فهرست مطالب

Women’s Health Bulletin - Volume:5 Issue:4, 2018
  • Volume:5 Issue:4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Maryam Farbod, Mojtaba Eizadi *, Sakineh Davoodzadeh Page 1
    Background
    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a high prevalence of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and fatty liver.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at evaluating the role of aerobic exercise program on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as enzymes indicative of fatty liver in adult females with obesity.
    Methods
    Twenty-eight inactive females with obesity matched by age (mean: 37 ± 6 years) and weight (mean: 83 ± 7 kg) were enrolled in the current study and randomly divided into exercise and control groups. Exercise subjects underwent a three-month aerobic exercise intervention (three sessions per week for up to 45 minutes) as running at 60 - 75 of maximum heart rate in fall 2016, Saveh city, Iran. Before and after the intervention, liver enzymes and their ratio as well as anthropometrical markers were measured in the two groups. Statistical tests were applied using independent and paired t-tests (P < 0.05).
    Results
    There was a significant reduction in the mean values of body weight (P = 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.002), body fat percentage (P = 0.001), abdominal circumference (P = 0.001), and visceral fat (P = 0.028) was observed following the aerobic training in the exercise group. No significant change was observed in AST (P = 0.096) and ALT (P = 0.104) levels following the training program in the exercise group. Despite unchanged AST and ALT levels, aerobic training resulted in a significant decrease in AST/ALT ratio in the exercise subjects (P = 0.021). There were no changes in these variables in the control group.
    Conclusions
    With emphasis on improved AST/ALT ratio and obesity indicatives, it was concluded that regular aerobic training can be preventing fatty liver in female adults with obesity.
    Keywords: Obesity, Aminotransferase, Fatty Liver, Aerobic Intervention
  • Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Bahia Namavar Jahromi, Zahra Anvar *, Najmeh Moein, Vaziri Page 2
    Background
    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) helps infertility treatment. In this study, the researchers tried to find several prognostic factors for ART success.
    Methods
    Data of 189 couples that had undergone ART at Qadir-Mother and Child hospital, were retrospectively explored. Cycles were classified as succeeded/failed and female/male/combined causes. Three classes of ovarian response based on the number of retrieved oocytes were determined. Duration of ovarian stimulation, dosages of gonadotropins, and sperm parameters were evaluated. Chi square, t-test and Pearson correlation were used for the analysis.
    Results
    Couples with male factor infertility had a higher success rate. Female age had a negative correlation with follicle count (r = -0.25), retrieved oocytes (r = -0.25), fertilized oocytes (r= -0.2), and clinical pregnancy (r = -0.21). Female age was negatively correlated with AMH, although not significant. The fertilization rate had a reverse correlation with the basal FSH (r = -0.22, P= 0.01) and LH (r= -0.18, P= 0.05). Finally, ART success rate was positively correlated with the number of follicles before (r = 0.18, P = 0.05) and after retrieval (r = 0.15, P = 0.05) and fertilized oocyte (r = 0.23, P = 0.01).
    Conclusions
    Female age, the number of mature follicles before retrieval, the number of retrieved oocyte, and fertilized oocytes are predictive factors in ART outcomes.
    Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technology, Infertility, Ovarian Response
  • Fatemeh Abbasi *, Kajal Shariati, Fakhri Tajikzadeh Page 3
    Background
    Social anxiety is a clinical pattern of self-protection social behaviors that coincides with severe anxiety regarding negative reactions such as critique, being ridiculed, miss-communication, or miss-behaviors against others.
    Objectives
    This research investigated the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on the reduction of anxiety symptoms in females with social anxiety disorder.
    Methods
    The planning of this study was through a semi-experimental method of pretest and posttest type with two groups. The research population included the students of Sanandaj Payam-e-Noor University suffering from social anxiety disorder. The sample size was 40 women chosen by random sampling method and assigned to two groups of mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy. The subjects participated were the students of Payam-e-Noor University of Kurdistan in the academic year 2013 - 2014. Data were collected by Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS) and Minnesota multi-phasic personality inventory (MMPI). Data were analyzed by the analysis of covariance and dependent t-test.
    Results
    The results showed that both cognitive behavioral therapy (P < 0.001, t = 2.40) and mindfulness-based stress reduction were impressive in reducing the stress, while mindfulness-based stress reduction (P < 0.001, t = 4.82) was more effective than cognitive-behavioral therapy.
    Conclusions
    In order to improve and decrease the anxiety in these patients, it will be essential to consider these variables during designing appropriate interventions.
    Keywords: Social Anxiety, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Females
  • Arezoo Bagheri, Mahsa Saadati* Page 4
    A set of economic and social rules and regulations as well as cultural factors influence value of children; however, this value itself could alter fertility behaviors. The present study aimed at investigating the influence of the value of children on fertility behavior through considering the impact of its attitudinal factors on childbearing desire, as one of the most important dimensions of fertility behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 6231 females from 31 provinces of Iran, admitted to public health and treatment centers to vaccinate their children, during year 2014. The data collection tool was a questionnaire, including three value of children dimensions, including cultural (five items), social (seven items), and economic (four items) factors, and also demographic and attitudinal questions. Data were analyzed using SPSS-17 software and the factors influencing childbearing desire (CD) were examined by four SEMs for four age groups in AMOS-22. Goodness of fit models was confirmed by five fit indices. Only cultural factors had a significant direct effect on CD for 30 to 39 and 40 to 49 year-old females (P-values = 0.027, and < 0.001, respectively). Thus, planners and policy makers should consider changes in the cultural value of children to implement successful policies to alter the current decreasing trend of fertility rate.
    Keywords: Childbearing, Decision-Making, Fertility Determinants, Women
  • Fatemeh Ghodrati, Farideh Vaziri, Narjes Saadatmand, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Marzieh Akbarzadeh* Page 5
    Background
    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of trauma in sexual assault victims aged 15 years and less referred to legal medicine centers of Fars Province, Iran.
    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional was carried out on all female victims of sexual assault aged 15 years old and less referred to legal medicine centers of Fars, Iran, during 2006 - 2012. The study population consisted of 3140 victims that was reduced to 2113 due to incomplete records of some cases. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used in SPSS, version 16.
    Results
    The prevalence of teenage victims was 32.01%. The highest frequency was reported in 2006 and the next highest rate was reported in 2011. The ordinal place of the victims in family was between 4 and 6 in 79% of the cases. All the crimes happened in cities. In 6.4% of the cases, victims had experienced sexual assault. In 90.1% of the cases, criminals were aged 16 - 25 years old, and in 40.3% of the cases, they were familiar and had familial relationship with the victim. Sexual traumas in 57.1% of the cases were hymen tear and in 11.8% cases anal tear.
    Conclusions
    Most adolescent sexual assaults remain hidden from the law because of fear of exclusion from the family and society. Therefore, community awareness regarding the prevalence of rape should be raised, and the necessary steps should be taken by the authorities and families to control this crime. Enforcing severe punishments for offenders can be considered as a preventive measure.
    Keywords: Sexual Assault, Adolescent, Perpetrator
  • Zahra Tolou, Ghamari * Page 6
    Background
    According to previous studies, breast cancer seems to be the most prevalent cancer and a significant reason of cancer-related deaths among women. Age, race, menorah history, characteristics of breast, reproductive patterns, and many other factors could be mentioned as the risk factors for this disease.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence rates associated with breast cancer.
    Methods
    Data related to topography code C50 for the period of 2011 to 2015 were obtained from the Isfahan Cancer Registry office, and its prevalence rate was calculated and expressed per 100000 persons.
    Results
    There were 4413 cases of breast cancer, 10% of which constituted death record data. The minimum and maximum reported ages were 19 and 94 years old, respectively. The mean age of women was 51.2 ± 12.9 years old. Breast cancer period prevalence was 179.8.1 per 100000 cases that indicated an increment in its incidence by 21.4%. Intraductal carcinoma was reported in 68% of the cases.
    Conclusions
    During our study period, there was a 21.4% increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Isfahan Province. Further attention of healthcare authorities associated to economic and moral supporting of women to face with this situation, routine detection methods', pharmacotherapy and surgical care recommends to be valuable.
    Keywords: Cancer, Prevalence, Iran, Breast
  • Mojtaba Oraki Kohshour *, Manijeh Afra, Abdolhossein Shakurnia, Nepton Emad Mostofi, Behnaz Andashti Page 7
    Background
    Cervical cancer ranked as the most common cancer of women in developing countries. Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) belongs to the Papillomaviridea family, which is able to infect humans. Some HPV types are the causes of getting cervix cancer and it is clear that persistent infection, with a high - risk HPV genotypes, is known to be a major carcinogenic factor.
    Objectives
    Determining the HPV genotypes distribution in women with cervical cancer in Khuzestan province, which is located in the southwest of Iran, to help design better preventive and also therapeutic strategies for promoting women health.
    Methods
    A total of 75 archival cervical carcinoma tissue samples were studied for the presence of HPV DNA and determination of the genotypes by PCR and Sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from the FFPE cervical tissues and then subjected for the PCR based amplification with subsequent direct sequencing of the HPV positive PCR products.
    Results
    The mean age of patients was 56. There were 42 samples with HPV DNA by using GP5+ and GP6+ primers. The result of HPV genotyping have been distinguished as follow: 33 samples as HPV-16, 4 samples as HPV-18, 1 sample for each HPV-54, 56 and 58 genotypes, and 2 samples remained unknown.
    Conclusions
    Detecting HPV genotypes absolutely shed light on guidelines cervical cancer screening and vaccination policy in our country and in other developing countries. Collectively, our results suggest that HPV-16 is the frequent high - risk HPV type in our geographical area. HPV genotype testing, as a primary screening tool, plays an important role in cervical cancer prevention and therefore, it is a strongly recommended vaccination against HPV, especially for high school girls be included in the national immunization program.
    Keywords: Human Papillomaviruses, Genotypes, Cervical Cancer, Southwest of Iran