فهرست مطالب

هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 75 (پاییز 1397)
  • پیاپی 75 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • سحر سهیلی صدیق ، مهرناز کوکبی * صفحات 5-12
    حس آمیزی، نوعی پدیدة عصب شناختی است که در آن، محرک دریافت شده از طریق یکی از حواس، به طور خودکار، ادراک در حسی دیگر را فعال می سازد. نام متداول برای حس آمیزی صدا به تصویر، شنیدن رنگی است، که به معنای فعال سازی رنگ، شکل، و حرکت توسط صدا می باشد. هدف از این پژوهش، بازشناسی نقش صدا در آفرینش تجربیات حس آمیزانه (البته در افراد عادی و نه به معنای عصب شناختی آن) و پاسخ به این پرسش است که صدا چگونه می تواند منجر به خلق تجربیات حس آمیزانة بصری شود؟ دیگر آن که چه ویژگی هایی در فرایند ادراک نهفته است که به ما امکان تجربة ادراکات حس آمیزانه را می دهد؟ و در نهایت، پاسخ به این پرسش که آیا میان محرک شنیداری و محرک بینایی، ویژگی های مشترکی وجود دارد که بتواند منجر به تطبیق آن ها با یکدیگر شود؟ این پژوهش حاصل مطالعات کتابخانه ای، اسنادی، و همچنین استفاده از منابع اینترنتی معتبر علمی- پژوهشی می باشد. ادراک، فرایندی چندحسی است و این ویژگی، نه تنها تجربة ادراکات حس آمیزانه را امکان پذیر می سازد، بلکه به واسطة ساخت بازنمایی های درونی چندحسی، امکان تجربه ای بصری در مواجهه با محرک شنیداری را نیز فراهم می آورد. علاوه بر این، شنوایی و بینایی، دارای ویژگی های درون حسی مشترکی نیز می باشند که امکان تطبیق آن دو با یکدیگر را مهیا می سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: ادراک چندحسی، استراتژی های حس متقاطع، حس آمیزی، موسیقی بصری
  • مازیار زند *، سعید زاویه، امیر نصری صفحات 13-20
    تفسیر، فرایندی است که هدف از آن رسیدن به فهم است. هدف از تفسیر، درک معنای اشکال و یافتن پیامی است که آن ها می خواهند به انسان منتقل سازند. از نقطه نظر گادامر، ایماژها بیانی مبتنی بر مشارکت بیننده/تاویل گر در روند شکل گیری تصویر هستند و از این رو امکان جدایی ابژه و تاویل گر وجود ندارد. هم تصویر و هم بیننده هنگام تجربه تولید ایماژ تغییر می یابند. ایماژ موضوعی ثابت و ایستا نیست بلکه ادراکی است که خود را طی تجربه ی «مشاهده» شکل می دهد. در روند دیدن، زمینه های فرهنگی و تجربه های دیداری بیننده در پردازش تصویر دخالت کرده و از این رو تجربه های دیداری او دارای ساختاری تاریخی-فرهنگی می گردد؛ داده ها و داشته های پیشین برنوع دیدن و درک بیننده تاثیر می گذارند. از این رو ناظر تحت تاثیر فرانگاره ها تصویر را می بیند، می سازد و معنا می کند. این مقاله به واکاوی نقش خیال در بازتولید تصویر در ذهن بیننده پرداخته و قصد دارد برای وجود فرانگاره و کیفیت تاثیر آن روشی علمی و قابل سنجش کمی پیدا کند. در نهایت نمونه پژوهشی نشان می دهد بیننده اثر بیش از آنکه نگاره ها را ببیند تحت تاثیر فرانگاره های ذهن خود قرار دارد و تصاویر را پیش از دیدن و فهمیدن تفسیر کرده و فرم را تنها به واسطه تجربه دیداری خود می فهمد وکامل می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: نگاره، فرانگاره، فهم، هرمنوتیک
  • راضیه مختاری دهکردی* ، احمد نادعلیان، محسن مراثی صفحات 21-30
    مقاله حاضر با هدف شناسایی فضا و زمان در آثار چند رسانه ای کتی پاترسون با شیوه توصیفیT تحلیلی با روش گردآوری کتابخانه ای تدوین شده است. کتی پاترسون به عنوان یکی از هنرمندان چند رسانه ای با به کارگیری چندین رسانه ی گوناگون هنری غالبا فضا و زمان را با استفاده از تکنولوژی مفاهیم میکرو و ماکرو، فاصله گذاری، فاصله زمانی، چرخه زمانی و زمان بندی، و روابط زمانی را به اشتراک می گذارد. او فضایی را ایجاد می کند تا مخاطب را از حالت منفعل خود خارج و سعی می کند تا با درگیر کردن اکثر ادراکات حسی ، فضا و زمان را به شکل جدیدی ارائه دهد و نحوه ی برخورد متفاوتی با مسئله ی زمان را به وجود آورد. در نهایت فضا در آثار پاترسون فراتر از چارچوب ریاضیات برای برقراری ارتباطی ژرف، و تصور ناشناخته ها می باشد. در این راستا از چارچوب مفهومی و روش شناسی ملهم از رویکرد گوتفرید بوهم و تی جی لسینگ استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد، پاترسون درک جدیدی از زمان را برای مخاطب ارائه می دهد تا بتواند خوانش های متوالی و همزمانی را داشته باشد. مخاطب در درک فضا و زمان آثار چندرسانه ای پاترسون، نقشی فعال داشته و خود تعیین کننده مدت زمان دریافت آثار است.
    کلیدواژگان: زمان، چیدمان چند رسانه ای، هنر چند رسانه ای، کتی پاترسون
  • آمنه مافی تبار* ، فاطمه کاتب، منصور حسامی کرمانی صفحات 31-40
    براساس نظریه گشتالت، در لحظه مشاهده هر نوع تصویر توسط مخاطب، ترکیب آن در ذهن؛ به سوی ساده ترین و آشناترین ساختار ممکن، سوق پیدا می کند. در این رخداد، اصل هم گونی، مشتمل بر مشابهت اندازه، رنگ، شکل، جای گیری و جهتمندی فضایی، عمده ترین نقش را دارد اما بنا به نظر رودلف آرنهایم، برقراری مشابهت به تنهایی منجر به خوانش درست تصویر نمی شود. او پیش شرط دیگری را تحت عنوان تمایزیابی مطرح می کند و مدعی می شود تشابه در حضور تفاوت، معنی پیدا می کند. برای آزمون این منظر، مقاله پیش رو به دنبال این پرسش است: «مطابق با اصل تمایزیابی رودلف آرنهایم، شباهت بسیار انگاره های شهریاری در تصاویر شاهنامه عمادالکتاب، چگونه ارزیابی می شود؟» به این منظور، شش تصویر از نسخه عمادالکتاب، به شیوه تطبیقی تحلیلی و با بهره گیری از مطالعات اسنادی مورد مداقه قرار گرفت. نتیجه بررسی ها نشان داد در این تصاویر به دلیل جایگزینی معنی به عوض مصداق؛ تشابه بر تفاوت پیشی دارد پس تمایزیابی به اختلال دچار می شود. درحقیقت چون نقاش این نسخه، پادشاهان را متعهد به زیبایی شناسی فتحعلی شاهی و عاری از ویژگی های شخصی به تصویر درمی آورد؛ مفهوم شهریاری به عوض فردیت هر پادشاه می نشیند. گویی همه حاکمان اساطیری این متن ادبی در قالب شخصیت واحدی تحت عنوان فرمانروا تعریف می شوند به گونه ای که برقراری تمایز میان آنها به سادگی ممکن نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: قاجار، شاهنامه عمادالکتاب، گشتالت، رودلف آرنهایم، مشابهت، تمایزیابی
  • الهام الیاسی* ، کامران افشار مهاجر، زاهد شفیعی صفحات 41-52
    یک برند در طول عمر خود بنا به دلایلی ممکن است نیاز به بازسازی داشته باشد و در این میان لوگو به مثابه دریچه ی ورودی به برند و بازنمای هویت آن، نیاز به بازطراحی شدن دارد. با وجود این مهم، در ایران کم تر برندی دست به بازطراحی لوگوی خود می زند. حساسیت بازطراحی لوگو در سرنوشت یک برند و کمبود دانش به روز در این موضوع، می تواند دلایل ثابت ماندن اکثر لوگوهای داخلی برای دهه ها و فاصله گرفتن از سلیقه ی بصری مخاطبانشان باشد. لذا پژوهش حاضر در راستای حل این نقیصه، با استناد به نظریه های مرتبط به لوگو و بازطراحی لوگو، به امر شناخت دلایل بازطراحی لوگو به همراه مثال های عینی پرداخته است. در پاسخ به سوال اصلی پژوهش که دلایل بازطراحی لوگو در طول عمر یک برند چه مواردی است، پژوهش حاضر ضمن دسته بندی دلایل ممکن بازطراحی لوگو، به این مهم دست یافته است که بازطراحی لوگو تنها امری هنری و سلیقه ای و تنها به دلایل گرافیکی نبوده، بلکه دلایل مشخص و هدف مندی را بر اساس نیازها و اهداف برند دنبال می نماید. این پژوهش از حیث هدف کاربردی و به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بوده و همچنین اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: لوگو، دلایل بازطراحی لوگو، بازطراحی لوگو، برند، بازسازی برند، هویت برند
  • الناز قرائتی* ، سید هاشم حسینی، حسین پورنادری صفحات 53-64
    مدرسة خان شیراز یکی از مهم ترین مدارس دورة صفوی است که از نظر معماری و تزیینات معماری، خصوصا کاشی کاری حائز اهمیت است. یکی از خصوصیات بارز در تزیینات کاشی کاری این بنا، وجود نقوش متفاوت با سبک های مختلف است. با توجه به تاریخ ساخت بنای این مدرسه و تنوع در نقوش و رنگ های استفاده شده در تزیینات کاشی کاری آن، این سوال مطرح می شود که آیا این تزیینات مربوط به دورة صفوی هستند و یا در دوره های بعد به بنا الحاق شده اند؟ همچنین ویژگی های نقوش موجود در تزیینات کاشی کاری این بنا با کدام بناها همخوانی دارد؟ هدف اصلی این پژوهش معرفی، طبقه بندی و بررسی نقوش واقع در تزیینات کاشی کاری مدرسة خان شیراز است. رویکرد این پژوهش توصیفی، تطبیقی است و اطلاعات به شیوة میدانی و کتابخانه ای گردآوری شده است.
    نتایج به دست آمده نشان می دهد بیشترین حجم از تزیینات معماری مدرسة خان شیراز متشکل از کاشی های هفت رنگ قاجاری و معاصر با نقوش گیاهی، حیوانی، هندسی و کتیبه است که به مرور زمان جایگزین تزیینات دورة صفوی در این بنا شده اند. حجم اندک تزیینات باقی مانده از دورة صفوی نیز به دلیل هم زمانی ساخت مدرسة خان با بنا های مهمی چون مسجد شیخ لطف الله و مسجد امام اصفهان، تاثیراتی را از این بناها، خصوصا مسجد شیخ لطف الله پذیرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدرسة خان شیراز، تزیینات معماری، کاشی کاری، کتیبه ها، نقوش تزیینی
  • عاطفه محمدی* ، صداقت جباری صفحات 65-74
    طراحی حروف، در سیر تاریخی خود، همگام با قابلیت های فناوری، اقدام به بهینهسازی خوشنویسی سنتی کرده است. عصر حاضر، عصر تکامل فناوری رسانه های دیجیتال است. در آغاز رونق رسانه های دیجیتال، طراحان وب برای نمایش متون مورد نظر خود در عموم وب سایت های فارسی زبان، از فونت «تاهوما» به عنوان فونت استاندارد استفاده میکردند. با ظهور وبفونتها، امکان استفاده از فونتهای گوناگون برای چیدمان صفحات وب به وجود آمد. با این حال، همچنان فونت تاهوما بیشترین کاربرد را در میان فارسیزبانان دارد. به نظر می رسد این فونت فاصله زیادی با اصول نوشتاری خط فارسی داشته و تنها به دلیل هماهنگی فراوان با ساختار فضای وب، مورد استفاده قرار گرفته باشد. در همین راستا، این مقاله با هدف بررسی میزان هماهنگی فونت تاهوما با ساختار فرمی حروف فارسی، به بررسی تشابهات و تفاوت ها، بر مبنای مطالعه تطبیقی ساختار این فونت و چهار اصل مهم در خط نسخ فارسی که شامل: اصول، نسبت، ترکیب و کرسی هستند، می پردازد. نتایج نشان می دهد، بسیاری از تغییرات اعمال شده بر روی فونت تاهوما، ارتباطی با حفظ خوانایی حروف در فضای پیکسلی نداشته و تنها محصول شناخت ناکافی طراح آن از خط فارسی است. همچنین دلیل استفاده فراوان کاربران از این فونت را می توان حمایت اغلب مرورگر ها و نیز میزان هماهنگی این فونت با صفحات نمایش دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی حروف، رسان? دیجیتال، وبفونت، فونت تاهوما، فضای مجازی
  • فریده طالب پور * صفحات 75-82
    در سال212 هجری قمری/837 میلادی، سیسیل توسط اغلبیون مسلمان فتح گردید و به امارتی نیمه مستقل تبدیل شد. تاریخ سیسیل از زمان فتح مسلمانان تا فروپاشی آنان و آغاز تسلط نورمان‎ها به سه دوره تقسیم می شود: دوره اغلبیدی، فاطمی و کلبی. با ورود مسلمانان به سیسیل، صنایع آن رو به توسعه نهاد و از جمله پارچه‎بافی رونق گرفت. کارگاه های پارچه بافی با الگوبرداری از منسوجات اسلامی احداث گردید و در نتیجه اعراب مهاجم توانستند صنعت پارچه بافی پیشرفته ای را در آنجا پایه گذاری کنند. پژوهش حاضر بر این اصل شکل گرفته است که منسوجات سیسیل در دوره اسلامی از منسوجات فاطمیون مصر تاثیر پذیرفته است. لذا از طریق بررسی تاریخی و مقایسه نقوش منسوجات با موضوع مشترک، پارچه های این دو منطقه بررسی گردید. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده حضور بافندگان مسلمان در کارگاه های پارچه بافی سیسیل و نیز تجارت پارچه نقش مهمی در انتقال نقوش پارچه های فاطمیون به سیسیل داشته است. در این زمان نقوش اسلامی و خط نوشته های عربی در تزئین منسوجات به کار می رفت. تداوم نقوش منسوجات فاطمی، مخصوصا خط نوشته، از شیوه های متداول بافندگان مسلمانان بوده است که حتی بعد از حاکمیت نورمان ها در سیسیل ادامه می‎یابد و میزان زیادی از این منسوجات به کشورهای مسیحی غربی صادر می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: منسوجات سیسیل، منسوجات فاطمیون، طراز، مواد اولیه، نقوش
  • علی خدادادی *، نینا صفی خانی، سید ابوتراب احمدپناه صفحات 83-92
    تاثیر متقابل هنر مسیحیت و هنر دوران اسلامی در ایران، با گسیل ارامنه جلفای قدیم به جلفای نو در اصفهان در دوران صفویه رنگ و بویی تازه به خود گرفت و یکی از نمود ها و تجلی این اثرگذاری های متقابل، حجاری بر روی سنگ قبور می باشد. از جمله تصاویر مشترک منقوش در دو قبرستان تخت فولاد و ارامنه اصفهان ، نقش مایه فرشته است.
    در این پژوهش سعی شده تا علاوه بر برداشت اسنادی، با تصویر برداری میدانی تقریبا 50 سنگ قبر دارای نقش فرشته، به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، شناخت و معناشناسی این نقش مایه، امکان پذیر و وجوه تشابه و تفارق آن در دو گورستان بررسی گردد.
    نقشمایه فرشته در تخت فولاد )علاوه بر ناثیر پذیری از هنر ایران باستان و دوران اسلامی(، بیشتر متاثر از دوران رنسانس بوده ولی تصاویر فرشته در قبرستان ارامنه بیشتر متاثر از هنر بیزانس بوده است. علی رغم مشترکاتی همچون جنسیت، تعداد بالها و… در به تصویر کشیدن نقش مایه فرشته در دو قبرستان، نمودی واضح مبنی بر تاثیر ارامنه بر هنرمندان حجار تخت فولاد مشاهده نگردید. ولی نقوش اسلیمی و ختایی در همنشینی با نقش مایه فرشته را می توان از نمود های تاثیر متقابل فرهنگ ایرانی-اسلامی و ارامنه- مسیحی در نظر گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: قبرستان تخت فولاد اصفهان، قبرستان ارامنه، سنگ قبر، نقش مایه فرشته
  • اصغر جوانی، حسن بلخاری قهی* ، مهیار اسدی صفحات 93-102
    هنر پیکره تراشی و خاصه پیکره های انسانی که در دوران پس از اسلام مورد احتیاط قرار گرفته بود-اگر نگوییم دچار حرمان شده بود- در دوران سلجوقیان مورد توجه واقع شده و پیکره های انسانی با موضوعات مختلف ساخته شدند.
    از جمله این پیکره ها که احتمالا ساخته ی کاشان است، پیکره مردی ست که به حالت دوزانو روی زمین نشسته و کلاهی بر سر دارد که نام سلطان طغرل و تاریخ 538 ه. ق. بر روی آن مرقوم شده است. در صورتی که در سال مذکور هیچکدام از سه سلطان طغرل سلجوقی حکومت نمی کردند. از طرفی پیکره مورد بحث از سوی برخی کارشناسان به عنوان مهره شطرنج به مخاطبان معرفی شده است.
    هدف این مقاله تبیین کارکرد و دلیل شکل گیری پیکره مذکور و در پی آن اشتباه زدایی از اثری ایرانی است که دگرگونه به جهانیان معرفی شده است. سؤال اصلی مقاله چیستی مفهوم پیکره بوده و سعی بر آن است تا با استفاده از روش آیکونوگرافی و توجه به متون مکتوب و یافتن معنای ثانویه تصاویر، به سؤال مقاله پاسخ داده شود.
    نتیجه مقاله نشان می دهد که نشانگان موجود در پیکره هیچ گونه ارتباطی با شطرنج نداشته و به احتمال قریب به یقین یادمان مظالم نشینی و یا حضور سلطان در مراسم سماع است.
    کلیدواژگان: مجسمه های سلجوقی، سلطان طغرل، پیکره های سفالین، پیکرک های کاشان، مظالم، سماع
  • رسول کمالی دولت آبادی* صفحات 103-114
    جوزف کسوث در مقالۀ خود، «هنر پس از فلسفه» ، نه تنها زیبایی شناسی به مثابۀ فلسفۀ هنر بلکه تمامی فلسفۀ پیش از ویتگنشتاین را سزاوار نفی و دورشدن از هنر می داند. کسوث در این مقاله به طرح هنری می پردازد که فارغ از هر مدیوم و بی توجه به ظاهر و ریخت، از فلسفه گذر کرده و با تکیه بر کارکرد خود، زبانی فلسفی یافته است: هنری با عنوان «هنر مفهومی» که جایگزین فلسفه و هنر پیش از خود خواهد شد و تاریخ و تعریف هنر را دگرگون خواهد ساخت. در چنین هنری، «زیبایی» که تا پیش از این جزئی لاینفک از اثر هنری تلقی می شد، دیگر مورد ضمانت و تعهد هنر قرار نخواهد گرفت و هنر پس از این تلاش خواهد کرد با علم و گزاره های قابل استدلال تولید و تبیین شود.
    این مقاله با رویکردی تحلیلی، به بررسی سیر تطور تعاریف زیبایی شناسی و ارتباط آن با علم، فلسفه و هنر می پردازد تا بتواند مولفه های نظری کسوث در مقالۀ «هنر پس از فلسفه» و نگرش نقادانۀ وی دربارۀ زیبایی و هنر پیشادوشانی را مورد ارزیابی قرار دهد و تعریف محدود هنر ذیل گزاره های تحلیلی زبان و ماهیت پرسشگر آن نزد کسوث را آشکار کند. گزاره های منطقی ای که باید از زمینۀ خود جدا شوند تا امکان تبدیل شدن به اثر هنری را پیدا کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر، فلسفه، زیبایی شناسی، مفهوم، انگار? ذهنی، مدیوم هنری
  • امیر مسعود فریدی زاد* ، سعید علیاری صفحات 115-125
    مطالعات داخلی حوزه طراحی صنعتی، کمتر به طراحی کاربرمحور خدمات پرداخته اند. این مقاله با تمرکز بر این فقدان کوشیده است ضمن معرفی دو ابزار معتبر پرسونا و نقشه سفر کاربر، جایگاه این دو را در طراحی خدمات و در قالب پروژه بهبود ایستگاه های دوچرخه شهر اصفهان، مورد بررسی قرار دهد. بر همین اساس در این مقاله با رویکردی توصیفی و پس از بررسی کتابخانه ای ادبیات زمینه ای موضوع و دست یابی به تعاریف مشترک از مفاهیم تحقیق به شیوه تحلیل محتوا، بررسی میدانی کاربست ابزارها در قالب طراحی موردی تحت بررسی قرار گرفت. به این ترتیب، به کمک بازنمایی یکی از پرسوناهای پروژه بهبود خدمات ایستگاه های دوچرخه، به همراه طرح نقشه سفر مربوطه، شرح نقاط قوت و ضعف کاربرد میدانی دو ابزار، مورد بحث قرار گرفت. جمع بندی نتایج نشان می دهد، ترکیب دو ابزار پرسونا و نقشه سفر کاربر در جریان فرایند طراحی خدمات، ضمن ایجاد تصویری روشن از تجربه کاربر، زنجیره معنی داری از هم افزایی سلسله اطلاعات مربوط به تجربه کاربران منحصر به فرد را به ارمغان می آورد، که تفسیر و درک چرایی بسیاری خواست ها و تصمیمات ایشان را برای تیم طراحی و کارفرمایان امکان پذیر و ساده تر می گرداند.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی خدمات، پرسونا، نقشه سفر کاربر، دوچرخه شهری، اصفهان
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  • Sahar Soheili Sadigh , Mehrnaz Kokabi * Pages 5-12
    Synesthesia is a kind of neurological phenomenon in which the stimulus perceived through one of the senses automatically activates the perception in another sense. The common name for sound to sight Synesthesia is “colored hearing”, i.e. the activation of color, form and motion via sound. The purpose of this research is to recognize the role of sound in creating synesthetic experiences (of course, in ordinary people, and not in the neurological sense) and to answer the question that how the sound can create visual synesthetic experiences. On one hand, artistic Synesthesia cannot be considered some sort of metaphoric or symbolic language and it is likely to find its origins in the reality of human perception. So another question which will be examined is what properties are latent in perception process making it possible for us to experience synesthetic perception. Furthermore, the auditory stimulus might also possess some attributes which would make the coupling between auditory and visual perceptions possible. Therefore, the last question would be if there are any common properties between hearing and vision making their coupling possible. The present research is the outcome of desk research, documentary research and also credible scientific-research internet resources. Generally, to study synesthetic perceptions, three categories should be differentiated: genuine Synesthesia, a neurological phenomenon, found rarely among people. The next category is metaphoric Synesthesia, commonly used by artists by employing the idea of Synesthesia and bonding the senses creatively. Finally, the last category is cross-sensory perception which can be considered a kind of synesthetic experience (not in the neurological sense) found among most people to some extent. Perception is a multisensory process and this property not only makes the experience of synesthetic perceptions possible, but also provides the possibility of visual experience in the case of receiving an auditory stimulus by creating some subjective multi-sensory representation. In addition, vision and hearing also have some common intersensory attributes which makes the possibility of coupling them. Visual music is an appropriate field to study these attributes. Though the title “visual music” has many instances, the main elements common in all types include color, form and rhythm (motion). According to researchers, real synesthetes and ordinary people have a similar performance in recognizing the associations between visual color and tone color, visual form and timbre, and finally visual rhythm and musical rhythm in such a way that most of them associate the frequency of sound (low or high) to the brightness of color or relate timbre to the size and the overall form of abstract visual shapes. On the other hand, although it needs more effort and skill to associate visual rhythm to musical rhythm (on the basis of agogics and dynamics), making such associations is not far beyond one’s ability. So as Synesthesia and combination of the senses is the main characteristic of human kind in general, a work of art even without any obvious synesthetic properties can evoke cross-sensory perceptions in the audience.
    Keywords: multisensory perception, cross-sensory strategies, synesthesia, visual music
  • Maziar Zand*, Saied Zavieh, amir nasri Pages 13-20
    Interpretation is the process aimed to achieve understanding. The purpose of the interpretation is to understand the meaning of forms and find the messages they try to convey to us. From Gadamer's perspective, images are based on the participation of viewers in the process of image formation, and there is no possibility of separation of object and subject. Both the image and the viewer are modified when they experience the production of images. The Image is not fixed and static, but a perception that forms itself within the "observation" experience. Seeing is a process of processor mind and it is unique to him; in this process, the cultural backgrounds and visual experiences of the viewer effect in the processing of developing images, and therefore human visual experiences finds a historical-cultural structure, while previous data is affected. Hence, the observer under the influence of Meta-picture sees the image and makes it. This article, titled “Understanding from picture to Meta-picture", looks at image, the understanding of the image, the explanation of the Meta-picture, and the role of the Meta-picture in understanding an image. The purpose of this article is to explain the role of imagination in reproduction of the image in the viewers mind and intends to be scientific and measurable. In the end, by doing a survey tries to find out whether the viewer in his imagination refers to a subject outside the image and creates a new image or not.
    Until the twentieth century, it was believed that the understanding was based on the creator of a work. The twentieth-century thinkers suspected this: if the intention is to create a message, to create a state in the receiver and transmit the message to the viewer, we have basically not understood until the states of viewer and recipient have been taken into account in this process.
    This article is dedicated to explaining the terms of understanding and seeing under the influence of the phantom and formation of the image. In the following, the issue of intermediate spaces in the oriental art and the role of imagination at the presence of the viewer are mentioned. In the end, we did a survey. The method of scientific research in social sciences has been used in seven stages. Step 1 - Initial question, Step 2 - Exploration deals (Reading - Exploratory interviews), Stage 3 - Theoretical plan of the research question, Step 4 - Making the analytical model, Step 5 - Observation, Step 6 - Analyzing the information and Step 7 - Conclusion. The collection of information was in field and library practice. The purpose of the research was to find out if the viewer has more frank in mind than he or she sees, or how the human person in his imagination refers to a subject outside the image and creates a new image. The conversion of the quality of this process into quantity has been the goal of research.
    Keywords: Picture, Meta-Picture, understanding, Hermeneutic
  • razieh mokhtari dehkordi*, Ahmad Nadalian, Mohsen Marasy Pages 21-30
    The present paper aims at identifying space and time in the multimedia artworks of Katie Paterson with a descriptive-analytical method and library compilation method. Katy Patterson, as one of the multimedia artists with the use of several different artistic media, often space It uses the technology of micro and macro concepts, spacing, time interval, time cycle, timing, and time relationships. He creates an atmosphere that removes the audience from her passive mode and tries to present a new way of engaging most sensory perceptions, space, and time, and creates a different way of dealing with the problem of time. In the heart of Patterson's work, it examines the relationship between man and the world in terms of time and space. Ultimately, space in Paterson's works goes beyond the framework of mathematics to communicate profoundly, and to imagine unknowns. Patterson's work is often a reference to the great cause, before the incomprehensible greatness of the universe, which at the same time acknowledges the wondrous technological forces that some aspects are almost counterproductive. Although in panoramic areas, Paterson's works can be less visual and familiar; this is the way he uses space and time to communicate with human and cosmic scales. The combination of romantic sensitivity with a research-based approach, the conceptual contradiction and minimalist post-art of her works, eliminates the gap between the viewer and the furthest periods of time and the universe. She relates relatively familiar aesthetics and the languages available for modern and old technology, such as radio waves, candles, pianos and disco balls to translate seemingly incomprehensible things into concepts. In this regard, the conceptual framework and methodology used was inspired by the Götterfried Boehm and TJ Lessing approaches. The results showed Paterson offers a new understanding of the time for the reader to have consistent readings. The audience has an active role in understanding the space and time of Paterson's multimedia works, and determines the length of time the works are received. it has been argued that according to Boehm, it is possible to differentiate the dimensions of the time in the multimedia arrangement: the time of presentation and the time of receipt. Although Paterson's time of play is in the present, it has a deep link with the past. The audience can break down the linear readings of time, walk through the works, and determine how long it will take to understand the works. He can also have a multidisciplinary reader; he or she reads simultaneously or sequential reading and sensory perception; in the sense of being continually receiving from the point of the works, or through crossover methods such as pausing, moving, Standing, glimpse or precise gaze will have a sensory perception. Paterson takes advantage of the sensory perception of the audience in understanding the space and time of works, and does not neglect them. Another result of the research is the reflection of Einstein's ideas, including the relative concepts of time and black holes that Patterson refers to in her works. Paterson displays the relative importance of space and time through her artworks.
    Keywords: Time, Multimedia Installation, Multimedia art, Katie Paterson
  • mansour hessami , amene mafitabar * Pages 31-40
    According to Pregnanz principle in Gestaltian psychology every visual pattern leans towards the simplest structural pattern. Here, the basic principle of assimilation which includes similarities in size, color, shape, positioning and spatial orientation, all affecting the generative quality of imagination, plays the most significant and influential role. Rudolf Arnheim, a major thinker in this field, questions another precondition under the principle of differentiation. He asserts that similarity is meaningful only when it is linked to division and difference since in the absence of such link, due to the many common features among the visual patterns, any chance of differentiation and recognition is impossible. Through the lens of this theoretical framework, images in the Mongolian Shahnameh, Imad Al Kottab, because of their integrity and compatibility with the criteria’s of the aforementioned point view, seem suited for this analysis. Therefore, this paper seeks the answer the answer to the question that how will the similarities in the idea of monarchy presented in the images of Imad Al Kottab’s Shahnameh be analyzed using Rudolf Arnheim’s differentiation principle? To better understand how rulers were pictured in the Qajar Shahnameh, six pictures out of this special edition will be studied using analytical comparative methods and library research. The result confirms that in all research subjects, because of replacing applicability with meaning, similarity surpasses division and the ability to differentiate is disrupted. In fact, the painter of this edition has pictured the kings by commitment to Fath Ali Shah’s aesthetics and devoid of any personal characteristics and the result is that the concept of monarchy replaces the personhood of each monarch. It is as if all the kings in this mythological literary text are defined, all the while to the end, as a single figure, the ruler, and it is not possible to make distinctions among them. In fact, it can be claimed that when monarchy is described in this Qajar relic meaning always comes before the title and is superior to it. Unintentionally, the painter, committed one-sidedly to the homogeneity in simplification principle, when demonstrating monarchy has left behind the differentiation principle. To do so he has used exaggeration, warm colors, arraying and other useful details, and replaced the various monarchy examples with what it means to be a monarch. As a result, one can claim that, when analyzed using Arnheim’s differentiation principle, the pictures in this version of Shahnameh turn out to be faulted and lead the viewer’s mind to amplify the similarity principle during its simplification process. It replaces all of them with the image of monarchy and ruling and puts meaning in the place of applicability. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that since this paper uses Gestalt’s psychology of visual perception in visual arts, scrutinizes Arnheim’s differentiation principle, and accommodates a scientific and practical theoretical framework to Iranian study subjects, the obsolete Imad Al Kottab’s Shahnameh, it maps new horizons for future researchers who plan to rely on any of these mentioned poles to break new grounds in a world of knowledge.
    Keywords: Qajar, Imad Al Kottab’s Shahnameh, Gestalt, Rudolf Arnheim, Similarity, Differentation
  • elham elyasi*, Kamran Afshar Mohajer, zahed shafiei Pages 41-52
    A brand during its lifetime may need to rebrand as some reasons. Rebranding is the creation of a new look and feel for an established product or company. The usual goal of rebranding is to influence a customer's perception about a product or service or the company overall by revitalizing the brand and making it seem more modern and relevant to the customer's needs. As a brand element, a logo can be defined as a graphic representation or image that triggers memory associations of the target brand. A logo as a window to represent the brand and its identity is required to redesign when a brand needs to rebrand.
    In Spite of this fact, relatively little research has focused exclusively on logos and even less attention has been given to logo redesign in Iran and it should be noted, less Iranian brand to open his own logo redesign. The sensitivity of the fate of a brand logo redesign and the lack of up-to-date knowledge on this subject, could be the reason of this problem in Iran. On the other hand there is not enough study on the reasons of logo redesign in theories. In order to overcome this shortcoming study, according to existing theories, this study aims to recognize the reasons of logo redesign in a brand lifetime along with real examples and categorize them.
    The main question is: What are the reasons for redesigning a logo in a brand lifetime? This study placed reasons of logo redesign in four general categories: elements of brand identity, brand strategy, brand image and brand personality. It should be noted, these categories are dynamic in nature, so it could be completed by future research, as reasons of logo redesign is not limited to specific items, it could be expanded by different situation in different cases. The goal of this study is to find a new way for recognition reasons of logo redesign and put them in larger groups. After this study we could say that the main reason of a logo redesign and we could say because of this specific needs of brand the logo should be redesigned.
    Changes in brand name or aesthetic reasons are subcategories of elements of brand identity. Changes in the strategy of a brand or service brand or coordination with technology could be in the category of brand strategy. Develop, modify or update and modernize the brand image or attention to the audiences tastes contact image are in the brand image field. In order to change, development and completion of the brand personality or make a harmony with logo by redesign it and the latest formed brand personality, are the reasons related to the brand personality. Finally, from this study it can be concluded, apart from the categories reasons of logo redesign, the fact of logo redesign is not just an artistic or a matter of taste issue and the reasons are not only for graphic design reasons ,therfore logo redesign happens because of reasons identified and targeted based on needs and goals of a brand.
    Keywords: logo, The reasons of redesigned logo, logo redesign, brand, rebranding, brand identity
  • elnaz gharaati*, Hashem Hoseini, Hossein Pournaderi Pages 53-64
    Relative peace of country in the Safavid era under the centralized First Shah Abbas reign, led to construction works in big cities. According to recognition of Shia religion in this era, and as a result, existence of a need for educational facilities in order to promotion of this religion, school-building tradition was popularized in this era more than other eras. In this regard, many schools were established by scholars, elders and rulers in the cities. Gradually, impressive attention was paid to architectural decoration in both inner and outer spaces of schools. Tiling, brick work, Ma’qeli and Karbandi decorations, and etc. are among decorations existed in Iranian schools. Usage extent of the mentioned decorations has been different in different eras. Khan School in Shiraz is one of the most important schools constructed by the rulers of Shiraz, Allah-verdi khan and his son Emam-Qoli Khan in this era. This school possesses a unique luster with four-porch pattern, chambers in two floors, a long gate, and various decorations such as Mogharnas, mosaic and seven-colored tiling with distinguished motifs and colors. This building is significant enough that has been mentioned in almost all of historical references and tourists’ travelogues in different eras. This school is significant from the architecture and architectural decoration, especially tiling points of view; and according to professor Pirnia, it is one of the most perfect schools in Iran from the plan and architectural decorations point of view. One of the obvious characteristics in the tiling decoration of this building, is the existence of different motifs in various styles. In addition, tiling in this building has a quite different color comparing with tiling in Safavid era buildings. The other point is the impressive similarity of its converge ceiling tiling with dome ceiling tiling of Sheikh-Lotf-o-Allah mosque in Isfahan. According to the construction date of the building and variety in its motifs and colors used in tiling decoration, the following question will arise; “are these decorations related to Safavid era? Or they have joined the building during subsequent eras? Likewise, with which buildings do the motifs characteristics existed in tiling decoration of this building match? The main purpose of this study is, introduction, classification and checking the motifs existed in tiling decoration of Khan School of Shiraz. The approach of study is descriptive, comparative and data collection has been performed through field study and library method.
    According to occurrence of several civil wars, earthquakes, gradual erosion of the building and nonconformity of correct repair principles, architectural decorations and even the building plan have been basically changed. Obtained results suggest that most content of architectural decorations in Khan School of Shiraz includes Qajar and contemporary seven-colored tiles with herbal, bestial, geometric motifs and Quranic inscriptions in hot colors which have gradually replaced the decorations of Safavid era. Remained decorations from Safavid era have been affected by important buildings such as: Sheikh-Lotf-o-Allah mosque and Imam mosque in Isfahan due to the construction concurrency with these significant buildings.
    Keywords: Khan School of Shiraz, architectural decorations, tiling, inscription, decorative motifs
  • atefeh mohammadi *, sedaghat jabbari Pages 65-74
    In past the needs of society, including business competition in the form of advertisements, posters, newspapers, books and other publications, provide an opportunity for designer till they operate new art forms for creating new visual expression. Nowadays, with entering computer into human life and transferring information with it, the media isn’t limited to print media. Increasing life speed and volume data, which human concern it, is led to appear virtual media. They operate much stronger and faster than other media.
    Virtual space is an environment that is constructed by invisible information which can take different forms to itself. In fact, cyberspace can be used to describe all kinds of infomative resources in networks. Therefore, virtual space is a different type of a virtual, digital reality that is constructed in computer networks and can be considered a synonym with the World Wide Web.
    Font design, in its historical line direction, has been dependent on technological capabilities and long with, it started to optimize traditional calligraphy in new technology space. At present, with the growing volume of data and the need for rapid transmission, print media deposits a significant contribution to digital media in cyber space and this share is increasing every moment. Now we need a specifically font design in media.
    At the beginning of the boom of digital media, web designers used standards font for displaying their own texts and the public of Persian language websites used “Tahoma” as a standards font. With advent of web fonts possibility to use fonts that was not existent in users’ system. Therefore, when the designers are using of web fonts, they ensure that the last users’ screen visit this page with their desired font.
    However, despite remedying problem in displaying fonts in cyberspace as well as Tahoma is the most widely used among Persian language speaker. Nowadays, it is believed that Tahoma is the most appropriate fonts for Persian writing in webpages. Perhaps the reason is that the users’ eyes get used to the see these fonts like Tahoma, which existed from the beginning and they are inattentive to its strengths and weakness.
    It seems that this font is far from Persian calligraphy principles and it is used for its abundant coordination with web space structure. On this line, this paper is proceeded to basic aim in studding of the conformity "Tahoma" font with formic structure in Persian letters and examining the similarities and differences that are based on the comparative studding on this font structure and four important principles in the Persian Naskh calligraphy which include: principle, proportionality, composition and the baseline.
    The result shows that many changes which is used in Tahoma is only based on designer's lake of adequate knowledge from Persian calligraphy and there is no relevance in maintaining readability of the letters in pixel space. Also one of the reasons that user's wide pearly use from this font can be supported by most browsers and there is a coordination rate between this fonts with screen.
    Keywords: Font design, Digital media, Web font, Tahoma font, Cyberspace
  • Farideh Talebpour * Pages 75-82
    Textiles in Sicily During Islamic Era In 837 AD Sicily was conquered by muslin Arabs. Muslim dynasties ruled for over 200 years and they called the island home. Gradually Sicily turned to a wealthy place. Knowledge of Muslims with Islamic culture were in zenith at that time. Sicilian history from Muslim victory until fall and conquest of Normans, can be divided into three duration, i.e. Aghlabids, Fatimids and Kalbids. The Islamic kingdom was closed down by Roger I, the Norman king.
    During Islamic governorship all industries and crafts were flourished, especially fabric weaving was extended. Many weavers from Islamic lands, such as Egypt, migrated to Sicily and were employed in the workshops to make luxury fabrics. These weavers used Fatimid’s designs and motifs for fabric decorations. Also calligraphy were adopted and Tiraz system conducted. Therefore many Islamic motifs and Arabic inscriptions were woven or embroidered on Sicilian fabrics. Sicily was well known for its textile production during the Islamic period of its history.
    At that time merchants were interested in trading silk fabrics from Sicily to Italy and European countries as well. Still the Arabic inscriptions that had been adopted from Islamic textiles, were used to decorate Sicilian textiles. Therefore many textiles with Quranic verses and Arabic calligraphy went in Christian churches and used as clothes or tomb covers. They were well prized, expensive and even found their way in to royal collections.
    Sicily had been a province of Byzantium and had considerable Greek population. The effect of Islamic styles and techniques on Sicilian fabrics was considerable. Even after fall of Islamic rule in Sicily, The local weavers used Islamic designs and extended after victory of Roger, the Norman king. He supported weaving workshops and ordered for new tiraz workshops in his palace. During his leadership, he combat with Greece and capture many Greek weavers and pushed them to work in fabric weaving factories. They trained Sicilian weavers and used also Byzantine designs to decorate fabrics. Therefore Sicilian fabric designs were affected by them. However Arabic inscriptions were still applied by the weavers.
    Muslims arts and handicrafts were exported from Sicily to European countries. Sicily had been flourished in the silk production and many cheap and expensive silk fabrics were exported to Egypt to be used by Islamic royal family. Many magnificent and luxury fabrics were made by weavers with Islamic and Byzantine designs.
    During Arab invasion, Muslims captured all textile workshops in Iran, Egypt and Byzantine. Therefore great knowledge of weaving techniques was enhanced. The silk weaving workshops were renewed to produce excellent fabrics for the king and his family and friends. Therefore these techniques were expanded in all Islamic lands by migration of weavers and handicraftsmen. Sicily absorbed all the Islamic and Byzantine weaving techniques and the textile industry was flourished and expanded. Although the textile factories in Sicily were famous under the Muslim rulers, and then carried on under the Normans, unfortunately the number of existed Islamic textiles from Sicily is rare other than the regalia of Roger II in Vienna.
    Keywords: Sicilian textiles, Fatimid textiles, Tiraz, Materials, Designs
  • Ali Khodadadi*, Nina Safikhani, Seyed Abootorab Ahmadpanah Pages 83-92
    The mutual impacts of Christian art and the art of Islamic period on each other faced a new color and flavor with the migration of Armenians from Old Jolfa in Armenia to New Jolfa in Esfahan in Safavids era. The engravings on the tombstones in the cemetery of Armenian Christians and those of Tahkt-e-Foolad cemetery are outstanding displays of these bilateral influences. The image of angel is one of the most important images that can be found in both cemeteries the root of which can be traced and explored in the scriptures and thoughts of Christianity and Islam with its influence on people’s worldly and other worldly life.
    Alongside the documented inferences on site and field photography of over 3000 tombstones, and analyzing about 50 of them through a descriptive and analytical approach, the researchers of the project have tried to recognize and interpret the motif of angel and study the comparisons and contrasts in the images of angel while covering important aspects such as features of appearance, number of images, stature or body position , actions, gender, shape of wings, outfit types, and surrounding images to reveal just part of the cultural, social, artistic, and ideological influences between the two cultures of Islam and Christianity.
    In this research, as a point of departure, an account of the migration of Christian Armenians from Armenia to Iran from Old Jolfa is presented. Then the motif of angel is studied through the religious texts and narrations and following that in addition to the images on the tombstones in both cemeteries, the features of angels with regard to the appearance are individually taken into consideration. As the final step the images are compared and contrasted based on some special aspects and features including: the number of images, stature or body position, actions, gender of angel, shape of wings, outfit types, and surrounding images.
    In addition to being influenced and evolved by the role of dominating thoughts in ancient Iran, the images of angel as a motif in Takht-e-Foolad have been more affected by Renaissance period. However, this influence in the cemetery of Armenian Christians is more of Byzantine art than that of Renaissance. In spite of the presence of some common features such as the gender of the angels, the number of wings, and the like, no clear evidence was found to show the impact of Armenian Christians engravers on the engraving masters of Takht-e-Foolad in their depiction of angel on the stone slabs. But the Eslimi (Arabesque) and Khotai images, as accompanying and surrounding images juxtaposed with the image of angel can be considered as evident illustrations of bilateral influences amidst Iranian- Islamic culture and Armenian-Christian culture.
    It should be taken into consideration that through climatic conditions and erosion and also due to the lack of proper care and attention by officials most of the tombstones are destroyed in the course of time. Surely the registration and conservation of this art heritage necessitate the complementary and supplementary researches.
    Keywords: EsfahanTakht-e-Foolad cemetery, cemetery of Armenians, tombstone, the motif - image of angel
  • Asghar Javani, Hasan Bolkhari Ghehi *, Mahyar Asadi Pages 93-102
    Art has very changes during the Seljuqs period and features that are distinguished from before and after and can be described as the unique attribute. A large part of these developments can be attributed to the cultural and artistic background of the Turks and the other part as a result of the culture of the Muslim Turks. The scope of these changes is so high that the art of sculpture and especially the human faces statue that had previously been (if we have not been, interfered with it) were out of circle, were once again addressed by artists and their supporters, and significant figures on subjects such as men Horse riding, men sitting in different modes, musicians, mother and child who were mostly created in Kashan.
    One of the pottery sculptures that is very likely to be built in Kashan, which is held in the Khalili collection in London, represents a man kneeling down on the ground and wearing a hat on the edge of that date of 538 A.H. And the name of Sultan Tugrul, which has led to the formation of this figure as the image of Sultan Tugrul Seljuk. Under the rule of the Seljuqs in Iran and ruled three sultan Tugrul that between the first and third rulers, were about 150 years old. The point is that the history mentioned on the edge of the hat is not the same as the rule of the government of any of the kings who called Tugrul, and on the other hand, the technique of making figurines from the perspective of some experts in the early seventeenth century, the time of the end of the Seljuqs rule, and the presence of Khwarizmshahians in Iran. On the other hand, the figure is discussed by the experts as a chess pieces to the audience, but with carefulness in the manner of sitting the figure and with a Comparison with historical figures that were used in other geographies than Iran as chess pieces, and Also with studying historical texts and adapting behavior and covering the royal with the present figure, seems this claim is doubtful and far from reality.
    The purpose of this article is to explain the function and the reason for the formation of this sculpture and consequently revision the mistake about this Iranian sculpture that has been introduced to the other world. This paper, which is a qualitative research of a fundamental type, aims to use the historic approach, using the approach- method of iconography and the basis of the Erwin Panofsky's views as the theoretical framework, using the historical sources coinciding with the subject and the analytical texts after It will achieve the answer to the question. Essentially, the method of data collection in this research is library method and It has always been trying to use the first-hand texts. The result of the research shows that the signs in the sculpture have nothing to do with chess pieces and are likely to be reflective of the “Mazalem”.
    Keywords: Selguqs’ sculptures, Sultan Tughrul, pottery statues, Kashan pottery, Mazalem, sama
  • Rasool Kamali Dolat Abadi * Pages 103-114
    Joseph Kosuth (Born in 1945, Ohio) -American critic and theorist of art and follower of “Art and Language movement” in America- in his Article entitled “Art after Philosophy” (1969) not Only Beauty as Philosophy of Art but also the entire of Past Philosophy of Wittgenstein deserves rejection and away from Art. according to Wittgenstein’s views, Kosuth defines the meaning of each Phenomenon in its function; Also, He gives priority to function and meaning instead the form; but Kosuth moves on philosophy and defines the art beyond the language of philosophy by limiting the definition of language in the artistic arena. By an anti-Hegelian approach, He explains the condition of passing of art from philosophy and its independence: Comparability of art with an analytical proposition Somehow that the art stabilizes its existence by "Tautology" (it means Art is as Art) and gets independence and power by the term “say nothing except art”. In Kosuth’s view, the essence of art is as function of art, and the function of art is as artist's theoretical propositions. The approved artwork by Kosuth is an analytical proposition that remains in its own arena (art), and with showing the explicit intention of the artist doesn’t refer to any subject outside of its text. Kosuth considers "being an artist" as " being a questioner” of "the essence of art". A questioning that reveals the functional concepts of art, adds something to the concept and language of art or is a new proposition that has not existed before.
    Joseph Kosuth in this Article defines the Art that regardless of any medium and regardless of the Appearance and shape, the Art which is going beyond Philosophy and making Philosophical Language on the bases of its function. The New Art entitled “Conceptual Art” will replace the past philosophy and past Art also will change Art History, the view of community to Art and importance of Media (Artistic Medium). In this Art, ”Beauty” which previously was considered as an essential part of Art Work, henceforth it will not guarantee and warranty anymore by Art and Art will be produced and explained by science and reasonable Proposition. Joseph Kosuth relying on his definitions, knows Marsel Duchamp (1887 - 1968) the only Artist who could get away from Philosophy and Aesthetic in his work to access Concept. In the opinion of Joseph Kosuth, “Art of Post Duchamp” will be Conceptual in its essence and each work of Post Duchamp in each Medium and manufacturer Object will be discussed in the field of Conceptual Art.
    This paper, with an analytical approach and in three general sections, reviews The evolution of the “definition of aesthetics” and The relationship between beauty and science, philosophy and art; Also, it evaluates Kosuth's theoretical elements in the article "Art after Philosophy" and his critical attitude about Beauty and the art of pre-Duchamp. In addition, This article reveals limited definition of art following the analytical-linguistic propositions and the questionable essence of art in Joseph Kosuth's opinion.
    Keywords: Art, Philosophy, Aesthetic, Concept, Notion, Artistic Medium
  • Saeid Aliari, Amirmasuod Faridizad * Pages 115-125

    Service design is a Less well-known subject in design knowledge. This shortage is more serious in less developed societies. This issue shows the importance of studies in service design in these contexts. This study investigates Persona and User journey map as important tools in service design. A real project about city bike sharing system was performed in Isfahan town. Isfahan city bike sharing has a little history about 8 years. The project focus was on bike stations that don't work properly. It seemed there were a lot of problems in this service that had led to inefficient results. At a glance, there were lacks of user centered approaches in the whole system. Then redesign of this service by using tow tools, persona and user journey was considered in combination together. But there were not enough knowledge in both tools. There for this paper studies persona and user journey map quiddity and structures in the first part. The persona is a tool for presenting user groups differences and personalities. Persona show demographic data, life style, wishes and the story of users. Previous studies have shown designers obtain a deep insight about users by persona. In the other hand persona can only be used for reveals users properties in static situations but not in dynamic periods of times. There for there was a need for a tool for unfolding of user interactions in time periods. User journey can reveal emotions, service touchpoints and user needs through interacting with systems. User journey combines story line of evidence with what happens in a whole interaction to presents a respectful vision on behavioral reflects of user to the system. The second sector of study tries to represent how these tools can apply for service improvement. This part of paper starts with an introduction of Isfahan bike sharing system as a case study. It has shown how to build and use of persona and user journey map for native projects in this section. Mojtaba, one of the project's personas appeared from this case study and showed relative data in a persona image format. This persona was one of four personas that made in this project. A User journey map made for this persona too. This journey showed three periods of interactions: before, use and after. There were a lot of pains and miserable point in Mujtaba's journey that needed attention. In conclusion, we found significant results as different scenarios of use for selective persona, persona had serious concerns in confrontation with touchpoints and peak-end points in journey emotions. Positive results of this study showed these two service design tools have problem-solving abilities for less developed societies subjects too. But there were some lacks in utilization of this tools in design. Appropriate use of these tools demands correct estimating of projects scale and designers previous experiences in service design. We found these tools as good tools for training service design to students. Service design and its methods need more studies for proper use in these projects and these topics reqiere more efforts in future studies.
    Keywords: service design, persona, user journey map, Isfahan, city bike