فهرست مطالب

Shiraz Emedical Journal - Volume:19 Issue: 11, 2018
  • Volume:19 Issue: 11, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Ashraf Ghiasi * Page 1
    Context: Elder abuse remains one of the most hidden forms of intra-family conflict within many societies. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of elder abuse in Iran.
    Methods
    International and national electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Magiran, Irandoc and Google Scholar were searched from inception to April 22, 2018. The quality of studies was assessed using the “STROBE” checklist. Meta-analysis was performed on studies that used the same questionnaire and reported estimates of annual prevalence of elder abuse.
    Results
    Of 1386 articles retrieved in the initial search, 13 studies were selected for systematic review, of which eight studies were eligible to be included in the meta-analysis. The overall rates across all forms of abuse ranged widely from 14.7% to 87.8%. The pooled prevalence rate for overall elder abuse was 60% (95% CI: 42% - 78%). The pooled prevalence estimate in the domains of elder abuse was 13% (95% CI: 7% - 18%) for physical abuse, 36% (95% CI: 24% - 47%) for psychological abuse, 31% (95% CI: 18% - 43%) for financial abuse, 28% (95% CI: 19% - 37%) for financial neglect, 36% (95% CI: 22% - 50%) for care neglect, 43% (95% CI: 31% - 55%) for emotional neglect, 25% (95% CI: 16% - 35%) for authority deprivation, and 13% (95% CI: 8% - 18%) for abandonment.
    Conclusions
    The results of the study showed the high prevalence of elder abuse in Iran, which requires the initiation of effective interventions by the legal authorities.
    Keywords: Elder Abuse, Iran, Meta-Analysis, Prevalence, Systematic Review
  • Ramin Ravangard, Mehdi Rezaee, Khosro Keshavarz, Afshin Borhanihaghighi, Sadegh Izadi * Page 2
    Background
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and inflammatory disease that can affect the patients’ quality of life and impose many costs on them. Several types of medicine are used to change the course of the disease, treat disease - related attacks, and treat the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the cost-effectiveness and cost - utility of CinnoVex versus ReciGen as the first line treatment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Iran, Fars province, in 2016.
    Methods
    This study was a cost - effectiveness and cost - utility study, in which a Markov model was used. A sample of 178 patients with MS was randomly selected. The costs were summed up from the societal perspective, and the study outcomes were QALY and the mean of relapse was avoided. To collect the required data, the cost data collection form, Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, and EQ - 5D questionnaire were used. To analyze the data collected, the TreeAge Pro 2011 and Excel 2010 software were used as well.
    Results
    The results showed that the mean cost for ReciGen and CinnoVex patients were 349.84 and 289.92 USD, respectively. In addition, the QALY means were 0.291 and 0.297 and the means of relapse avoided were 0.309 and 0.239 for ReciGen and CinnoVex patients, respectively. The one - way sensitivity analysis showed that the results of the model were sensitive to effectiveness and utility of both medicines, but had little sensitivity to other parameters.
    Conclusions
    According to the results, ReciGen was more cost - effective in terms of relapse avoided and CinnoVex was more cost - effective in terms of QALY. Therefore, ReciGen and CinnoVex can be the preferred options for physicians and for health policymakers and managers, respectively.
    Keywords: Cost - effectiveness, Cost - utility, Relapsing - Remitting, Multiple Sclerosis, ReciGen, CinnoVex
  • Naser Hoboubi, Alireza Choobineh *, Fatemeh Kamari Ghanavati, Maryam Khalife, Sareh Keshavarzi, Ali Akbar Rezaie, Mahnaz Shakerian Page 3
    Background and Objectives
    The organizational leadership style can be considered as an important psychosocial factor that may affect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. The current study aimed at investigating the relationship between organizational leadership style and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers.
    Methods
    The current descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on 188 employees, including 10 leaders and 178 followers of an Iranian process industry. Nordic MSDs questionnaire (NMQ) and leadership style questionnaire (MLQ) were used as data collection tools. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 19.
    Results
    Totally, 71.7% of the participants reported experiencing the symptoms of MSDs during the last 12 months. The highest prevalence of MSDs was in lower back (47.2%), shoulder (34.8%), and neck (32.4%), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the mean scores of transformational and laissez faire leadership styles in the two groups of with and without MSDs were significantly different.
    Conclusions
    MSDs had high prevalence among workers of the studied process industry. Higher rate of MSDs was observed among the workers with higher scores of laissez faire leadership style. In contrast, the employees under transformational leadership style as the dominant management method, reported lower rate of MSDs complaints. As a conclusion, a relationship was observed between the leadership style and MSDs occurrence in the studied industry.
    Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), Leadership Style, Process Industry
  • Farinaz Fahimipour, Parisa Nejati *, Ali Mazaherinezhad Page 4
    Background
    Employing different procedures with the aim of treating obesity may improve the adverse consequences of obesity, especially disabilities secondary to pain or musculoskeletal deficits. The present study aimed to assess the long-term beneficial effects of weight reduction following obesity treatment by surgical interventions on musculoskeletal pain and body posture in obese patients.
    Methods
    60 morbidly obese patients aged higher than 30 years and having a body mass index of at least 40 kg/m2 who were candidates for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for obesity treatment took part in the present prospective interventional case series study. The data related to spinal pain were collected using the standardized neck disability index (NDI) and Roland-Morris questionnaires immediately before and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the surgery. The postural status was assessed using a plumb line.
    Results
    The mean weight and body mass index, as well as the mean NDI score and Roland-Morris score, considerably reduced during 12 months after the surgical intervention as compared to before the surgery. Of all the measured postural parameters, foot pronation significantly improved. In addition, anteroposterior pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis, elevated and dropped shoulder and head lateral tilt significantly reduced within 12 months after the surgery. The downward trends of the changes in weight, body mass index, NDI score, and Roland-Morris score were all significant after the surgery.
    Conclusions
    The surgical treatment of obesity can effectively reduce disability resulting from spinal pain and can correct postural deviations.
    Keywords: Bypass Surgery, Obesity, Posture, Spinal Pain
  • Frank Eric Tatsing Foka *, Clarence S. Yah, Marie Ebob Agbortabot Bissong Page 5
    Background
    Boreholes are principal sources of drinking water in Benin city. This water can become contaminated by runoffs, especially during the rainy season, resulting in outbreaks of waterborne diseases.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at assessing the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of borehole water from four crowded areas of Benin city, Nigeria.
    Methods
    The Total Coliform Count (TCC) and antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates were assessed using standard microbiological methods. The colour, turbidity, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), nitrate, iron, chromium, copper, and fluoride of the samples were compared with national and international standards for drinking water.
    Results
    Most physicochemical parameters were within acceptable limits. The mean TCC values of all the samples were higher when compared to standards. The isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38%), Escherichia coli (32.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.2%), and Enterococcus sp. (5.5%). Isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, yet showed high resistance to ampicillin and low resistance to ceftriaxone; the predominant pattern of resistance was DOCRAMPR.
    Conclusions
    Despite the fact that the physicochemical parameters were within acceptable limits when compared to the standards, the water sources still pose health risks. Consequently, constant microbiological monitoring of borehole water is necessary, especially during rainfalls in Benin city.
    Keywords: Borehole Water, Physicochemical Qualities, Bacterial Contamination, Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Ahmad Alizadeh *, Mohsen Mardani, Kivi, Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza Rouhani, Keyvan Hashemi, Khashayar Saheb, Ekhtiari Page 6
    Background
    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effects of four methods of ultrasound (US) alone or in combination with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (L/US), intra (InCI), and extra (ExCI) sheath US-guided corticosteroid injection in the treatment of long head of the biceps (LHB) tendonitis.
    Methods
    In a randomized clinical trial, patients with LHB tendonitis were enrolled in four groups (US, L/US, InCI, and ExCI). Pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) and shoulder performance according to Constant-Murley score (CMS) were evaluated at five visits of before, one week, one month, three months, and one year after treatment.
    Results
    VAS and CMS scores were improved after treatment in all four groups and at all visits in comparison with before treatment. The VAS score in the one-week visit was lower in the InCI group than in all other groups, but it became similar to the score of the ExCI group after this visit and was significantly lower than the score of the US group one year after treatment. CMS was similar at all visits between InCI and ExCI. At one-week and one-month visits, significant differences were seen between the injection groups and the two other non-injection groups, but at the last visit, CMS of the InCI group was only significantly different from that of the US group.
    Conclusions
    Although intrasheath corticosteroid injection under US guidance is an effective method for the treatment of LHB tendonitis, especially in the 1st week after treatment, extra sheath injection also has acceptable results. Using L/US as a less invasive treatment could be as effective as using corticosteroid injection in long-term.
    Keywords: Biceps Tendonitis, Ultrasound, Low-Level Laser, Corticosteroid-Guided Injection