فهرست مطالب

Reproduction & Infertility - Volume:19 Issue: 3, 2018
  • Volume:19 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mohammad Reza Sadeghi * Pages 123-124
  • Zahra Rajabi, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Hossein Yazdekhasti Pages 125-133
    Recently, due to tremendous progress in prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of different kinds of malignancies, demands on fertility preservation were raised significantly in developed countries. Fertility failure is one of the most detrimental consequences of radio/cytotoxic treatment procedures in women who could overcome their cancer disease. For women who are involved in cancer diseases, there are multiple options regarding their fertility preservation and those could be selected according to patient’s age, the risk of ovarian involvement, the available time and the type of cancer with different levels of advantages and disadvantages. Although there are multiple options, but embryo cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are the most reliable methods for pre-mature and post-mature puberty, respectively. In addition, other approaches like artificial ovary, isolation and cryopreservation of follicles and mature and immature oocyte preservation are under investigations and the success rate of oocyte vitrification is increasing. Therefore, the techniques have the potential to be used in clinic in near future. The presence of comprehensive consultation, before the onset of any kind of cancer treatment procedures, is an indispensable issue which would help patients to make up their mind in choosing the immediate and the best available fertility preservation option.
    Keywords: Cancer treatment, Cryopreservation, Embryo, Fertility preservation, Freezing, Oocyte, Ovarian tissue, Transplantation
  • Sara Keshtgar *, Hamideh Ghanbari, Esmaeel Ghani, Seyed Mostafa Shid Moosavi Pages 133-139
    Background
    Intracellular calcium and proton concentrations are important factors for activating human sperm. Calcium ion (Ca2) enters sperm through voltage-dependent calcium channel of sperm (CatSper). Proton was extruded from sperm through voltage-gated proton channel (Hv1). In the present study, the selective inhibitors of the CatSper and Hv1 channels, NNC 55-0396 (NNC) and zinc ion, respectively, were used to investigate functions of these channels.
    Methods
    Normal semen samples (n=24) were washed and diluted to 20×106 sperm/ml. The diluted sample was divided into 8 groups, containing Ham’s F-10 (the control group), 2 µM NNC, 1 mM ZnCl2 and NNC. The other 4 groups were the same as above, except that they contained 1 µM progesterone. The computer assisted analysis was done by VT-Sperm 3.1 to determine the percentage of motile sperm and sperm velocity. Acrosomal status was monitored by FITC-PSA and viability assessed by Eosin–Y staining. Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test. The p
    Results
    The percentage of viable and motile sperm, curvilinear velocity and other parameters of motility was reduced in all groups containing NNC, zinc and NNC츩. Progesterone–induced acrosome reaction was abolished by each of these inhibitors. The combination effect of NNC plus zinc on motility and progesterone–induced acrosome reaction was not stronger than NNC by itself.
    Conclusion
    CatSper and Hv1 channels play a critical role in human sperm function and viability. It seems that a functional relationship exists between CatSper and Hv1 channels.
    Keywords: Acrosome reaction, CatSper channel, Hv1 channel, Progesterone, Sperm motility
  • Mojgan Atabakhsh, Iraj Khodadadi, Iraj Amiri, Hossain Mahjub, Haidar Tavilani * Pages 140-145
    Background
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) in follicular fluid and seminal plasma and the correlation of their activities with parameters that are important in successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
    Methods
    Seventy-four infertile couples admitted to the Research Center for Endometrium and Endometriosis to carry out ICSI method were enrolled in this study. Follicular fluid was collected after retrieving the oocyte. In addition, semen samples were collected and seminal plasma was used for determination of MMP2 and MMP-9 activity. Gelatin zymography electrophoresis was applied to measure MMPs activities in follicular fluid and seminal plasma.
    Results
    In follicular fluid, there was a positive correlation between MMP-2 activity with oocyte (r=0.27, p=0.021) or embryo quality (r=0.30, p=0.014), but no correlation was observed between MMP-2 activity and oocyte count or fertilization. Activity of MMP-9 showed positive correlation with oocyte morphology (r=0.29, p=0.014). In addition, MMP-2 activity of seminal plasma had positive correlation with sperm count (r=0.28, p=0.015), fertilization (r=0.28, p=0.02), and embryo quality (r=0.28, r=0.026).
    Conclusion
    MMP2 and MMP9 activities in seminal plasma have a positive effect on sperm count and motility. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in follicular fluid and seminal plasma could be important factors in embryo quality in patients undergoing ICSI and may affect the outcome of ICSI.
    Keywords: Fertilization, Follicular fluid, Matrix metalloproteinase 2, Matrix metalloproteinase 9, Semen
  • Sujata Kar *, Swoyam Samparna Pages 146-151
    Background
    The purpose of the study was to determine cut-off values for ovarian volume (OV) and follicle number per ovary (FNPO) in Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
    Methods
    Eighty six PCOS women (Rotterdam criteria) and forty five matched ovulatory and normo-androgenic women were recruited. A detailed 2D and 3D trans-vaginal scan was carried out in early follicular phase (D2-D5) in all patients. Ovarian volume, follicle number per ovary, stromal volume, vascularization index (VI), vascularization flow index (VFI) and flow index (FI) were measured in PCOS and controls. Mann-Whitney test and logistic analysis using PROC LOGISTIC function of SAS® (Version 9.3) were used to calculate the best cut-offs for the diagnosis of PCOS.
    Results
    Mean ovarian volume was 13.7±5.89 and 5.06±2.44 (p
    Conclusion
    2D and 3D trans-vaginal scans are equally accurate for assessment of ovarian morphology. FNPO has better diagnostic accuracy for PCOS compared to ovarian volume. Cut-off for FNPO and OV in Indian PCOS women is 12 and 6.15 cm³ by 2D, 10 and 7 cm³ by 3D trans-vaginal scan.
    Keywords: Ovarian volume, PCOS, Polycystic ovary, Rotterdam criteria, Three dimensional ultrasound
  • Anitha Kurian, Kanika Kaushik, Subeesh K. Viswam *, Eswaran Maheswari, Radhika Kunnavil Pages 152-156
    Background
    Levonorgestrel is most commonly utilized as an emergency oral contraceptive. Little is known and/or studied about the adverse effects of levonorgestrel, therefore, current investigation was aimed to generate signal for unreported adverse drug reactions of levonorgestrel using disproportionality analysis in food and drug administration adverse events reporting system database.
    Methods
    In FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database, all adverse event reports for levonorgestrel between January 2006 to June 2015 were identified and disproportionality analysis was conducted for selected adverse events of levonorgestrel using Reporting Odds Ratio, Proportional Reporting Ratio and Information Component with 95% confidence interval.
    Results
    A disproportionality analysis was done for 15 adverse events of levonorgestrel; out of these, signal for 10 adverse events was found and among them menstruation delayed was reported maximum (1791), followed by pregnancy after post-coital contraception (942), breast tenderness (901), metrorrhagia (899), dysmenorrhea (822), menorrhagia (541), nipple disorder (141), breast enlargement (77), ectopic pregnancy (61) and premenstrual syndrome (35). Pregnancy after post-coital contraception showed the highest signal having the Information Component value of 129.2, Reporting Odds Ratio value of 6.51 and Proportional Reporting Ratio value of 6.49.
    Conclusion
    In this paper, ten novel AEs were identified that were disproportionately reported with the use of LNG by using data mining techniques. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, the number of cases reported suggests that there might be an association. If confirmed by epidemiologic studies, the findings from this study would have potential implications for the use of LNG and patient management in clinical practice.
    Keywords: Contraceptive, Data mining, Levonorgestrel
  • Maryam Moridi, Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi * Pages 157-166
    Background
    Adolescent pregnancy is an important health problem, significantly related to negative effects on the health of both adolescent mothers and their babies. Little is known about adolescent pregnancy from the perspective of the adolescents, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to explore the perception of response to pregnancy in Iranian adolescent women.
    Methods
    This conventional content analysis was conducted from November 2015 to October 2016 in Guilan Province (In the north of Iran). Data were collected through unstructured interview with 24 married women aged between 14 and 18 years old. The participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Interviews began with a general question and were followed with some probing questions, and were continued till data saturation was reached.
    Results
    "Ambivalence perception" was the main theme that merged in this study. Two other categories comprised the content of interviews: "Improving positive effects of pregnancy" and, "Diminishing negative effects of pregnancy" which were merged from nine sub-categories.
    Conclusion
    The experiences of pregnancy were not completely undesired and negative as the teenage mothers expressed a feeling of satisfaction with the birth of their children. This finding will help health educators to develop cultural sensitive programs, activities, and educational interventions that assist adolescent mothers to deal with this ambivalent perception of pregnancy.
    Keywords: Adolescent, Pregnancy, Women's health
  • Rosario Mendoza, Teresa J., Aacute, Uregui, Maria Diaz-Nu, Ntilde, Ez *, Mariana De La Sota, Alaitz Hidalgo, Marcos Ferrando, Lorea Mart, Iacute, Nez-Indart, Antonia Exp, Oacute, Sito, Roberto Matorras Pages 167-173
    Background
    The number of multiple pregnancies has been significantly increased in the last decades due to assisted reproduction techniques development. Compared to singleton, twins and multiple pregnancies are associated to more complications and risks for both mother and children. The objective of this study was to examine the proportion of patients preferring a multiple birth over a singleton after an IVF/ICSI attempt, their reasons and the influence of socio-demographic and clinical parameters on their preference.
    Methods
    A prospective study was conducted in two different Spanish centers in 2014; a public university hospital and a private clinic, with different populations and embryo transfer policies. In order to evaluate patients and partners attitudes towards twins and singletons, an anonymous 10-question survey was conducted and 399 were invited to participate.
    Results
    58.2% of participants preferred having twins to having one child at a time and 4.8% preferred triplets. Primary reasons for preferring twins were "avoiding a new IVF/ICSI attempt" (61.6%), "I like the idea of having twins" (27.3%), "avoiding the waiting list" (5.8%), and "in my opinion with the latest technology, the rate and severity of complications in multiple pregnancies are low" (5.2%). The multivariate analysis showed that the only significant parameter related to a preference for multiplets was the transfer of women’s own fresh embryos (OR=3.31).
    Conclusion
    Twin pregnancy risks are not perceived as important by the majority of IVF/ICSI couples, and many of them specifically prefer twins. In our opinion, much more information is needed highlighting the multiple pregnancy risks and that information should come from medical sources besides general media.
    Keywords: IVF, Questionnaire, Twins
  • Enrique Perez De La Blanca *, Maria Fuensanta Fernandez-Perez, Elena Del Mar Martin-Diaz, Manuel Lozano, Marta Garcia-Sanchez, Carolina Monedero Pages 174-181
    Background
    Cryopreservation of oocytes is an efficient method of fertility preservation (FP) that can be applied in women suffering from gynecologic conditions that menace their reproductive future. Collection of oocytes becomes challenging in some scenarios, like the possibility of an ovarian cancer, the "ex-vivo" harvest of oocytes for FP, aspirating follicles directly from the ovarian specimen already excised by laparotomy or laparoscopy and it is an option for these cases.
    Case Presentation
    In the present case report, the case of a patient with an adnexal mass suspected to be a recurrent teratoma was described who referred to our Assisted Reproduction Unit in Hospital Quironsalud Malaga for FP counseling. After controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by laparoscopic abdominal examination and oophorectomy, an ex-vivo follicular aspiration for oocyte retrieval was performed on the specimen, using a standard ultrasound-guided procedure to ease and improve the process. All the follicles were aspirated and 5 metaphase II oocytes were obtained.
    Conclusion
    This is to our knowledge, the first communication describing the ex-vivo ovarian aspiration of mature oocytes for FP using standard ultrasound guidance. Although this ultrasound guidance is not completely necessary, as other authors demonstrated previously, such a procedure permitted an easy and complete harvest of oocytes in a rare tumor with bizarre cystic formations, which made follicle recognition very difficult.
    Keywords: Cryopreservation, Ex, vivo oocyte retrieval, Fertility preservation, Laparascopy, Ovarian neoplasms, Ovarian teratoma, Struma ovarii, Vitrification