete data presented by nurses. 62% of the errors originated in the prescription phase of medication and 33% originated in the administration phase. The ADE rate was 9.6% but no life-threatening adverse drug event was recorded.
    Conclusions
    Based on the current study, the medication errors occurred more commonly in the public setting and the prescribing errors were the most common ones. Standardized order sheets would be very beneficial in minimizing the medication errors if are used accurately.
    Keywords: Chemotherapy, Standard Form, Medication Errors, Adverse Drug Effects, Breast Cancer
  • Sauda Meskini Milani, Moslem Najafi, Parisa Alizadeh, Hassan Rezazadeh * Page 6
    Background
    Honey as a natural product exhibits a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. Its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive effects have already been proven.
    Objectives
    In this study, the inhibitory effects of honey on the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mice skin carcinogenesis were studied.
    Methods
    Albino Swiss mice were pretreated with multiple topical applications of honey. After nine hours, the carcinogenesis was initiated by a single dose of DMBA. Topical croton oil, as for a promoting agent, was applied biweekly for a period of 30 weeks.
    Results
    The tumor incidences were observed. Compared to the control group, the honey pre-treated mice showed a significant inhibition in tumor incidences. In addition, the enhanced uptake of [3H]-thymidine in mice skin DNA was inhibited in honey-pretreated animals as compared to the control group. Furthermore, honey significantly decreased croton oil-mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO).
    Conclusions
    Taken together, the results suggest that the antioxidants existed in honey have diminishing effects on croton oil-mediated murine skin tumor promotion. In conclusion, we suggest that honey as an effective natural preventive agent may provide protection against skin cancer.
    Keywords: Honey, 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, Croton Oil, Skin Cancer, Mouse
  • Fatemeh Abdollahi, Soghra Khani, Jamshid Yazdani Charati * Page 7
    Background
    Using herbal medicines during pregnancy has increased during the past decades.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of herbal medicines use during pregnancy in females.
    Methods
    In a cross-sectional study, 400 females admitted to Mazandaran hospitals postnatal ward were recruited during the first few days of postnatal period from March to June 2015 and completed a self-report socio-demographic questionnaire, including herbal medicines use extent, dosage, administration route, reasons for use, its effects, herbs administration timing, and whether use was reported to health care providers.
    Results
    Using herbal medicines by the respondents increased from 22.7% before pregnancy to 48.4% during pregnancy. The use of herbal medicines was significantly higher among females living in their own house and married to highly educated husbands, who were working as jobholders. Sour orange (30.76%) and peppermint (22%) were the most commonly reported herbs applied in most cases throughout pregnancy (45.36%). The majority of females took one spoon of the herb per day (52.4%) as brew (51.45%), without the health providers’ supervision (49.2%). The most common reasons for using the herbs were to promote fetal health and intelligence (28.3%). The majority of the users reported the effectiveness (96.4%) of the herbs without any side effects (98.1%).
    Conclusions
    Using herbal medicines that were chosen based on cultural beliefs during pregnancy was prevalent. The majority of females reported that herbs were effective without any side effects. The most common information sources used by the females were informal, and lacked knowledge about the herbs safety during pregnancy. Health care providers should inquire about herbs that women take during pregnancy.
    Keywords: Herbal Medicines, Pregnancy, Prevalence
  • Shahrzad Raoufi, Ali Shafaghat * Page 8
    Background
    The phytosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by plant materials is emerging as an important branch of nanobiotechnology due to its eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. It also does not produce any noxious materials.
    Objectives
    Nanophytosynthesis of AgNPs by the Trigonosciadium brachytaenium leaf extract and the investigation of its antimicrobial activity and physicochemical properties are reported.
    Methods
    AgNPs were prepared by a nanophytosynthesis method. The structural and properties of the NPs were investigated by spectroscopy. The antimicrobial effect against seven bacterial species was studied according to the agar diffusion cup method.
    Results
    The bioassay showed that the silver nanoparticles exhibited a good antimicrobial activity. The average particle size was found to be 32 - 33 nm.
    Conclusions
    This study demonstrated the possible use of phytosynthesized AgNPs in the field of medicine. The approach of AgNPs phytofabrication with T. brachytaenium emerges to be very effective as an alternative to the common procedures of fabrication.
    Keywords: Phytofabrication, Trigonosciadium brachytaenium, Nano Silver, Antimicrobial Activity
  • Parya Alipour, Mohammad Javad Khodayar *, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Behnam Ghorbanzadeh Page 9
    Background
    Morphine is one of the most common drugs for intense pain relief in a clinic, however, its chronic use and repeated administration leads to morphine tolerance and dependence.
    Objectives
    In this study, effects of ketotifen as histamine H1 receptor antagonist and mast cell stabilizer have been investigated on the induction and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.
    Methods
    At first, antinociceptive effects of ketotifen were measured using hot-plate test to find out the subeffective doses of ketotifen. Morphine tolerance and dependence was induced during a six day period with 11 doses of 10 mg/kg morphine, subcutaneously. Morphine tolerance was evaluated in hot plate model of antinociception. Morphine dependence was precipitated by naloxone 5 mg/kg after the last dose of morphine in day six and withdrawal signs including weight loss and jumping were measured. Ketotifen effects were assessed in two methods of acute and chronic administration to define its role in the expression and induction of morphine tolerance and dependence, respectively.
    Results
    Data showed that ketotifen causes antinociceptive effects in a dose-dependent manner while its 2 mg/kg dose, as a subeffective dose, shows no analgesic effect and did not change the antinociceptive threshold of acute morphine in no-tolerant mice. Co-administration of ketotifen with morphine in the induction phase attenuated morphine tolerance and reduced withdrawal signs. Furthermore, acute administration of ketotifen 2 mg/kg at day six reduced expression of morphine tolerance and dependence.
    Conclusions
    Accordingly, ketotifen can be used in conjunction with opioids to reduce opioid tolerance and dependence. It can also be considered in treating people addicted to opioids.
    Keywords: Morphine, Ketotifen, Tolerance, Dependence, Mice
  • Tahereh Kerdar, Shirin Moradkhani, Dara Dastan * Page 10
    Background
    Medicinal plants have been considered a suitable source for finding new pharmaceutical chemicals, and identification of chemical composition is the first step towards uncovering the nature of bioactive compounds.
    Objectives
    Scrophularia striata is used to treat various infections in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical and biological analysis of S. striata collected from Ilam.
    Methods
    In the present study, the hydro distilled volatile oils of aerial parts of S. striata were investigated by GC-MS and GC-FID. The total phenolic and total flavonoid content of hydro-alcoholic extract of S. striata were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extract was studied by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay.
    Results
    In total, 26 compounds were identified and the main identified compounds of the essential oil were n-hexane (16.3%), caryophyllene oxide (15.36%), spathulenol (13.1%), α-cadinol (12.35%), and docosane (6.33%). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 = 85 µg mL-1. The total phenolic content of extract was 15.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, and the total flavonoid content of extract was 1.8 mg quercetin/g dry weight.
    Conclusions
    The data of this study suggests that the essential oil and hydro-alcoholic extract of S. striata could be considered a natural antioxidant agent to preserve food and treat infections in food and pharmaceutical industry. In addition, the data of this study can be used for further studies on the taxonomy of Scrophularia genus.
    Keywords: Essential Oil, Antioxidant, Total Phenolic Content, Total Flavonoid Content, GC-MS, Scrophularia striata
  • Stepan Sergeevich Dzhimak *, Alla Ivanovna Shikhliarova, Galina Vitalievna Zhukova, Alexandr Alexandrovich Basov, Oleg Ivanovich Kit, Liliya Viacheslavovna Fedulova Page 11
    Consumption of deuterium depleted water (DDW) (46 ± 2 ppm) as drinking water by white outbred female rats (20 - 22 months) during five weeks led to the development of a well-pronounced geroprotector effect, which manifested in occurrence of the estrous cycle restoration signs, as well as in the coat state improvement, compared with the same characteristics of animals that received drinking water with a deuterium content of 150 ppm. Besides, rats receiving DDW showed the improvement of the skin bactericidal power. Thus, experiments in mammals provided a direct confirmation of the geroprotector properties of DDW. The current study revealed a deuterium content reduction in blood (according to the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy data) and visceral organs: liver, kidney, and heart (according to the mass spectroscopy data) in animals receiving DDW. A more pronounced decrease in the deuterium content was recorded in the rat blood plasma (33.2%) compared with the deuterium content changes in visceral organs (liver -7.2%, kidney -9.7%, heart -7.3%), which generally led to a change in the direction of the D/H isotopic gradient with consumption of DDW by the animals (CDblood plasma
    Keywords: Deuterium, NMR Spectroscopy, Geroprotector Effect, Anti-Stress Effect, Anti-Stress Adaptation