فهرست مطالب

  • سال پنجاهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/07/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • سعیده محققیان، سعید کتابی صفحات 1-27
    جناس که به معنای هم جنس بودن است به یکسانی دو یا چند واژه در واج های سازنده با معانی متفاوت اطلاق می شود. علاوه بر ارزش موسیقایی و آهنگینی که جناس به سخن می دهد، لطیفه های آن می تواند یکی از ابزارهای افزایش علاقه مندی و یادگیری زبان آموزان و همچنین ایجاد فضایی شاد در حین آموزش زبان انگلیسی باشد. برای بهره مندی از چنین منافعی، فهم کامل جناس موجود در لطیفه ها برای زبان آموزان به نظر الزامی می رسد. پژوهش های کمی، درک زبان آموزان را از لطیفه های دارای عنصر جناس در کلاس های آموزش زبان انگلیسی ایران بررسی کرده اند. از همین رو، پژوهش حاضر با انتخاب یک کلاس شامل 21 دانشجوی سال سوم کارشناسی زبان انگلیسی (دوازده دانشجو از گرایش مترجمی و نه دانشجوی گرایش ادبیات) و با استفاده از ابزار سنجش، میزان فهم زبان آموزان ایرانی را از این لطیفه ها بررسی کرد. نتایج نشان داد که زبان آموزان ایرانی دانش خوبی از واژه های جناس نداشتند و در شناسایی آن ها مشکل داشتند. نتایج این پژوهش و راهکارهای ارائه شده، لزوم توجه بیشتر به پرداختن به آموزش درک طنز در برنامه های درسی را یادآور می شود. این امر علاوه بر بالابردن سطح زبانی فراگیران می تواند فضای آموزشی را نیز فرح بخش تر نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجمه، جناس، دانشجویان کارشناسی زبان انگلیسی، لطیفه
  • مزدک بلوری صفحات 29-47
    پژوهش حاضر می کوشد تاثیر سیاست ها و اقدامات دو دولت اصلاح طلب و اصولگرا را در حوزه زنان در انتخاب آثار ادبی فمینیستی برای ترجمه به زبان فارسی در دوران پس از انقلاب ایران بررسی کند. هدف سنجش میزان تاثیرگذاری نهادهای قدرت و سیاست هایشان در شکل گیری ادبیات ترجمه شده زنان در نظام چندگانه ادبی کشور است. دولت اصلاح طلب سیاست هایی برای محقق شدن برابری جنسیتی و حضور فعال زنان در عرصه های مختلف زندگی اجتماعی در پیش گرفت و در برابر اندیشه های فمینیستی نرمش بیشتری نشان داد، در حالی که دولت اصولگرا بر محور سیاست زن در خانواده متمرکز شد و به طور جدی با فمینیسم و اندیشه های متاثر از آن مقابله کرد. نتایج نشان می دهد آثار ادبی فمینیستی در زمان دولتی که ضدیت چندانی با فمینیسم نداشته بیشتر برای ترجمه انتخاب و روانه بازار کتاب ایران شده اند. از طرف دیگر، دولتی که سیاست هایی در تقابل با فمینیسم اتخاذ کرده نه تنها با ایجاد فضای ضدیت با فمینیسم به طور غیرمستقیم باعث کاهش یافتن تعداد آثار ادبی انتخاب شده در این حوزه برای ترجمه شده است، بلکه به طور مستقیم نیز وارد عمل شده و از طریق ممیزی کتاب جلوی انتشار تعدادی از آثار ادبی ترجمه شده در حوزه زنان را گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: دولت اصلاح طلب، دولت اصولگرا، ایدئولوژی، فمینیسم، ترجمه
  • میلاد مهدیزادخانی، مسعود خوش سلیقه صفحات 49-69
    در پیشینه ترجمه دیداری شنیداری، از ایران به عنوان کشوری دوبله محور یاد می شود. در حالی که در همین شیوه، مترجمان و دوبلورها با نشانه نظام های معنایی سروکار دارند که به صورت عنوان، زیرنویس و نوشته روی تصویر ظاهر می شود و در مجموع، در مطالعات فیلم «نشانه نظام گرافیکی» نامیده می شود. با توجه به رشد روز افزون مطالعات دیداری شنیداری و نقش مهم نشانه نظام گرافیکی در درک بهتر فیلم، مطالعات نسبتا کمی در این حوزه انجام شده است. از این رو، نویسندگان این مقاله به بررسی و مقایسه دو روش ترجمه صدای برون کادری و جایگذاری در برگرداندن نشانه نظام گرافیکی در دو نسخه دوبله رسمی فارسی از فصل اول شرلوک پرداخته اند. نتایج نشان می دهد از مجموع 28 صحنه مربوط به نشانه نظام گرافیکی متحرک، شبکه تلویزیونی بی بی سی تمام آن ها را با روش جایگذاری برگردانده، در حالی که صدا و سیمای ایران 5 صحنه را با روش ترجمه صدای برون کادری بدون ترجمه باقی گذاشته است. با بررسی کیفی محدودیت ها و برتری های دو روش نسبت به یکدیگر، نویسندگان عمده ترین دلیل ترجمه نشدن نشانه نظام گرافیکی در ترجمه صدای برون کادری را «تعامل نشانه نظام ها» یافتند. در پایان نیز، برای انجام پژوهش های آتی در این حوزه پیشنهادهایی ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجمه دیداری شنیداری، نشانه نظام گرافیکی، دوبله، صدای برون کادری، جایگذاری
  • پروانه شایسته فر، غلامرضا کیانی، منیره نوروزی صفحات 71-114
    اصلاحات آزمون محور اغلب به عنوان ابزاری راهبردی برای القا و پیشبرد تغییراتی مطلوب صورت می گیرند. با وجود این، ادبیات مرتبط حاکی از آن است که موفقیت، اغلب آن طور که امید آن می رود حاصل نمی گردد. دلایل چنین ناکامی هایی معمولا در مراحل پایانی برنامه تحول یافته، یعنی ارزشیابی موخر بر تجربه بررسی گردیده و ارزشیابی حین تجربه همچنان مورد غفلت مانده است. در کشور ما، سیاست گذاری مربوط به اصلاح کنکور سراسری موج اصلاحاتی را در نظام دیرینه سنجش و پذیرش دانشجو به بار آورد. در حوزه زبان انگلیسی، این اصلاحات بر جایگزینی تدریجی بخش زبان انگلیسی کنکور با آزمون های سراسری زبان دبیرستان تاکید دارد. به دنبال چنین تغییری، ارزیابی تبعات و پیامدهای برنامه جدید الزامی به نظر می رسد. به همین منظور، برای جمع آوری داده از جمعی از ذی نفعان و ذی ربطان این تحول از مدل ترکیبی کیفی کمی استفاده شد. ابتدا، دیدگاه استادان، مدرسان و سرگروهان (16 نفر) از طریق مصاحبه های نیمه ساختار یافته استخراج و سپس از 406 معلم زبان انگلیسی نظرسنجی به عمل آمد. روایی ابزار محقق ساخته از طریق تحلیل عاملی تاییدی-AMOS و اکتشافی-SPSS انجام و پایایی آن نیز محاسبه شد. نتایج تحلیل محتوایی مصاحبه ها و تحلیل داده های کمی حاکی از آن است که بین نظرات مدرسان و معلمان با نظرات سیاست گذاران تفاوت هایی مشاهده می شود، به ویژه، در مقولات عدالت در آزمون، اهداف آموزشی/یادگیری و طراحی، تدریس و برنامه ریزی. به طور کلی، نتایج گویای آن است که با توجه به شرایط فعلی آموزش و یادگیری زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستان های کشور و چالش های موجود، محتمل است که طرح تغییر، در شکل کنونی خود، به ابزاری نامناسب جهت پیشبرد اهداف ایدئال و بلندپروازانه تبدیل شود.
    کلیدواژگان: آثار و پیامدهای آزمون، آزمون های سراسری، اصلاحات آزمون محور، سابقه تحصیلی، نظام سنجش و پذیرش دانشجو
  • فاتح احمدپناه، عباس خائفی، بهزاد برکت صفحات 115-141
    یکی از چالش های پیش روی مترجمان رمان، بازآفرینی نشانه های گویش در گفتار شخصیت هاست. گفتار آمیخته به گویش، اطلاعات مهمی راجع به هویت، پیشینه فرهنگی و جایگاه اجتماعی شخصیت ها فراهم می آورد و از این رو، بی توجهی مترجم در انتقال آن، خواننده متن مقصد را از درک صحیح چارچوب گفتمانی متن اصلی محروم می سازد. به طور کلی، بازآفرینی گویش آمیختگی گفتار شخصیت ها به کمک دو راهکار استاندارد/ساده سازی و جبران انجام می گیرد. استفاده از راهکار جبران، منجر به بازتولید بخشی از گفتار گویش آمیخته می شود، در حالی که استفاده از راهکار استاندارد/ساده سازی، در بیشتر موارد، گونه گویشی را به گونه نوشتاری تقلیل می دهد. مقاله حاضر به تبیین کارکرد راهکارهای مذکور، در انتقال نشانه های گویش انگلیسی ایرلندی در دو ترجمه رمان چهره مرد هنرمند در جوانی می پردازد. طبق نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش، در سطح واژگانی، مترجمان از هر دو راهکار برای انتقال گفتار گویش آمیخته بهره گرفته اند، با این تفاوت که مترجم دوم (منوچهر بدیعی) در مقایسه با مترجم اول (پرویز داریوش) از راهکارهای جبرانی متنوع تری جهت انتقال نشانه های گویش آمیختگی استفاده کرده است. در سطح دستور زبان، هر دو مترجم، در اغلب موارد بر راهکار استاندارد/ساده سازی متمرکز شده اند و از انتقال ویژگی های دستوری انگلیسی ایرلندی چشم پوشی کرده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: گویش آمیختگی، جبران، استاندارد، ساده سازی، گویش انگلیسی ایرلندی، چهره مرد هنرمند در جوانی
  • محمدرضا فارسیان، سارا جوانمردی صفحات 143-161
    آرتیکل یکی از موضوعات چالش برانگیز در زبان فرانسه است. در روند یادگیری زبان فرانسه، این عنصر پویا و پیچیده به عنوان یکی از مشکلات اساسی زبان آموزان فارسی زبان مطرح می شود، چرا آرتیکل ها در زبان فارسی، به همان شکل و ساختاری زبان فرانسه وجود ندارند. بنابراین با استفاده از روش تجربی، پرسش نامه هایی به منظور ارزیابی توانایی زبان آموزان ایرانی در کاربرد آرتیکل فرانسه، در سه سطح مقدماتی، متوسطه و پیشرفته تهیه و در اختیار زبان آموزان قرار گرفت تا بتوان به این سوال پاسخ داد که مهم ترین موارد خطا در استفاده از آرتیکل ها کدام اند و راه های مقابله با این خطاها چیست؟ نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که بیش ترین موارد خطا در کاربرد آرتیکل ها ناشی از تاثیر منفی زبان مادری و گاه ناشی از تداخل زبان مادری با زبان خارجی مقصد است. همچنین ممکن است، زبان آموز به دلیل آشنا نبودن با قواعد یا بی اطلاعی از برخی نکات دستوری مرتکب خطا شود.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل خطای زبان آموزان، آموزش زبان، آرتیکل، زبان فرانسه، زبان شناسی
  • زینب موذن زاده صفحات 163-184
    ترجمه متون از زبان روسی به فارسی و بالعکس به شکل قانون مندی به ساختار دستوری زبان روسی وابسته است. زبان مطبوعاتی و رسانه ای روسی دارای ویژگی های خاصی مانند دایره وسیع و پرکاربرد ساختارهای مترادف و جایگزین، متضاد، عبارات و اصطلاحات است که ترجمه آن را مشکل تر کرده است، اما از طرف دیگر، برای بیان هر معنا ساختارهای دستوری مخصوصی وجود دارند که اصطلاحا کلیشه نامیده می شوند. دانستن این کلیشه های دستوری ترجمه را تا حدودی ساده تر می کند. در مقاله حاضر سعی شده با توجه به تفاوت های ساختاری زبان روسی و فارسی، روش های موجود آموزش ترجمه بررسی و بهترین روش آموزش ترجمه به عنوان الگو ارائه گردد. این نتایج می تواند در تهیه و تدوین کتب آموزشی که در سیستم آموزش مترجمی زبان روسی جای خالی محسوسی دارند، نقش موثری داشته باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: زبان های فارسی و روسی، آموزش ترجمه، متون مطبوعاتی و رسانه ای، ساختارهای دستوری نحوی
|
  • Saeede Mohagheghian, Saeed Ketabi Pages 1-27


    Introduction
    The pun refers to the similarity of two or more words in the morphemes with different meanings. The pun, which is used more than other kinds of humor, can be found in not only words but also idioms. Puns that are categorized as language jokes are considered humorous as a result of being dependent on different meanings. Beside the musical richness that puns add to words, pun jokes could be means of improving learners' interest and ability level and creating a fun atmosphere in classrooms. To benefit from the positive implications of using puns in classrooms it is important to make sure that learners have sufficient knowledge of puns and their different meanings. Considering the paucity of research regarding learners' comprehension of pun jokes in Iran, the present research has made an attempt to fill the gap to some extent.
    Over the years, translatability of puns has been studied by different researchers. Translatability of puns has been studied by Qafzezi (2013) in the translation of Alice in Wonderland. The findings showed that Albanian translators in Qafzezi's study (2013) had a lot of problems in translating puns. Perez (2008) studied the same issue in the translation of Spanish film titles. He found that sometimes the difficulty of pun translations forced the translators to omit the puns totally and provide a different translation. Saadi's Golestan and the translation of puns in Saadi's Golestan was investigated by OliaeeNia and Ordoodari (2006). The results showed that, despite having some methods for translating puns, sometimes it is not possible to translate them.Although puns and their translatability have been the main focus of many studies, it seems that pun jokes are not studied enough. This is what Laurian (1992) believes and Popa (2005) thinks puns' magical structure is the reason for lack of studies in the areas of pun humors and translation. Lems (2013) considers English to be a rich language in the case of puns and since Persian has the same situation, using English pun jokes in Iran's English language classes can have positive influences on learning. Furthermore, Kilgore (1994) believes that the requisite for benefiting from the positive effects of pun jokes on learning is that learners should reach a high level of understanding of such jokes.

    Methodology
    Twenty-one Iranian undergraduate students participated in this study. Among these students, who were 19 to 24 years old, 12 were the students of English Translation and 9 were the students of English Literature. These students were asked to take part in a test with 12 pun jokes. All of the jokes were in English and each contained a pun. The participants were asked to read the jokes and then translate the pun sentence which was underlined in each joke. The participants were also allowed to look up the words they did not know in a dictionary in order to make sure that they would not skip any joke only because the words were new to them.Subsequently, the participants answered a question, the purpose of which was to realize whether they had understood the humor of the joke or not. The question was "why was the joke funny?" A proper answer to this question was the criterion to participants' understanding. Participants' responses to each joke were studied and the results were portrayed on a number of graphs.

    Discussion
    The results showed that most of the participants were not successful in translating the puns. In some cases, some of them could not even recognize which word was humorous, and believed that the joke was not funny at all. The participants of this study did not show enough mastery of pun words in English, either in recognizing or arriving at their meanings. As a result, they could not have a proper translation. In some cases, the translations were acceptable but the answer provided for the question showed that the participants were not successful in understanding the humor. In other words, the ability to understand the joke fully depended on recognizing the pun and its different meanings.

    Conclusions
    Since the main problem was with the participants and their lack of knowledge in recognizing the puns, to improve the situation, it is better to start with instructional programs enriched with pun humors and use teachers and masters who are interested in carrying out such programs. It can also be a good idea to encourage participants themselves to enrich their process of English learning by using humor books or joke websites. Since jokes can create a friendly and funny atmosphere for learning, it can be implemented to ease the process of learning and be a kind of help for learners.There are some suggestions for further research. Firstly, the effect of teaching humor in English classrooms in Iran on learners' level of interest and participation in learning can be investigated. Another study can focus on whether Iranian English learners learn vocabulary better if humor becomes the tool of instruction. Finally, the relation between Iranian learners' rate of learning and use of humor in English language classes can be studies
    Keywords: Undergraduate students, Joke, Pun, Translation
  • Mazdak Bolouri Pages 29-47
     
    Introduction
    The present study focused on the effects of the women policies adopted by the Reformist and the Fundamentalist administrations on the selection of feminist literary works for translation into Persian after the 1979 Revolution in Iran. The purpose was to assess the influence of power institutions and their policies on the development of translated feminist literature in the Iranian literary polysystem. The two administrations followed very different women policies: the Reformist administration (1997-2005) adopted policies which contributed toward the realization of gender equality and women’s active presence in different areas of social life, and it showed more tolerance toward ideas introduced by Western feminists; the Fundamentalist administration (2005-2013), however, focused on the policy of ‘women in family’ and showed serious opposition with feminism and the ideas rooted in it, encouraging women to adhere to their traditional roles. The study attempted to investigate how such different policies affected the selection and non-selection of feminist literary works for translation into Persian.Lefevere’s (1992) theory of “patronage” was used as the theoretical framework of the study. Patronage is defined as the powers (persons and institutions) that can further or hinder the reading, writing, and rewriting of literature. According to Lefevere (1992), patrons try to regulate the relationship between the literary system and the other systems, which, together, make up a society, a culture. They see to it that the literary system does not fall too far out of step with the other subsystems society consists of. In order to publish their works and distribute them among their readers, the producers of literature should not write anything against their patrons. The ideological component of patronage, then, acts as a constraint on the choice and development of both form and subject matter. The selections of the translator and all those involved in the translation process, including those who make decisions about the selection of texts for translation, are determined by ideologically-based strategies governed by those in power. Before a book is published in Iran, it is required to be sent to a Book Bureau controlled by the administration in order to receive a publication permit. This means that the administration can exert strict control over what is published, and any book which does not match the ideological expectations of the administration might fail to receive the publication permit.

    Methodology
    To investigate how the different policies adopted by the two administrations affected the selection and non-selection of feminist literary works for translation into Persian, a list of “Best Feminist Fiction” (Retrieved in 2016) which consisted of 100 books and was posted on the goodreads website was chosen. The titles of the books were searched on the National Library and the House of Books websites to see which of the books had been selected for translation and which ones were published after they were translated. The publication dates of the published translations were extracted in order to find the number of feminist literary works published under each administration. As for the books which had been translated but not published, the publishers who had sent them to the Book Bureau were contacted to find the reasons behind their non-publication.

    Discussion
    Seventeen novels on the list (19.76%) were translated for the first time under the Reformist administration and thirteen novels (13.26%) were translated under the Fundamentalist administration. All the seventeen novels translated in the first period were published and distributed (100%), while only seven of the thirteen books (53.84%) translated in the second period had the chance to be published. This means that six of the books translated at that time were not published. Contact with the publishers revealed that five of the books did not receive the publication permit and one was not published for economic reasons.

    Conclusion
    The results of the study show that the selection of literary works for translation is not an arbitrary and haphazard phenomenon, but is determined by the conditions dominant in the cultural and political system in any society. Under the Reformists, who followed the policy of gender equality and attempted to maximize the presence of women in social life, more feminist novels found the chance to be published, but under the Fundamentalist, who opposed feminism and the idea of gender equality, fewer feminist works were translated and published. The patrons seem to have influenced the formation of translated women literature on two levels: 1) indirect influence, by encouraging the translation of certain works and discouraging translators from translating other literary works; the results of the present study show that not only the selection of works for translation, but also their non-selection is determined by the dominant ideology and the state policies in countries like Iran. 2) direct influence, through the censorship bureaus which control the publication of literary books. It seems that the Iranian literary translators enjoyed more freedom under the Reformists to select and translate feminist literary works, while they faced more restrictions when the Fundamentalists came to power. Textual analysis of the translations of feminist literary works and the manipulations in those works can contribute to the better understanding of the effects of the dominant ideologies on the formation of translated literature in any society.
    Keywords: Reformist administration, Fundamentalist administration, Ideology, Feminism, Translation
  • Milad Mehdizadkhani, Masood Khoshsaligheh Pages 49-69
       
    Introduction
    One of the four channels of expression of meaning in audiovisual translation (AVT), with which translators have to deal, is verbal information in written forms on the screen. Although it has also been referred to in terms such as “integrated subtitles” (Fox, 2016) and “TELOP” (O’Hagan & Sasamoto, 2016), Chaume (2004a) prefers to use the term “graphic code” borrowing from the school of Film Semiotics for such verbal visual information on the screen. This school claims that cinema is composed of several meaning codes, thus Chaume (2004a, 2012) has worked on a taxonomy of film codes which apply to translation operations. Despite the considerable significance and rising number of graphic codes in an accurate understanding of the course of a dubbed movie, it has received relatively little attention in the literature on AVT. Hence, this study aims at examining and comparing the rendition of graphic codes in two of the methods, namely voice-off and insertion in two Persian versions of the new Sherlock Holmes TV series dubbed by an official Iranian TV network and a BBC Persian TV network. The study also attempts to provide answers to the research questions adopted from Chaume (2012).
    The audiovisual text is a complex medium and the audiovisual translator ought to handle verbal and non-verbal information, meanings openly expressed and meanings that are inferred by subtler forms of communication such as a rise in intonation or a gesture accompanying the utterance (Pettit, 2004). Therefore, the screen products are made up of complex visual codes comprising elements such as costumes, gesture, body movements, and facial expressions, or as Chiaro (2009, p. 142) names them “polysemiotic” elements. In general, graphic codes may be classified into two categories: static graphic codes – written information in newspapers and on computers which cannot be separated from the screen – and moving graphic codes – pop-up written information on the screen (O’Hagan, 2010) which can be possibly separated from the screen. Most studies have only focused on graphic codes as one of the communication channels in AVT (e.g., Chiaro 2009; Delabastita 1989). Other studies have also investigated graphic codes from a non-translational and filmmaking perspective (Pérez-González 2013; Sasamoto 2014); a few others have also examined them in terms of translational functions (Khoshsaligheh & Fazeli Haghpanah, 2016; O’Sullivan, 2013). Additionally, some research has also studied graphic codes using eye tracking (Fox, 2016; O’Hagan & Sasamoto, 2016). They have also been the focus of some experimental research as well (Mehdizadkhani & Khoshsaligheh, 2018 in-press).

    Methodology
    This qualitative research is a case study which aims to investigate and compare two translation techniques, namely voice-off and insertion in the rendition of graphic codes in two official Persian dubbed versions of the case of Sherlock (Gattis, Moffat, & Vertue, 2010), a British TV series. The main reason for the choice of this case as the subject of the study was the availability of two professionally produced Persian dubbed versions, and in each version the graphic codes are rendered in the two different methods. The second reason was “the prominent role that digital technologies play in the actual adaptation of the series” (Pérez-González, 2013, p. 14) shown by moving graphic codes. Moreover, McMillan (2014) refers to Sherlock as the “best use” of graphic codes in the TV series. The researchers also classified moving graphic codes into three categories: SMS language, Sherlock’s web searches, and his unverbalized inner thoughts.

    Discussion
    It was revealed that BBC Persian TV network rendered all of the graphic codes using the insertion technique. Voice-off technique, instead, was used by the Iranian TV network, but it left five scenes with graphic codes untranslated. The most common justification in such situations is the case of “code interaction” discussed by Chaume (2012, p. 107). That is, the voice-off method cannot be applied when graphic codes overlap with a close-up shot in which one or more characters are speaking.
    The results also indicated that the rendered graphic codes in the insertion technique remained on the screen for a fair amount of time giving the opportunity of rereading (see also Szarkowska, Krejtz, Krejtz, & Duchowski, 2013). Hence, Mehdizadkhani and Khoshsaligheh (2018 in-press) argue that this fair amount of time in the insertion technique could lead to better comprehension of graphic codes in comparison to when the voice-off technique is used. However, if the rendition of graphic codes in voice-off could be considered as normal dubbing (see Koolstra, Peeters, & Spinhof, 2002), the findings revealed that the dubbing team have not dealt with problems such as lip-synchronization (see Chaume, 2004b, 2013). Therefore, in comparison with insertion, this technique allows the dubbing team more freedom in modifying the stress, tone, and accent, and it helps the viewers to better focus on the film content (Mehdizadkhani & Khoshsaligheh, 2018 in-press).
    Iran is known as a dominantly dubbing country (Khoshsaligheh & Ameri, 2016; Naficy, 2011), but still in some cases, dubbers have to deal with (sub-)titles, intertitles, and written texts on the screen. Despite numerous instances and relying on the significance of graphic codes for the complete comprehension of Sherlock series (Pérez-González, 2013; McMillan, 2014), the findings seem to recommend that when dubbing translators encounter “code interaction” (Chaume, 2012, p. 107), they may use the insertion technique in rendition of graphic codes.

    Conclusions
    It was beyond the scope of this study to examine the static graphic codes. On the other hand, to the researchers’ best knowledge, no previous study has investigated the translation of these codes in AVT of Iranian context. Therefore, a further study is recommended to explore and compare strategies used in translation of static graphic codes in different modes of AVT, such as in subtitling based on the frameworks introduced by Gottlieb (1992), Bogucki (2004) or Díaz-Cintas and Remael (2014). Moreover, this study did not address the translation quality of translated graphic codes. Although the two versions are professionally dubbed into Persian, the translation approach toward factors such as censorship and cultural references are very likely to be different. A further study on these issues with further focus on graphic codes is therefore suggested. Having divided the moving graphic codes into the three categories, the research questions that could be asked in audio description research area include how audio describers render those moving graphic codes and if the methods of translation of different types of graphic codes are similar.
    Keywords: Audiovisual translation, Graphic codes, Voice-off, Insertion, Code interaction
  • Parvaneh Shayeste, Far, Gholam Reza Kiany, Monireh Norouzi Pages 71-114
     
    Introduction
    Testing-based reform has often been used as a lever for introducing desirable changes. This tenet is found in light of the claim that what is targeted to be measured by testing, in particular by tests of higher stakes, would strongly determine and shape what gets taught and learnt at the lower stakes. Clear examples are various University Entrance Examinations (UEEs) which have long appeared to have immense importance for the people and institutions involved. In fact, high-stakes tests such as the UEEs are widely perceived to have the potential to shape curricular teaching and learning. Such a test consequential effect, i.e., ‘test washback’, has encouraged decision makers and educators to manage for a test-based change to promote the quality of education in general and the quality of learning and teaching in particular. Reform policies as such have also been increasingly recognized by policymakers, educators, and research community in Iran, during the past decade. Such a recognition and appreciation of reform policies consequently led to reform initiatives that aimed at enhancing the quality of high school learning and teaching through reforming the conventional UEEs system of the country. The outcome was the ‘Act of Student Admission at Universities (ASAU)’ which mandates gradual replacement of the English requirements of the UEEs with high school National English Achievement Tests (NEATs) students have to take over their four high school years. However, the existing evidence shows that success is not necessarily ensured as hoped. Reasons for such a failure were mostly studied after ‘implementation’ or at the ‘completion phase’ of a reformed test but not during its ‘implementation phase’. Such an early evaluation has been mostly neglected. Taking into account the perceptions and perspectives of the English Language Teaching (ELT) practitioners of the country, the present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the UEEs program change in improving the ELT context of the Ministry of Education (ME).

    Methodology
    A mixed-methods approach was employed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. For such a purpose, semi-structured interviews with 16 ELT professors and head-teachers followed by questionnaire data from English language teachers were used. Participants were instructors of the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) and ME. Eight university professors and 8 ME teachers, selected through purposive sampling, participated in the qualitative phase, and 406 English teachers (both males and females, with teaching experience of 5 to 30 years), selected through cluster and convenient sampling procedures, participated in different phases of the study. The interview guide was prepared on the basis of the information obtained from the Act, higher-order policy documents of the country, available literature, and the researchers’ experience and knowledge of the two admission systems. The interview guide questions sought interviewees’ views about the consequences of the new tests on the ME’s English Foreign Language (EFL) teaching and learning. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, and then carefully content-analyzed.
    Next, quantitative data were collected through the researcher-made ‘Questionnaire of Change Consequences-Teachers’ version (QCC-Ts)’ that was distributed among 406 English teachers. The interview analyses together with a review of the related literature gave more than one hundred categories and behaviors showing high-stakes test impacts (e.g., teachers’ considerations of practicing the skills measured by high-stakes tests) which later led to the development of a temporary driven model of change impact stated through the QCC-Ts, with a total of 82 items forming three main scales: Teachers’ Planning and Instruction, Learning Objectives, and Fairness in admission. A series of factor analyses, both Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were run to substantiate the whole scale.

    Discussion
    3.1. Interviews: Professors and Head-Teachers
    Data analysis of qualitative phase resulted into the identification of more than 200 themes that were finally subsumed under 14 categories. The necessity of “Adequacy of the new admission criteria”, “fairness in assessment through the new program”, “Students’ quality and depth of knowledge” as well as considerations about the “quality of the output of the ME”, and “Resurgence of the similar coaching for the UEEs” were the most commonly mentioned areas perceived to be negatively influenced by the NEATs-based program. A relative dissatisfaction was found in the interviewees’ views on the final outcome of the NEATs program in terms of its effects on the quality, quantity, rate, and depth of learning.
    In teaching area, the participants reported a probability for integrating a balanced teaching and learning of the main skills of the English language in the ELT contexts of high schools. However, the respondents found the consequences positive on “students’ learning activities” and “teachers’ assessment of students’ learning”. That is, the new program will lead to more student engagement in learning activities, and increased regular assessment by teachers.
    3.2. Questionnaire Surveys: English Teachers
    The results of the factor analysis of the QCC-Ts revealed a significantly good-fitting model for the constructed scales (CMIN/DF=2.79, RMSEA=0.04, CFI=0.981, GFI=0.984, and a small χ2=42).
    “Classroom activities and time-arrangement”, and “teaching materials” teachers would use in their classes were perceived as the two areas being most strongly driven by the new high-stakes tests (X=4.40, SD=.96; X=4.35, SD=.79 for classroom activities and materials, respectively). For instance, perceived consequences of the NEATs on ‘types and structures of classroom activities’ ‘students’ test-taking skills and strategies’, ‘extra time spent on grammar instruction’, and on ‘particular classroom activities purposefully adopted (e.g., vocab., translation, and structure drills) to increase students’ scores in the NEATs’ were reported by mean scores clustering around 4.5 in the Likert scale that illustrates ‘agreement’ or near ‘complete agreement’ with the NEATs impacts.
    Inconsistency between the desired policies and the observed practices was found for teachers’ ‘methods of teaching’ and ‘content of teaching’ that came up with the mean values of 4.01 and 3.59, respectively. For instance, two-thirds of the participants said that they change their teaching methods in order to ‘develop students’ NEAT-taking skills’ or ‘increase students’ scores in these tests’. These show how measurement-driven program of the ME obliges EFL teachers to change their adopted methods, employed activities, and applied materials in the direction of meeting testing objectives rather than learning objectives.
    As to the NEATs consequences on learning-related factors, EFL teachers were almost neutral about the NEATs consequences on learning-related factors, especially with regard to ‘affective consequences’ (2.5
    Keywords: High-stakes test reform, NEATs, Student admission program change
  • Fateh Ahmadpanah, Abbas Khaefi, Behzad Barkat Pages 115-141


    Introduction
    Novel can be described as a polyphonic literary genre in which divergent human experiences are displayed through a broad range of languages, voices, and discourses. This “polyphony”, results, at least partially, from the concurrence of two different varieties: a) The standard variety (associated with pedagogical language and institutional discourses); b) The regional varieties (associated with non-official dialects spoken by particular ethnic groups in a particular region). These varieties are characterized through their linguistic markers (i.e., phonological, syntactic, and lexical markers). The standard variety, due to its recorded and organized grammar, lexicon, and system of pronunciation, is easy to identify. On the contrary, regional variety is difficult to identify, for it doesn’t normally follow a recorded system of grammar, lexicon, or pronunciation.
    The issue of recognizing dialectal markers in the field of literary translation and translation studies is of great importance, for the reason that translators not only have to distinguish dialectal markers from standard variety markers, but also need to transfer them to the target language. In order to transfer these markers, literary translators should find strategies to reproduce linguistic effects brought up by means of dialects in the source text; otherwise, they would omit some of the stylistic subtleties of the original text. Generally, dialectal markers are rendered via two strategies: Standardization and Compensation. Standardization refers to a process through which the unusual source elements are replaced with more common target language elements and Compensation is a technique through which a translator makes up for the loss of the effects introduced by unusual source elements.
    The present study, aims at explaining the function and consequences of Standardization and Compensation as strategies applied for rendering Irish English (Hiberno English) markers used in an avant-garde novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce (2005).

    Method
    The data on which this paper is based, are Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (2005) and its two Persian translations by Parviz Dariush (1996) and Manoochehr Badii (2013). The main purpose of this article is to take into consideration the strategies used by translators to transfer characters’ dialect mixed speech. To achieve this purpose, 53 dialect mixed sentences, mostly uttered by characters during their conversations, were compared with their Persian translations. Thirty-one out of 53 sentences contained Irish lexical features (i.e., regional vocabularies and idioms) and 22 sentences contained Irish-English grammatical features (i.e., regional systems of word order, the tense system, and the information structure of the sentence). In cases where the source author had provided information and clues on speakers’ accent, geographical background, and social status, their utterances were considered as dialect mixed speech and after looking them up in Irish-English sources, they were recorded as valid data. In cases where the source author had not provided any clues on the speakers’ background, relying on our linguistic intuition, we presumed the speakers’ utterances as dialect mixed and after looking them up in Irish sources, recorded them as valid data. In the next step, recorded data were compared with their Persian translations and finally, the strategies through which they were rendered were analyzed.

    Discussion
    As stated earlier, dialect mixing in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, is divided into two subcategories: lexical and grammatical. a) At the level of lexical dialect mixing, Irish-English vocabularies used in Joyce’s novel, can be classified according to the following categories: Irish expletives, vocabularies that morphologically are combinations of English and archaic Irish, archaic usage of lexicons, English vocabularies pronounced through a distinctive Irish accent, and vernacular connotations specific to Irish culture. The comparison of dialect mixed lexicons and expressions in the source and target texts showed that the translators have employed both Standardization and Compensation devices for transferring these expressions and lexicons, with the difference that, Compensatory devices in the second translation (i.e., Badii’s translation), compared to Dariush’s translation, are more various. Accordingly, devices through which Badii translated Irish lexicons are as follows: replacing dialect markers with that of colloquial Persian, developing a semi-virtual dialect to transfer the markedness of archaic vocabularies, and explaining the connotative meaning of vocabularies that are specific to Irish culture. The most common compensatory device the first translator (i.e., Dariush) utilized is converting dialectal usage into a colloquial usage. In both translations, Standardization leads to converting the dialect into a normal, natural, and unmarked variety whose characteristics are very close to that of standard/written Persian. b) At the level of grammar, translators were seldom inclined to apply Compensation as a strategy for rendering Irish-English grammatical structures. On rare occasions when they used this strategy, the only device for transferring markedness of dialect mixed structure, was omitting a linguistic unit from the utterance in order to approximate it to colloquial/ spoken Persian. Using Standardization as a dominant strategy, translators reduced the dialectal structures into standard/written Persian structures.

    Conclusion
    The aforementioned examination of the lexical and grammatical features of Irish English rendered into Persian, confirmed that translators intended to omit the dialect mixing by using Standardization and minimize it by using Compensation. By applying standardization, translators just provided a framework to increase the intelligibility of the target text; hence, it is impossible for the reader to perceive the uniqueness of the polyphony brought up by means of dialectal usage. On the other hand, translators, by applying compensatory devices for transferring dialect mixing, tried to remind the target reader of the uniqueness of speakers’ utterance, though the identification of their geographical background or dual identity, embedded in their dialect mixed speech, would be impossible.
    Keywords: Dialect mixing _Standardization _Compensation _Irish English _A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
  • Mohammad Reza Farsian, Sara Javanmardi Pages 143-161
     
    Introduction
    French is one of the Roman languages and it is the second most modern language in the world. Now in Iran, French is the most popular language for people to learn after English (Barazesh, 1388﴿. Considering the significant range of academic and non-academic French language teaching practices in Iran, we aimed to study the extent to which Iranian learners make errors while using articles. Furthermore, the causes of errors among Iranian learners in the process of using articles were investigated. As article is one of the challenging issues in learning French, Iranian language learners face major problems learning it.
    According to previous research, the similarity of elements in the structure of mother tongue and second language can play an important and influential role in learning a second language (Parvizi, 1391). French language and Persian language are structurally different. The existence of differences in the structure of these two languages has resulted in cognitive difficulties in the process of learning French as a foreign language (Parvizi, 1391). Among the structural differences between French language and Persian language, we can mention the existence of articles in French grammar. In the process of learning French, most Iranian language learners have problems using articles. There is no concept in Persian language structure called “Articles” as in French. The high percentage of errors made by Persian language learners in recognition and proper use of articles led us to conduct a research in this field. In this research, we first sought to identify the errors of learners in the use of articles. In the second step, our goal was to find out the causes of these errors and provide solutions for avoiding them.

    Method
    To investigate the causes of errors in applying articles among French language learners, causal statistical analysis was utilized in the current study. The participants of this study were Iranian learners. In order to collect the data, quota sampling which is a non-random method was utilized. The participants were chosen based on two criteria. The first criterion was gender (male or female) and the second one was learners' level of knowledge (elementary, intermediate and advanced). Statistical analysis was carried out using inferential statistics based on the collected data from a grammar test. In these grammar tests, the participants were asked to answer questions that were designed to evaluate their use of articles. Then, completed grammar tests by the learners, with the correct and incorrect use of the articles, and the obtained statistical information were presented in separate tables and charts.

    Discussion
    The results of the study demonstrated that 57.5% of respondents responded incorrectly and only 42.5% of them responded correctly. The use of articles is sometimes confusing for Iranian language learners since articles must match the noun followed by them in French. Moreover, in Persian, the concept of article does not exist as it does in French. As a general rule, all nouns come with an article in French, unless preceded by a determinant, such as a possessive adjective or an attributive adjective. Moreover, in certain cases, in accordance with the rules of French language, removal of the article is required.
    In French, articles are divided into four categories. The findings of the research revealed that the percentage of errors among Iranian learners is significant in the use of articles. These errors included grammatical errors and semantic errors.

    Conclusion
    The results of this study revealed that Iranian learners face major problems in the use of articles. In order to solve these problems, learners should create an accurate and clear picture of the articles from the very beginning. If learners have a clear picture of the role of articles with the help of a creative teacher from the very beginning, then, by practicing the use of these linguistic elements, they can convey these concepts with fewer errors. On the other hand, the role of educational resources should not be ignored. In fact, the educational resources available to French learners are limited to simple and marginal explanations and exercises regarding articles. Finally, it should be noted that most errors in the application of articles originally stem from the negative impact of the mother tongue, and they sometimes are due to interference of the mother tongue with the target language. These errors may occur because of learners’ lack of knowledge to comply with rules or ignorance of some grammatical points that lead to mistaken use of articles
    Keywords: analysis of language learner’s errors, language instruction, the article, French language, linguistics
  • Zeinab Moazzenzade Pages 163-184


    Introduction
    Translation has a long history in human societies. Over time, it has had a valuable position in human life. Of course, occupying such position and the existing value of translation was easily achieved. Initially, there were different views and opinions about translation as a science. One of the features of this science is that as an interdisciplinary science it creates a common ground between different fields of knowledge. This new discipline was able to attract the attention of linguists, librarians, psychologists, and ethnologists as an interdisciplinary science. Before the formation of science and the formulation of the principles of translation as a specialized field, translation was very limited. However at the beginning of the twentieth century, the emergence of the explosion of information, the close relationship between nations and the growth of international organizations, the growth of professional tourism, scientific, technical, and political communication, the exchange of cultural products, and international correspondence required that science of translation will quickly progress.

    Theoretical Framework: Compared to the young discipline of translation, translation training is much younger. Along with the developments in the translation movement in the world, in Russia, this new branch grew. Russian linguists consider the first translation experience to be done by J.-P. Vinay and J. Darbelent in 1958, in which they carried out a comparative study in French and English translation. Russian linguists believe that for the first time, the authors of the work convinced the academic community that translation needs to be taught in academic and scientific fashions. At the beginning, the goal of studying language was to learn and teach it. However, since the 80s, knowing foreign languages was not enough, and there was a need to a competence to perform the translation process. There was a strong debate on the relationship between theoretical and practical issues of translation, and the inclusion of these principles in academic curricula, the importance of stating the differences in the training of translators and interpreters with different specializations and the status of technology and modern education. Among the most important are the works of Komiserov (1980, 1990), Latishev (1988), Alimov (2005), Berus (2000), and Kavalchuk (1975). In the overview of these works, what is evident is the need to deal with translation as a separate academic discipline.

    Discussion
    The translation of press and media texts from Russian to Persian and vice versa is structurally dependent on the grammatical structure of Russian. Russian press and media have certain characteristics, such as the vast range of structures of synonymous and contradictory alternatives, phrases, and expressions that make translation more difficult. Long and compound sentences, variation and displacement of the types of words in the sentence, direct and indirect quotes, the abundant use of syntactic structures, the use of a special lexical and semantic range are among other features of such texts. In these texts, in addition to narration of news and events, they are evaluated either directly or indirectly, and the author's view is transferred to the reader. Therefore, the mission of the translator becomes harder. The translator should not only translate the text properly, but also he/she should be able to translate the author’s view concealed in the words and phrases with the help of the grammatical and linguistic tools used in the text.
    Translators can easily translate the text by knowing the specific structures that are referred to as stereotypes. The stereotypes transmit concepts such as agreement, disagreement, expressing reason, conclusions etc. in specific grammatical formats. It should be noted that each of these stereotypes has synonymous and contradictory structures. Paying attention to the style of the text is also an important issue that should not be forgotten when translating.
    In the next section, it is suggested a three-step exercise be used while teaching the translation of press texts: exercises before translating the text in order to familiarize students with the words and phrases used in the text, the presentation of synonymous and contradictory structures, and fluent reading and translation of the text. Finally, repeating the text structures and transforming them into smaller units, synonymous grammatical and semantic units, answering the text questions, and even oral definitions and text summaries should be practiced.

    Conclusion
    In this study, it is emphasized that translation is composed of theoretical and practical parts. Classrooms for the translation of the press texts should be planned in such a way that Iranian students acquire the skill of analyzing and recognizing the grammatical structures as well as staying loyal to the original style of the text. By using this technique, text clarification becomes easier for trainees, and they can provide a better and closer translation of the original text. Finally, despite the urgent need for specialist translators, many of older professional translators complain about educational system's inability to educate translation trainees and argue that translators are not tailored to the needs of the community and the market.
    Keywords: Persian, Russian languages, Translation training, Press, media texts, Syntactic structures