فهرست مطالب

Community Based Nursing and Midwifery - Volume:6 Issue:4, 2018
  • Volume:6 Issue:4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mohammad Mohseni, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Sepideh Gareh Sheyklo, Ahmad Moosavi, Majid Nakhaee, Fatemeh Pournaghi-Azar, Aziz Rezapour * Pages 272-284
    Background
    Given the importance of having valid information about the prevalence and reasons of self-medication among pregnant women for preventing self-medication during this period, this study aimed to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis on the prevalence and reasons of self-medication during pregnancy.
    Methods
    This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in 2018 to estimate the overall self-medication prevalence based on the database sources PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, MagIran, IranMedex and SID. Required data were collected using keywords: medication, self-medication, over-the-counter, non-prescription, prevalence, etiology, and occurrence and pregnant. Descriptive and cross-sectional studies in English and Persian languages were included. There was no time limitation for search. R software was applied for meta-analysis. Random-effects model was applied to estimate the self-medication prevalence with 95% confidence interval. Q statistics and I2 were used to measure the heterogeneity.
    Results
    Out of 490 retrieved articles, finally 13 studies were included in meta-analysis, 6 studies of which reported the cause of self-medication. The overall estimated prevalence of self-medication based on the random effect model was 32% (95% CI, 22% - 44%). The most important reasons of self-medication were previous experience of the disease. The most important group of disease in which patients self-medicated was anemia. Also, the most important group of medication was herbal.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that the prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women was relatively high and required effective interventions to reduce and prevent self-medication among this group. Providing required information and raising awareness about complications resulting from self-medication, in particular herbal medicines and dietary supplements, should be taken into account.
    Keywords: Meta-Analysis, Pregnant, Prevalence, Self-medication
  • Marzieh Navaei, Mahnaz Akbari-Kamrani *, Sara Esmaelzadeh-Saeieh, Malihe Farid, Maryam Tehranizadeh Pages 285-292
    Background
    The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of group counseling on parents’ self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude, and communication practice in preventing sexual abuse of children aged 2-6 years.
    Methods
    A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 62 parents in Karaj (Iran) during the period of March-November 2016. Three kindergartens were randomly selected using the cluster sampling technique. Block randomization was used to assign the participants into two groups (N=31 in each group), namely the intervention group and the control group. Data collection included demographic characteristics, a “Parental Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice” questionnaire on the prevention of child sexual abuse, and the Farrell and Walsh self-efficacy pretest-posttest. The participants in the intervention group attended a counseling program of a 90-minute session per week, for 3 consecutive weeks. The participants were evaluated before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 19.0). Data were analyzed using the Chi-square, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, and Friedman tests. P
    Results
    There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in terms of the mean knowledge (P=0.50), attitude (P=0.48), practice (P=0.93), and self-efficacy (P=0.43) before the intervention. However, a significant difference was observed between the groups immediately after (P
    Conclusion
    Counseling is an effective tool in increasing the self-efficacy of parents on child sexual abuse. The awareness of child sexual abuse and its prevention should be raised in the society through effective training programs.
    Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Parents, Preschool children, Self-efficacy
  • Nastaran Heydarikhayat, Tahereh Ashktorab *, Camelia Rohani, Farid Zayeri Pages 293-304
    Background
    Patients with burn injuries still face various burn-related challenges after being discharged from the hospital. Hence, a follow-up program for such patients is essential. The present study aimed to evaluate the health status of burn victims after 1.5 months follow-up.
    Methods
    The present randomized clinical trial was of a pretest-posttest design, carried out in Kermanshah (Iran) from July 2016 to September 2017. A total of 117 participants were recruited out of which 86 were included in the analysis. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups, namely the intervention group (N=42) and the control group (N=44). All participants were evaluated both at the time of hospital discharge and at 1.5 months post-discharge. The follow-up plan for the intervention group included home visits, telenursing, and referral to specialists or health education centers. To evaluate the physical and psychological status of the participants, five different instruments were used; namely the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 17.0). Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired t-test. P
    Results
    The mean score of the BSHS-B questionnaire at both the time of discharge and 1.5 months post-discharge follow-up for the control and intervention groups was 61.22±19.07, 57.14±18.92; 83.70±24.73 and 105.16±29.17, respectively. There was a significant difference between the groups at 1.5 months post-discharge follow-up (P
    Conclusion
    Health status, psychological status, and scar management were improved due to post-discharge follow-up. However, burn patients required continued care for pain, psychological health, and itching problems.
    Keywords: Aftercare, Burns, Follow-up care, Health status, Home visits
  • Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Masoumeh Simbar *, Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz Pages 305-313
    Background
    Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is one of the most common problems during pregnancy. Psychological variables including attitude, belief, cognition, and fear have more effects on risk factors for back pain, compared to biomechanical factors. Moreover, fear and anxiety may be provoked by the prospect of pain, which is associated with higher levels of disability, compared to pain itself. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs and pain in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain.
    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 148 pregnant women with PGP, who referred to the healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Me­dical Sciences in Tehran, Iran from September to December 2017. The samples were selected by the multi-stage method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ) and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ). Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22, using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.
    Results
    The subjects’ mean age and gestational age were 29.35±5.89 years and 32.78±5.13 weeks, respectively. Mean and SD of Fear-Avoidance Beliefs (FAB) toward PGQ was 41.27±13.67 (from 66). In addition, PGQ was moderate in the majority of participants [84 (56.75%)]. Results of one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant relationship between the mean total score and the score of dimensions of physical and occupational activities of FAB in different severities of PGQ (P
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicated that fear-avoidance and catastrophic beliefs, in women with PGP can be predicted. According to the results of the study, FAB varied with the severity of pain. In addition, increased pain intensity was associated with elevated score of FAB.
    Keywords: Beliefs, Pain, Pelvic girdle pain, Pregnancy
  • Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Reza Majdzadeh, Jaleh Gholami, Hassan Eftekhar, Ali Bozorgi * Pages 314-323
    Background
    Hypertension is a major public health issue. With regard to the current trend, it has been estimated that one out of three people will be suffering from hypertension by 2025. This study was designed to provide a better insight into the adherence to treatment and its underlying reasons.
    Methods
    A directed qualitative content analysis approach was conducted in collaboration with 35 hypertensive patients and 3 cardiologists in the form of in-depth interviews and focused group discussions from October 2015 to February 2016. Sampling was carried out from patients with hypertension using purposeful and heterogeneous method. Some of the PRECEDE model structures were applied as the conceptual framework.
    Results
    The reasons affecting adherence to hypertension treatment were analyzed in three general categories of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors based on the model structures. Factors such as “knowledge”, “belief and attitude”, “mental-personality traits”, “culture and lifestyle” were classified as the predisposing factors category. “Access to health service” and “access to facilities in the workplace, home and society” were fit in the enabling factor category. The reinforcing factors category addresses “individuals’ internal incentives” and “family and health service providers’ support”.
    Conclusion
    Several reasons account for non-adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients. Diversity of these reasons is an indication that design and implementation of different kinds of interventions are required in order to increase the patients’ awareness, empower them and encourage self-efficacy.
    Keywords: Hypertension, Qualitative research, Patient compliance, Treatment adherence
  • Mitra Edraki, Masoume Rambod *, Zahra Molazem Pages 324-333
    Background
    Diabetes patients are at risk of psychosocial problems. Some interventions might decrease these problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coping skills training on depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy of adolescents with type I diabetes.
    Methods
    This randomized controlled trial with pre- and post-test design was performed in the diabetes clinic in Shiraz from June to November 2015. This study was conducted on 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes who were randomly divided into an intervention (receiving coping skills training in groups for eight sessions) and a control group (usual care). Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (42-items, scores=0-42) and General Self-Efficacy questionnaire (17-items, scores=17-85) were used. The variables were measured at baseline and two months after starting the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 through Chi-square test, independent t–test, and paired t-test. P
    Results
    After the intervention, the mean scores of depression, anxiety and stress in the intervention group were 5.41±4.58, 6.44±7.01, and 7.46±7.01, and in the control groups they were 19.73±11.80, 18.28±10.51, 21.10±10.94, respectively. Moreover, after the intervention, the mean scores of self-efficacy were 70.82±10.84, and 50.13±15.42 in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The results showed differences between the two groups regarding depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy after starting the intervention (P
    Conclusion
    As coping skills training reduced depression, anxiety, and stress and improved the patients’ self-efficacy, the use of this intervention could be a part of community-based nursing practice for adolescents with diabetes and more research for improving evidence-based practice in this regard are warranted.
    Keywords: Adolescent, Anxiety, Depression, Diabetes mellitus, Self-efficacy
  • Simin Taavoni, Zahra Goldani *, Narges Rostami Gooran, Hamid Haghani Pages 334-349
    Background
    Disrespectful and undignified care during childbirth has been documented in health facilities all over the world. The purpose of this study was to develop and pretest a new instrument, the Quality of Respectful Maternity Care Questionnaire in Iran (QRMCQI), with an ensured validity and reliability to evaluate and measure Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) in three sections of labor, delivery and post-partum.
    Methods
    This is a study with mixed sequential exploratory design. Here, the questionnaire design is a part of descriptive survey study and consists of five phases implemented in one year. The phases include item or questions generation, face validation, content validity assessment, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability assurance of the questionnaire. The participants were selected from the mothers referring to health care centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences in five cities after recruitment from hospital for after-care services of delivery.
    Results
    The primary questionnaire was developed, face validity was performed by experts and their comments were implemented. The content validity index (CVI), Kappa index and Content Validity Ratio (CVR) were calculated for each item and they were satisfactory in an acceptable range. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed good fit of the hypothesized model for 453 participants in the interview. Testing showed an acceptable internal consistency and reliability by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for questions in labor (0.86), in delivery (0.85), and in postpartum care (0.78).
    Conclusion
    We have developed a new instrument as the 59-item QRMCQI for evaluating respectful maternity care in Iran through a rigorous process of item generation and validity-reliability assessment besides confirmatory factor analysis that were in an acceptable range and can be used as a reliable instrument for RMC in Iran.
    Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, Questionnaire, Respectful maternity care, Validity, Reliability