- سال بیست و دوم شماره 1 (بهار 1397)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/09
- تعداد عناوین: 7
صفحات 1-21محوطه باستانی شهریری در مشکین شهر اردبیل یکی از شاخص ترین محوطه های شمال غرب ایران است. این محوطه طی سه فصل کاوش باستان شناختی در سال های 1382،83،84 مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. استقرار جوامعی با شیوه معیشتی نیمه کوچ نشینی در این محوطه از دوره مفرغ متاخر و آهن قدیم با ساخت معبدی اولیه شروع شده و در عصر آهن میانی با ساخت قلعه استحکاماتی و گورستانی وسیع در کنار معبدی با بیش از 500 سنگ افراشت انسان ریخت به اوج رونق رسیده است. پرسش اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که چه متغیرهای محیطی، جغرافیایی و فرهنگی- اجتماعی در فاز شکل گیری و توسعه محوطه شهریری در مکان گزینی و گسترس محوطه واجد اهمیت بوده است. پژوهش حاضر با استناد به بررسی و کاوش های باستان شناختی محوطه بوده و تحلیل و استدلال آن بر پایه مبانی نظری باستان شناسی پهندشت است که برای بررسی مقوله مکان از نظریه بوم شناختی کنت وات استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که فراهم بودن پنج شاخصه ماده، انرژی، فضا، زمان و تنوع ملزومات استقرار در این محوطه در عصر مفرغ متاخر را فراهم آورده و در عصر آهن میانی نزدیکی به راه های ارتباطی و انباشت ثروت در کنار عوامل پیش گفته باعث رونق و اوج محوطه گردیده است.کلیدواژگان: محوطه باستانی شهریری، متغیرهای جغرافیایی، متغیرهای بوم شناسی، متغیرهای فرهنگی
صفحات 22-52عقلانیت را می توان یکی از چارچوب های شناخت شناسانه موثر بر نظریه برنامه ریزی دانست، اما این انگاشت از سوی فرا- نوگرایان انتقاد و انکار شده است. عقلانیت براساس این انتقادها بار ارزشی منفی یافته است، به صورتی که برنامه ریزی عقلانی با فن سالاری سازش ناپذیر و نوعی خودبرتربینی حرفه ای با سطحی نگاری ابزاری مترادف شده است. این مقاله در رویارویی با بایستگی ناشی از اهمیت چالش میان کنش دیالکتیکی دانش و کنش در برنامه ریزی و همچنین پاسخ به تردیدها و نظرات کلیشه ای رواج یافته در برنامه ریزی عقلانی و تردیدهایی که به انکار آن منجر شده است، درپی ابهام زدایی از مفهوم عقلانیت، ردیابی سیر تکامل آن و شناسایی اثرات گونه های مختلف آن بر آن دسته رویکرد های برنامه ریزی شهری است که از انگاشت عقلانیت و نظریه تصمیم گیری عقلانی استفاده کرده اند. پژوهش پایه این مقاله از نوع پژوهش « توصیفی - بیانگر» بوده و روش تحلیل به کار رفته، روش تحلیل زمان سنجی (کرونولوژیک) داده های ثانویه مرتبط با موضوع پژوهش و از طریق روش های تحلیل کیفی محتوا و بازبینی سیستماتیک این داده هاست. برونداد این مقاله مدلی مفهومی برای گونه شناسی عقلانیت و سیر تکامل زمانی آن، ردیابی اثرات آن بر رویکرد های برنامه ریزی شهری و همچنین شرح بایستگی به کارگیری این مفهومی در برنامه ریزی فضایی راهبردی بوده است.کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی، برنامه ریزی شهری، عقلانیت، عقلانیت ابزاری، عقلانیت ارتباطی
تبیین نقش سرمایه ی اجتماعی بر شکل گیری زمینه های کارآفرینی روستاییان (مورد مطالعه: بخش سیدان شهرستان مرودشت)صفحات 54-83کارآفرینی فرآیندی است که در یک شبکه و با وجود روابط اجتماعی واقع شده است. این روابط اجتماعی می تواند شناخت فرصت ها و منابع را محدود یا تسهیل کند. تاکنون بیشتر پژوهش های کارآفرینی در قالب ویژگی های شخصیتی کارآفرینان بوده و توجه به شبکه های اجتماعی و سرمایه اجتماعی در آن ها نادیده گرفته شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر تبیین نقش سرمایه اجتماعی بر شکل گیری زمینه های کارآفرینی روستاییان در بخش سیدان شهرستان مرودشت است. تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش انجام کار، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. در فرآیند پژوهش ابتدا مبانی نظری کارآفرینی و سرمایه اجتماعی و سوابق مطالعاتی آن مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و براساس آن و با توجه به اطلاعات موجود در خصوص منطقه مورد مطالعه، مولفه ها، شاخص ها و گویه ها تعیین شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش از سه گروه شغلی، کشاورزی، صنعت و خدمات انتخاب شده است که از بین آن ها حجم نمونه ای به تعداد 250 نفر تصادفی ساده انتخاب شده است. در این پژوهش برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده های کمی از تحلیل عاملی،آزمون بارتلت، ضریب پیرسون و تحلیل رگرسیون استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که بین کازآفرینی و سرمایه اجتماعی ارتباط مستقیم و معنی داری وجود دارد. در بررسی تحلیل عاملی کارآفرینی دسترسی به امکانات با بیشترین بار عاملی در روند کارآفرینی موثر بوده اند و مشارکت در آبادانی روستا در شکل گیری سرمایه اجتماعی بیشترین بار عاملی را داشته است. در تحلیل رگرسیون ویژگی های روان شناختی بیشترین تاثیر در پیش بینی کارآفرینی روستایی داشته است.کلیدواژگان: کارآفرینی روستایی، سرمایه اجتماعی، ضریب همبستگی، تحلیل عاملی، بخش سیدان
صفحات 85-123تا پیش از دوره پهلوی و به ویژه پهلوی دوم که نخستین برنامه توسعه عمرانی کشور تهیه شد، منطقه بندی توسط حکومت ها عموما جنبه اداری و سیاسی داشته و با هدف اصلی تسهیل در اداره امور کشور صورت می گرفته است. با این حال در سده اخیر و به ویژه چند دهه گذشته به لحاظ پیچیده شدن ماهیت روابط و لزوم نظام بخشی به آن در قالب فضا، منطقه بندی ابعاد جدیدی به خود گرفته است. منطقه مفهومی پیچیده و چند وجهی است که با عنایت به تعاریف متعدد ارائه شده برای آن هنوز اتفاق نظر زیادی در خصوص آن شکل نگرفته است. به هر حال منطقه بندی فعالیتی آگاهانه و از روی تفکر به منظور تعیین نواحی همگن جهت برنامه ریزی و سیاست گذاری است که پایه برنامه ریزی، اجرا و نظارت بر طرح های مختلف سرزمینی در قلمرو جغرافیایی کشورها محسوب می شود. در این مقاله به بررسی و ارزیابی سیر تحول مطالعات منطقه بندی در سده اخیر پرداخته شده است. ابتدا اشاره کوتاهی به وضعیت آمایش سرزمین کشورمان از ابتدا تاکنون و نگاهی اجمالی به سابقه آمایش سرزمین در برخی کشورها شده است. سپس بحث منطقه بندی در دوران بعد از مشروطه که برای اولین بار قانون مدون در نظام برنامه ریزی ایران ظاهر می شود، مطرح می شود که تمام منطقه بندی های پیش از انقلاب تشریح می شود. در گام بعدی به بررسی و ارزیابی منطقه بندی پس از انقلاب تاکنون پرداخته می شود. برای این هدف از روش تحقیق تحلیل- توصیفی و مرور کتابخانه ای استفاده شده است، همچنین با استفاده از نرم افزار ArcGis تمام نقشه های این منطقه بندی را تولید و در انتها اشاره به چالش ها و کاستی های منطقه بندی در ایران شده است.کلیدواژگان: آمایش سرزمین، منطقه بندی، مشروطه، نرم افزار ArcGis
صفحات 124-153حکمروایی به مثابه بعد نهادی توسعه پایدار روز به روز بیشتر مورد توجه محققین قرار می گیرد. آینده حکمروایی توسعه پایدار شهری نیازمند بررسی همه ابعاد و تحلیل چگونگی ارتباط این ابعاد با همدیگر است. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی موانع پیش روی آینده حکمروایی توسعه پایدار کلانشهر تهران است. لذا نخست با استفاده از تحلیل محتوای اسناد و پژوهش های صورت گرفته در مورد حکمروایی کلانشهر تهران فهرستی از موانع شناسایی شده و سپس با استفاده از روش دلفی آنی این موانع توسط 30 نفر از نخبگان اصلاح و اولویت بندی شد. به منظور شناسایی موانع کلیدی از روش تحلیل اثرات متقاطع استفاده شده است. نتایج بیانگر این است که "اثرگذاری دولت و نهادهای حکومتی بر مشروعیت ساختار حکمروایی کلانشهر تهران"،"چندپارچگی در مدیریت و تصمیم گیری در درون شهرداری"،"سیاست زدگی شورا و مدیریت شهری" و"غلبه قدرت نهادهای حکومتی و دولتی بر مردم " جزو موانع کلیدی (دووجهی) محسوب می شوند که در صورت اصلاح آنها سایر موانع کمابیش تحت تاثیر قرار گرفته و زمینه اصلاح کلی سیستم فراهم می شود.کلیدواژگان: حکمروایی شهری، توسعه پایدار، کلانشهر تهران، تحلیل ساختاری موانع نهادی
شناسایی عوامل موثر بر شکست کسب و کارهای کارآفرینان محلی با روش تئوری بنیانی و رویکرد آینده پژوهی (مطالعه موردی: گلخانه داران مناطق روستایی شهرستان جیرفت)صفحات 154-186کسب وکارهای نوپا نقشی اساسی در ایجاد نوآوری، اشتغال و افزایش مزیت رقابتی مناطق روستایی دارند. با این حال نرخ شکست این گونه کسب و کارها بالا است و به تبع آن هزینه های زیادی را به کارآفرینان روستایی و سایر افراد جامعه تحمیل می کنند. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر شکست کسب و کارهای کارآفرینان محلی واقع در مناطق روستایی شهرستان جیرفت با استفاده از روش تئوری بنیانی و رویکرد آینده پژوهی انجام شد تا مشخص گردد مهمترین عوامل تاثیرگذار در شکست کارآفرینان محلی و کوچک مقیاس کدامند؟. بدین منظور، 35 نمونه مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفت که در این بین 22 نفر از مصاحبه شوندگان را گلخانه داران ترک کشت کرده و 13 نفر را مروجان و کارشناسان جهاد کشاورزی و اساتید صاحب نظر تشکیل دادند. در این راستا، ابتدا به صورت کیفی، حول شش پرسش کلیدی و با استفاده از روش تئوری بنیانی، عوامل اصلی شناسایی شد، سپس جهت تحقق رویکرد آینده پژوهی، با استفاده از روش دلفی و در قالب نرم افزار میک مک، عوامل شناسایی شده از دو بعد تاثیرگذاری یا تاثیرپذیری مورد آزمایش قرار گرفت. نتایج رویکرد آینده پژوهی نشان داد؛ بیشترین مولفه های استراتژیک و کلیدی را عوامل بیرونی اثرگذار از قبیل؛ ضعف اطلاع رسانی و ارتباطات گسترده، وجود تحریم های اقتصادی (بالا بودن عوارض گمرکی، بالا بودن نرخ ارز، وجود تحریم های اقتصادی) ، نبود اتحادیه های صنفی، مخاطرات طبیعی، تشکیل می دهند. به لحاظ جنبه نوآوری، پژوهش های این چنینی در ایران و در رابطه با شکست کارآفرینان روستایی و عوامل موثر بر آن، بسیار محدود بوده است. لذا پژوهش حاضر جزو اولین مطالعات در زمینه بررسی عوامل موثر در شکست کارآفرینان در محیط های روستایی کشور بوده که نتایج آن می تواند برای کارآفرینان داخلی و کشورهای مشابه و همتراز مفید باشد.کلیدواژگان: شکست کارآفرینی روستایی، کسب و کارهای گلخانه ای، تئوری بنیانی، روش آینده پژوهی، شهرستان جیرفت
صفحات 187-218در چند دهه اخیر تبدیل روستا به شهر به عنوان یکی از ابعاد اساسی موثر بر شهرنشینی در ایران قابل مشاهده است و عوامل، فرایندها، الگوها و ملاک های دخیل بر این امر و پیامدهای حاصل از آن بر تغییر شهرها و نظام شهری، توجهات زیادی را در میان پژوهشگران به خود جلب نموده است. گرچه روند تبدیل نقاط روستایی به شهر در تمام کشور با درجات متفاوتی از شدت و سرعت رخ داده است، با این حال این امر در برخی از نقاط کشور دارای اهمیت بیشتری برای مطالعه است که یکی از این مناطق استان گیلان می باشد. وجود اراضی مستعد کشاورزی، فشردگی سکونتگاه های شهری و روستایی در کنار یکدیگر، تراکم بالای جمعیت در پهنه سرزمین، در کنار نرخ بالای افزایش شمار شهرها طی چند دهه گذشته در منطقه مورد نظر، از جمله ویژگی هایی هستند که ضرورت این امر را روشن می سازند. هدف این مقاله تبیین و دسته بندی عوامل موثر بر تبدیل روستا به شهر در استان گیلان و تاثیرات آن بر تغییرات نظام شهری استان طی چند دهه اخیر است. از بعد ماهیت تحقیق، این پژوهش را می توان از جمله پژوهش های استقرایی-قیاسی دانست. روش به کار گرفته شده در این پژوهش، روش توصیفی-ارزیابی و روش گردآوری داده ها به صورت اسنادی و کتابخانه ای است. مطالعه نظام شهری استان گیلان نشان می دهد از آنجایی که در چند دهه اخیر، تعداد زیادی از شهرهای استان را شهرهای کمتر از 5000 نفر تشکیل داده اند، پیدایش شهرهای کم جمعیت در استان اساسا تحت تاثیر سیاستها و تصمیمات دولتی بوده است. نرخ شدید تبدیل روستا به شهر در چند دهه اخیر، خصوصا پس از انقلاب اسلامی در برابر رشد سریع شهر رشت به عنوان کلانشهر منطقه ای، سبب شده تا این دسته از شهرها نتوانند در سلسله مراتب نظام شهری جایگاه شایسته ای برای خود فراهم کنند. بنابراین، تبدیل روستا به شهر به تعدیل نظام شهری منجر نشده و نیاز به تغییر در الگوهای برنامه ریزی فضایی استان وجود دارد.کلیدواژگان: تبدیل روستا به شهر، نظام شهری، سلسله مراتب شهری، استان گیلان
Analysis and Investigation of Effective Geographical and Socio-Cultural Variables on Formation and Development of ShahryeriPages 1-21IntroductionNorthwestern of Iran reveals different geographical appearances including plain, semi dry and mountainous regions. Geographically, east of northwestern of Iran is mountainous with montane valleys that highly attracted societies through history for potential sources and geographical variables. Arjaq Plain is among the most important montane valleys of east of north-west of Iran, of where settlements date to Chalcolithic period. It was only during recent decades that archaeologist considered the regions, while earlier researches and chronologies generally limited to two coasts of Lake Urmia and conclusions generalized to the whole region of northwestern Iran, especially during Iron Age.MethodologyData of research are consisted of archaeological and geographical ones. The geographical data are collected and analyzed following bibliographic, according geographical researches; while Archaeological data are collected following field works, according archaeological surveys and excavations. The main question of the research is effective cultural, environmental, and geographical variables in formation and development of Shahryeri site. Present research attempts to answer the question considering archaeological surveys and excavations and analysis relying on theories of landscape archaeology that is one of the most important attitudes in recognizing and interpreting behavioral patterns of ancient societies, considering expansion of surficial data. Landscape archaeology is a conceptual, interactional, processual, and interdisciplinary attitude that provide a framework at define patterns, and determining explainable and interpretable behavioral data. Considering landscape archaeology, time and space are significant in investigating archaeological data. Ecological theory of Kennethe F.watt used to study category of location. Kennethe F.watt enjoyed ecological variables of material, energy, space, time, and variation that effected formation, expansion, continuity, and destruction of settlement. He believed that if one could present interaction of these five variables, therefore, all ecological parts integrate in a single theoretical framework.
Results and discussionShahryeri ancient site at Mshkin Shahr is among the most characteristic sites of northwestern of Iran that covers some 200 hectares on a promontory, 1.5 Km east of Pirazmian village at suburbs of Meshkin Shahr and Noqdi County. For the first time, it discovered following surveys of Charles Burney at 1978 at northwestern Iran, where introduced as Qaleh Arjaq. It was only at 1381 that it registered in National heritage list by no. 6162. There have been three seasons of archaeological excavations since 1382 to 1384 under Alireza Hozhabri Nobari.
The site formed and firstly settled following Herding and semi pastoralism subsistence strategy during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. The most important architectural remains of the periods is an early temple that included an stone wall, mud mortar, mud brick, and monoliths that laid back to the wall. It is semicircular whereas the monoliths positioned in front of each other. There is a 4.5×3 m chamber at west with a platform. It appears it is an adjunct space to the temple that used as tribute chamber and altar.
Three features indicate development at Middle Iron Age at Shahryeri including:Castle with fortifications: the enclosure covers about 35 hectares area. Length of the wall of castle is 522 m and it is about 0.16-2.5 m thick. There are traces of 5 towers and 4 gates in the wall, whereas the main gate is located at southernmost of lower city and another gate at east of lower city that is protected by huge walls and two towers. The gate is 5.5 m wide. There is a precipice at northwest of the castle that glorifies the castle and creates a natural enclosure at this part of the castle.
Temple with anthropomorphic monolith: the temple covers about 2200 m with 7 corridors from 15 to 25 m length and 1 to 3 m width. There are some more than 500 anthropomorphic monoliths with 2.3 to 35 cm with different forms, while there are platforms as altar in front of each.
Expansion of cemetery: there are two groups of burials at the cemetery of Shahryeri. The first group, which sums up to 278 burials, is scarce burials around the castle that spread within 5 km radius. The second group consists of a dense cemetery with 200 burials 5 km away from the castle. Distribution of the burials generally is at northwest of the castle and around the temple area and surrounding plains and valleys. There are traces of 5 towers and 4 gates along the wall, whereas main gate is at southernmost of the lower city and the other entrance is at eat of the lower city that protected by huge walls and two towers. The defensive wall constructed using huge rough stones, while they filled by smaller stones. The enclosure is 140-150 cm thick and reaches to 200 cm next to the entrance.
Ecological potentials to settle societies that Kennethe F.watt classified assessed at landscape of Shahryeri at the phase of formation and development. Results of the formation phase indicate water, soil, availability of mines, weather, accessibility, location at connecting roads, plain and mountain pastures, and natural shelters to protect herds were among the most important factors to locate the landscape of Shahryeri by semi pastoral people of Late Bronze Age. Architectural remains from archaeological excavations, from the same period, affirmatively including pastoral settlements with an early structure of temple and few burials. The phase of development at Middle Iron Age, is coincided to accumulation of wealth following location at main road, flourish of Shahryeri's temple, and collection of tributes from different regions. Archaeological evidences of development of Sharyeri are a 534 m fortification and a temple, with expansion of cemetery to more than 10 hectares. Considering lack of residential area, it appears that people's lifestyle and subsistence strategy were semi pastoralism, whereas the vast cemetery indicates an increase of population across the landscape, however, they partially resided at the castle.ConclusionConclusions indicate that assembling of five factors of material, energy, space, time, and varieties of facilities at the site during Late Bronze Age are caused settlement of the site, whereas flourished at Middle Iron Age for location at main roads and accumulation of wealth in addition to former factors.Keywords: Shahryeri, Geographical variable, Ecological Variable, Cultural Variable
Pages 22-52Introduction“Rationality” is one of the most influencing epistemological frameworks in urban planning, though this concept is criticized and denied by post-modernist advocates. The critics believe that it is the “post-rationality” era in urban planning. Furthermore, the concept of rationality has become a negative concept as it has been taken synonymous with an uncompromising technical and professional superiority. According to critics, rationality ignores the other types of knowledge - such as subjective impressions, common sense, social and human values, intuitions and so on – and only justify positivism and value - free knowledge. These criticisms might be due to decreasing the concept of “rationality” to “instrumental rationality”, while there is a variety of concepts of rationality which are different from each other.
This article tries to focus on and develop the necessity and importance of the dialectical challenge amid theory and practice in urban planning. This is done by addressing the stereotypes about the concept and application of “rationality” in urban planning” and the doubts which have led to its denial through 1) clarifying more deeply the definition of the concept of rationality; 2) tracing its chronological and conceptual evolution; and 3) dissecting its influences upon the theories and approaches urban planning. The first two are exploratory- descriptive purposes and the third one is descriptive- analytical purpose of this article.
MethodologyTo achieve the mentioned purposes of this article, the theoretical, experimental, and technical frameworks which are related to the concept of “rationality” has been examined. This article is based on a descriptive-explanatory research and the related text data has been analyzed by the “chronological analysis” method within “qualitative approach” to address the questions of “why”, “how”, “where” and “when”. Furthermore, in this article “thematic analysis method” is being used to trace the themes or repeating pattern in the data sets to describe the research question. By recognition of important and critical events in chronological continuum of the related concepts of the research, this article does not focus on dialectical relationship between knowledge. The methods used to collect and analysis the data within suggested process in the article are included: a) data collection and processing: the data used in this article are secondary data and the method of collecting this data is document review which consist of related data in valid and reliable books and articles; b) data analysis: there is a dual path to analysis the data in this article. In exploratory- descriptive path, it has been traced the theories, concepts and global experiments related to the concept of rationality in urban spatial strategic planning. The output of this path is recognition of the criteria of rationality and irrationality. In descriptive- analytical path, in order to address the third question of the research, this article tries to propose a framework to connect the urban planning approach to different types of rationality to upgrade the actions and interactions of planning.
Results and DiscussionThe chronological evolution of rationality in planning and its effect on planning approach can be discussed within five periods: in the first period, rationality as a pure reason was seen in comprehensive planning. The focus of planning in this period was on “the best action” to achieve the goals set by the employers. It was assumed the needed resources for planning are unlimited and accessible and planners were a value – free technocrat. In the second period, rationality was still introduced as pure reason and the rational comprehensive planning focused on choosing “efficient action” to face the “planning problems”. The main assumption in this period was the existence of unlimited time and resources for problem finding. In the third period, the limitations of time and data resources in planning were been recognized by a planner. Two dominant approaches were identifiable in this period: a) the approaches based on “substantive rationality”: in these approaches, planner as savior tried to do “justly action” to address “plural values” in society. Therefore, while these approaches were concerned about the “ends” and being justly and fair, they were based on substantive rationality; and b) the approaches based on “formal or functional rationality”: the other planning approaches were interested in mutual consensus between the groups with opposite interest - without caring about the quality of the decisions made by these consensus. So, in these approaches the main actors of planning were interest group and not planners. Fourth period was the period of maturity of rationality concept in planning. In this period substantive and formal rationality were dominant concepts and the “communicating rationality” was introduced. The main purpose of the dominant approaches in this period was focusing on efficient, fair and justly and collective action to tolerate the less defeat and face the uncertainties. In the fifth period the communication rationality is the dominant in planning. The approaches based on this concept are concerned about interactions - not actions -. The main purpose of planning in this period is to achieve to not just a “consensus”, but a “consensus based on a mutual understanding”.
ConclusionThe output of this article was a conceptual model in order to show the typology of rationality and their evolution; tracing their influence on urban planning approaches; and explaining the necessity of this concept in strategic spatial planning. Finally the deterrent of using rationality in urban strategic spatial planning could be introduced as: first) the absence of a legal prescribed agenda for the institution which are engaged in urban planning process; second) the epistemological, eclecticism, and political gaps in urban planning and the absence of an agreed definition of strategic spatial planning based of rational thinking; and third) negligence in adaptation underlying economic and political traditions, epistemological foundations and theories and approaches use in planning action and practice.Keywords: Planning, urban planning, strategic spatial planning, rationality, instrumental rationality, communicative rationality
Determining the social capital role on the formation of villager's entrepreneurship contexts (case study: Sidan section of Marvdasht city)Pages 54-83IntroductionEntrepreneurship term originates from the French word Enterprender meaning commitment. Entrepreneurship is a good strategy for fighting against poverty and maintaining wealth in low-income communities. The entrepreneurship importance is to the extent that economists consider entrepreneurs as the growth and economic development engine of the society. Entrepreneurship is considered as an essential element for the growth and productivity of rural areas. Ruralism is a dynamic source of entrepreneurship which forms both opportunities and constraints. The entrepreneurship role in rural economic development can be found in areas such as the villager’s access to required goods and services, rural economic growth, reducing the phenomenon of migration to cities, encouraging new businesses creation and promoting social security level and welfare in the village. Rural entrepreneurship is one of the best strategies that can be effective in terms of rural monetizing, job creation and unemployment elimination, preventing immigration, improving the life quality and welfare level in rural community, creating a sense of competition and new businesses and preventing chaos and social unrests. Entrepreneurship development and survive in rural areas is due to factors such as social infrastructure development, doing research and development simultaneously, increasing human resources quality, improving the management quality, education and technology development. Meanwhile, one of the most important and fundamental factors is social capital, because it promotes creativity, innovative behaviors and increases entrepreneur’s thoughtful risk-taking. Social capital is a resource created in in business networks or within individual networks. These resources include information, thoughts, tips, business opportunities, financial capital, leverage, emotional support, good will, trust and collaboration.MethodologyIn terms of purpose, the present study is practical and in terms of the method, it is descriptive-analytic. In the research process, the theoretical foundation of entrepreneurship, social capital and literature review were studied first; and components, indexes and items have been determined accordingly based on the available information about the study region. The statistical population has been selected from three groups of occupation, agriculture, industry and services; and a sample size of 250 people was selected randomly between them. 72 individual in the industry, 124 in agriculture and 54 people work in the services field. In the present study, the formal method has been used to increase the credit rating. For this purpose, the questionnaire was distributed to experts, specialists and professors. After the compilation and gathering their comments, the necessary reforms were made. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the research stability. The calculated alpha value is 0.791 which indicates that the number is desirable and the necessary accuracy for the structures stability is used in the questionnaire and the designed items to measure the indices have an internal correlation. In this research, factor analysis, Bartlett test, Pearson coefficient and regression analysis were used to analyze quantitative data. Findings and Discussion: In order to measure the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship, we first examine the relationships between variables. Here, we use Pearson, Spearman and Kendall correlation coefficients for analyzing according to the variables scale type. According to Pearson correlation coefficients and social capital and entrepreneurship significant levels in the studied population, a significant and positive relationship exists at 99% level. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and a significant relationship exists between social capital and entrepreneurship. Five factors with eigenvalues greater than 5.0 are extracted by using factor analysis technique in the main components method; the dimension variables affecting the rural entrepreneurs are packed based on the load factor after varimax rotation method. The five factors determined 64.12% of the total variance related to plan effects. In other words, 64% of the relationship between social capital and rural entrepreneurs is related to these factors from the perspective of rural entrepreneurs. Regression analysis and Fisher statistic have been used to consider the social capital prediction on rural entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the determination coefficient of 0.934 indicates that the independent variable explains 93% of dependent variable variations.ConclusionThere is a positive and meaningful relation between rural entrepreneurship and social capital in examining the findings. People who have high social capital spends a little time protecting themselves from being exploited in economic interactions and monitoring the other’s performances; this makes more time for thinking, creativity, innovation and ultimately entrepreneurship. Any improvement in social capital and related factors leads to a betterment in entrepreneurship. The factor analysis of entrepreneurship shows that facilities availability with the highest loading factor has been the most effective factor in the entrepreneurship process; and participation in village development had the highest loading factor in social capital formation. In regression analysis, psychological characteristics have the most impact on rural entrepreneurship prediction.Keywords: rural entrepreneurship, social capital, correlation coefficient, factor analysis, Sidan section
Pages 85-123Introduction and Problem statement: The life of the planning system in Iran, which is based on sectoral planning, lasts about six decades. The trend of sectorial planning, especially in the decades of the first establishment of the development planning system in the country, has been influenced by the world-wide viewpoints. Implementation of economic development programs based on a sectorial planning approach in Iran, leads to regional imbalances, marginalization of some regions, loss of regional resources and capabilities, and territorial inequalities.
Surveying of the current state of the country shows that the centralization and overcoming of the sectorial planning approach has disturbed the development process of the country.
Theoretical and literature review: The underdevelopment of Iran has been accompanied by a degree of concentration that has reflected in the national planning system. Over the decades, the dominant planning approach was development with induction from above relying on high oil revenues. As a result, local communities have been recipients of development products in the form of the unbalanced, before they engage in the development process and acquire necessary social capacity for development.
The center of Space Science is Geography and Location, Which itself includes other dimensions of space. This science deals with two dimensions of life and its needs, and claims that these two aspects are interrelated: 1) the dimension of nature, meaning, the relationship between societies and the environment, 2) and the spatial dimension, that is, the differences within and outside the living space (regional, societies), As well as spatial relationships between different types of society that are different from the regional perspective. The connection between two types of geography is that regional differences are essentially the result of different ways of social transformation in nature. Spatial planning is considered as a tool for creating solutions with the particular purpose of organizing geographical areas.Over the centuries, for the administration of the affairs of the country, Iran has been zoned with different intentions. In the past, zoning was largely a political, administrative or military aspect. This article tries to examine and evaluate zoning efforts in the last century, describe each zoning and indicate an overview of it. It is hoped to be the gateway to further research on zoning and spatial planning.In more than four decades of land-use studies in Iran, this approach of planning has undergone various changes in terms of both epistemology and methodology and evolved with respect to the internal and external requirements.
The concept of zoning is not a new phenomenon; its history dates back to the 19th century. Different countries in the world deal with zoning with different principles and indicators at any level (macro and micro). Indicators that are generally common in the world are shown in Table 3. These indicators are used according to the zoning level. For example, indicators based on geographic or natural attributes are most often used for natural zoning under the control of environmental organizations. Also, zoning related to economics and competitiveness is used at urban and metropolitan levels. In general, indicators are divided into four main categories, including legal, political-security, socio-cultural, and geographic-communicational indicators.
Materials and methodology: If the zoning is to be accepted in the first and foremost purposes and in traditional ways, then the history of Iranian habitation and civilization should be linked to it in different times and for various purposes. For a long time, the great differences in the ecological characteristics of the regions, the scope of cultural-social realms and the vastness of the land have been pushing governors to apply more power and sustain it to land zoning. The division of the country into Satraps during the Achaemenid dynasty is a sign of the long tradition of this tradition and its historic continuity in the form of states and provinces is an indication of necessity in all periods.However, in the recent century, and especially over the past decades, the zoning has taken on new dimensions because of the complexity of the nature of relations and the necessity of systematizing it in the form of space.
In this paper, the evolution of zoning studies in the last century has been reviewed and evaluated. At first, the status of the spatial planning of our country from the beginning to the present is mentioned briefly and a glimpse into the history of the spatial planning in some countries is made. Then, zoning in the post-Constitutional era is described, in which, the codified law of the Iranian system of planning appeared for the first time, and all the pre-revolutionary regions are explained. In the next step, the review and evaluation of the zoning from the post-revolutionary period to the present are conducted. For this purpose, the analytical-descriptive research and library browsing method has been utilized. In addition, using ArcGis software, all maps of this region are produced, and in the end, the challenges and defects of zoning in Iran are mentioned.Results and discussionresults and findings of the research show that over the centuries in Iran, zoning has been based on political issues with the aim of managing and collecting taxes, military issues, and etc. After the Constitutionalism, the divisions of the states and provinces have been conducted with the same purposes, however, the divisions are smaller in size, with regard to natural and human issues. Over time, with increasing population and increasing administrative problems and demands of the people, the political (administrative) divisions in the provinces, towns, districts and villages have become smaller and smaller.
Since 1330s, especially from 1335 to 1357, non-political zoning have been established in Iran with the purpose of economic development. Their features are mainly: The purpose of these zonings was not to create new political and administrative divisions; The purpose of these zonings was the economic development of the regions with economic poles; The purpose of these zonings was more for material development of the regions; The purpose of these zonings was not to balance between the regions of the country; In these zonings, mainly people and human development and elimination of deprivation have not been important; The funding of these zonings has been based on oil revenue.
The post-revolutionary zonings also have their own characteristics. A change in the divisions of the country was in order to better manage affairs and respond to new administrative needs and demands of the people. These divisions, which are a kind of zoning, have led to the creation of new administrative boundaries. Zonings were created to eliminate poverty and general development (eliminating human poverty and regional poverty). These zoning are not intended to provide new political and administrative division; but also in the same divisions, to the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions.The orientations of planning in each land are largely due to the views and thoughts of politicians and political thinkers of that land. Without realizing the ideologies behind these planning, one cannot properly analyze the various economic, social, and cultural issues of the land.Keywords: Spatial planning, zoning, Iran, ArcGis software
Pages 124-153Considering the pivotal importance of Tehran metropolis as capital of Iran, researchers have always criticized inadequate practices adopted for the management and governance of the capital. In all its various fields, management conducted by various institutions has led to disruption, lack of coordination and other problems in the status of this metropolis. For the future of Tehran’s metropolis, it will be difficult to move out of all these complexities and obstacles. Talking about the future requires a comprehensive and holistic approach, because governance structure in Tehran metropolis is hugely complicated with regard to all its various dimensions – economic, political, social and environmental – and interference on the part of numerous institutions and agents with diverse interests at different levels – spatial and functional, among others. Along with rapid unpredictable developments in the contemporary world, this complex situation makes it extremely difficult to make a decision about the future of governance in Tehran metropolis. Using a futuristic approach, the present study aims to identify and discuss the most challenging barriers affecting the future of Tehran metropolis. The present study is an exploratory analysis conducted via descriptive and analytical procedures. After studying the theoretical literature and explaining the theoretical framework, we conducted document reviews and content analyses in order to identify governance obstacles in Tehran metropolis. We used the Real Time Delphi (RTD) method to complete the list of barriers to the sustainable development of Tehran metropolis. Afterward, in order to identify the key barriers and conduct a systematic analysis of the barriers, we used the Cross Impact Balance Analysis process with the aim of investigating the relationships between the factors and the effects of the factors on one another, which is a method known as structural analysis in the literature on futures studies. Structural analysis is used to identify key variables (explicit or implicit) by collecting feedback from experts and stakeholders about the complex and unpredictable aspects of a system. This method is applicable for the qualitative analysis of highly variable systems. We used the Micmac software product for conducting a structural analysis. The results of this study indicate that, despite the emphasis in numerous articles (See Table in the Appendix) on the existence of functional divergence as the main obstacle to the governance of Tehran metropolis for achieving an appropriate management system and sustainable development (Akhundi and Dejgar, 2007; Kazemian and Mirabedini, 2011; Azizi et al, 2012; Sayami and Vakili, 2015; and Basirat et al, 2012), this factor was not listed among the 12 main factors based on the Cross Impact Balance Analysis process. The results of the relationship analysis show that functional divergence in its various dimensions is influenced by two factors: “the effect of government and government institutions on the legitimacy of Tehran metropolis’ management structure” and “a legal weakness in providing a clear definition of the relationships between institutions,” which highlights the importance of legal and political dimensions and the resulting issues. The main issue is that the change of either of these two essential factors is not in the legal sphere of the municipality. Higher levels of decision-making on the national level and, to a lesser extent, on the regional level, will have the power to make changes in these factors. Therefore, in order to achieve reforms and change the current situation, changes must be made to factors that can be modified as fast as possible and that can help overcome as many barriers as possible (factors in the two-part region of the graph). Based on the results, the key barriers to the governance and sustainable development of Tehran metropolis in the future can be divided into two categories. The first category includes factors that are relevant to the municipality, the city council and a set of urban management institutions in the metropolitan area and which can be corrected and eliminated through the current structure of Tehran metropolis. These factors include: 1. Lack of a shared vision and consensus among metropolitan agents, 2. Lack of expertise or not using expert workforce in appropriate organizational post, 3- A compartmental attitude and lack of a systemic attitude to the management of Tehran metropolis and 4. Lack of coherence in management and decision-making within the municipality. The second category of factors require macro-level changes and cannot be modified by Tehran municipality itself. In addition, considering the current situation, no major changes are possible. These factors include: 1. a highly politicized city council and urban management system, 2.The domination of government and government institutions over stakeholders and the public and 3. The effect of government and government institutions on the legitimacy of Tehran metropolis’ management structure.Keywords: Governance, Tehran metropolis, sustainable urban governance, governance barriers, sustainable development
Identifying Factors Affecting on Entrepreneurs Local Business Defeat by Fundamental Theory and Futuristic ApproachPages 154-186The purpose of this study is to answer the question of the factors affecting the failure of greenhouse business among failed local entrepreneurs in Jiroft villages, which is based on the theory of fundamental theory and Futuristic Approach. The view of these entrepreneurs who have experienced critical situations, general characteristics and their common personality characteristics is obtained. This research is a new study aimed at helping theoretical literature and preventing from business failures by categorizing relevant issues and registering characteristics and statements of failed entrepreneurs. Lack of studies about business failure in Iran and significant differences in this area justify the originality and need for this study. Considering these reasons, the study of unsuccessful entrepreneurs and presentation of a framework and model based on it seems necessary. Accordingly, the present study seeks to answer this key question, which are the most important factors affecting on entrepreneurs failure in the rural greenhouse sector in Jiroft.
ResearchmethodThis research is combination of (quantitative and qualitative) that seeks to identify and investigate the factors affecting on bankrupt entrepreneurs, which first identify the most important factors by using the qualitative method. Then, using the futures research method and using MICMAC software, the effect of identified factors on the greenhouse business failure factor is obtained.
The statistical population of this study is failed people including greenhouses owner in five rural areas of Jiroft in Kerman province (as the pole of greenhouse products in Iran). For this purpose, 35 samples were interviewed. Twenty-two of the interviewees were Turkish greenhouse owner, and 13 were experts of agricultural Jihad and professors. Findings: According to the results, 90.2% of respondents were male, 73% were between the ages of 55-55 years old and 60.3% of them had literacy equivalent to a diploma. Also, about 38% of them had an area of land between 1 and 2 hectares, with an average of 10 to 50 million tooman per year. All respondents had experience in the greenhouse industry and failed in this regard. Regarding the funds provided, about 70% of them were using personal loans and borrowing from friends and relatives and the rest by using a loan from Government agencies and charities, including the Committee on Relief and Welfare Project..ConclusionAs it has been mentioned, loss and failure is a major part of human life. The failure provides a comprehensive database for individuals to learn to create flexible capacity in difficult times. Today, the rate of businesses failure in the agricultural sector in the Iran villages has grown substantially. With regard to issues such as climate change and water and land constraints, it is essential to adopt appropriate policies for setting up agricultural businesses. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting the failure of local entrepreneurs' businesses in rural areas of Jiroft using basic theory and futuristic approach to determine the most important factors affecting the failure of local and small entrepreneurs. Firstly, the key factors were identified in qualitative way around six key questions and using the basic theory method. Then, in order to realize the futuristic approach, using the Delphi method and in the form of the Mick-Mac software, the identified factors from the impact or impact dimension it was tested. The results of the futuristic approach showed that most of the key strategic and key factors are influential external factors such as the lack of information and communication, the existence of economic sanctions (high customs duties, high exchange rates, and economic sanctions), lack of :union: Trade leads to natural hazards.Keywords: entrepreneurial failure, rural entrepreneurs, greenhouse businesses, Grounded Theory
Analysis of the factors and effects of village transformation to city on urban system in Guilan Province, Iran (1956-2016)Pages 187-218While various political, social and economic factors have changed in Iran during the last decades, the urbanization rate has risen from 28% in 1921 to 74% in 2016. In the last few decades, reclassification of villages to cities can be noticed as one of the most important dimensions of urbanization process in Iran. Among these, factors affecting on reclassification of rural settlements as cities and the impacts of this change on urban system and spatial organization of regions have attracted a lot of attention among researchers. Although the process of reclassification of villages as cities varied with the degrees of intensity and speed across the country, but this has been more important in some regions. One of these regions is Guilan province located in the north of Iran. The existence of susceptible agricultural lands, existence of the most important forestry areas of the country, aggregation of urban and rural settlements in this region are some factors that make this more important subject for wider researches. Accordingly, the questions that this article seeks to respond is, what is the most dominant process in reclassification villages as cities in Guilan and what impacts had on this region's urban system?
Reclassification of villages as city refers to factors and processes that lead to the recognition of a village as a city. There are three points of view in this regard. The first emphasizes on the transformation of villages to city as a natural process. In this view, the growth of population size of rural communities leads to a change in economic, social and physical dimensions. Economically, the natural process is the same as market process in which economic forces freely lead to the reshaping of human settlements. The second view emphasizes on the involvement of political agents on the reclassification of villages as cities. The recognition of urban and non-urban centers in countries is important for various administrative and political tasks, such as distribution of governmental credits, allocation of facilities and etc. Therefore, it is important for governments to determine relevant criteria for the reclassification of rural settlements as urban areas. However, the reclassification of villages as cities with natural or political interventions cannot always be a reasonable and acceptable process, because of necessities in regional development. It is sometimes necessary to strengthen rural settlements as an urban settlement; that is the third point. The roots of this view, backs to 1960s and 1970s, and emergence of new perspectives between various views of regional development, can be described as small towns approach.
MethodologyThis research can be considered as an inductive-deductive research. The method used in this research is a descriptive-evaluative method and data collection method is documentary. This paper tries to evaluate the status and processes associated with the reclassification of villages as cities in Guilan province in Iran. With the population more than 5,000 people has been assumed as the main criterion for natural changes. Political, centrality as an index for political intervention and introducing in development plans as a potential settlement for reclassifying as city was counted as planning factor.
Results and discussionThe Guilan province in Iran is always considered as one of the agricultural hubs of the country and is divided into 16 counties. In the two censuses before the Islamic Revolution (excluding the 1956 census as the basis), nine cities were added to this region's urban system, where only one city (Rudbar) had less than 5,000 people. In addition, all of these cities had municipalities before being counted as cities. Therefore, it can be said that before the Islamic Revolution, the political process of recognition of a city has preceded from natural changes. After the Islamic Revolution, it was attempted to reconcile the identification of urban areas in the censuses and administrative system. Statistical surveys of cities based on criteria's that set out in the theoretical framework, reveals that 19 cities have been shaped from natural process and 24 cities have been shaped due to political interventions. Study of urban system of this region shows that most of new cities in Guilan province have less than 5,000 inhabitants. Urban Primacy Index reveals that since 1996, there has been a great concentration on Rasht as the primate city. Rank-size rule analysis indicates imbalance in urban hierarchy of this province. Therefore, it can be said that the emergence of low-population cities in this province influenced mainly by the government's policies and decisions, couldn't lead to an efficient change in urban hierarchy of this province.
ConclusionThe results of this research show three basic issues on the Guilan province's urban system: 1) Dominance of Rasht as capital city, which according to the census of 2016, includes near of 42.4% of the province's urban population. 2) The absence of middle size cities in its true meaning, as consolidators of urban network, which has led to an urban bias between primate city and small cities. 3) Sharp increase in the reclassification of villages as cities over the last few decades, especially after the Islamic Revolution. The rapid rate of reclassification of villages as cities in recent decades, has caused these cities not to be able to provide a significant instance on the urban hierarchy. Therefore, the reclassification of villages as cities has not led to adjustment of urban system, and there is a need for some different strategies to reshaping spatial organization of this province. In this case, the middle-size cities development strategy can be considered as one of the efficient strategies.Keywords: Reclassification of Village as City, Urban System, Urban hierarchy, Guilan Province, Iran