فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Peter Segun, Omololu Tolulope Ajala, Olusola Isaac Aremu Pages 103-111
    Aim
    The objective of this work was to study the effects of formulation variables on the release kinetics of paracetamol tablet formulation.
    Materials and Methods
    Paracetamol tablets were formulated using wet granulation (WG) and direct compression (DC) using two predetermined pressures. Avicel, dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and pregelatinized starch (PGS) were used as directly compressible excipients for the DC method while corn starch, gelatin and acacia were used as binders for the WG methods. Tensile strength (TS) and the dissolution times of the tablets were determined. The drug release data were fitted into different kinetic models to determine the drug release mechanism(s) for the paracetamol tablets. Noyes-Whitney plots were further used to obtain release processes for formulations having r2 of best fit from kinetic modeling.
    Results and Discussion
    The TS and dissolution times increased with increase in compressional pressure for all tablet formulations. The ranking of TS for tablets was starch > gelatin > acacia > avicel > DCP > PGS. Drug release kinetics indicated that the drug release was best explained by first order model for direct compression formulation. However, first-order and Higuchi equations gave the best fit with the highest correlation coefficient for the formulation prepared through wet granulation. Korsmeyer’s plots indicated an n value ranging from 1.227 to 1.839 which indicates that the drug release mechanism from the formulations was by super case II transport. Generally, r2 values were higher for tablets with lower compression pressures and higher for those with binders than direct compression excipients.
    Conclusion
    The release kinetics of paracetamol tablets were observed to be influenced by the interplay of variables involved like compressional pressure, formulation excipient and method. Wet granulation was also found to produce optimum release than direct compression
    Keywords: Paracetamol tablets, Release kinetics, Compression pressure, Formulation methods, Formulation excipients.
  • nooshin mohammadhosseini, farshad hashemian, mitra amini Pages 113-117

    Objective and
    Background
    The aim of this study was so assess the knowledge and attitude of the people in Iran regarding the antibacterial resistance caused by antibiotics.
    Introduction
    increasing concern toward antibiotic resistance led to many researches on the causes of this issue. The public awareness plays a critical role, according to the studies. Another important factor is the attitude of the people regarding the antibiotic use and the effect of their behavior on its resistance. The practice of each individual patient may contribute to the antibiotic resistance and major health problems and increased rate of death.
    materials and method
    A questionnaire based survey was carried out among the female population of 1000 in Tehran, Iran. An intervention course was carried out, training the volunteers. After the completion of the training course, the volunteers had to take another test to asses the effect of the training on the knowledge, attitude and practice of people regarding the antibiotic use.
    results and discussion
    Before the course, people considered antibiotic as safe drugs, therefore taking them without prescription and the malpractice was evident from the incomplete course of treatment. There was a significant difference indicating the effect of the course on the public awareness and their attitude which may lead to better practice regarding antibiotic use. There may be other contributing factors to the malpractice such as financial status and experience of no significant toxicity of the drugs, making them an optimum prevention or treatment option, according to the public. This intervention was successful regrading the attitude of the people, but long term studies are required to assess them in practice
    Keywords: antibiotic resistance, public health, Iranian people, knowledge, attitude
  • SOLMAZ GHAFFARI , Mohaddeseh Dashti nejad pour, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand Pages 119-128
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders diagnosed in young adults. there are no current cures for the disease or its underlying causes, some drugs have been developed that can decrease or delay disease progression. Fingolimod is an immunomodulating drug, mostly used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). It approximately halves the rate of relapse in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis over a two-year period; however, Fingolimod causes a number of off-target effects including cardiovascular complaints. A different delivery method may alleviate some of these effects. Lipid-based nanoparticles containing Fingolimod were prepared using cholesterol as a biocompatible lipid through a high pressure homogenization technique. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles, including particle size, zeta potential, morphology, drug-loading capacity and release profile, were investigated. A preferred formula was lyophilized using mannitol as the cryoprotectant. A D-optimal model was used to determine optimum freeze-drying conditions that minimized size enlargement and maximized the zeta potential of the processed particles.
    Results
    The optimized Fingolimod SLNs are 150 nm in diameter with a Zeta potential of 19 mV. AFM imaging confirms that the particles remain spherical. Fingolimid loading efficiency was found to be 89%, and 85% of the loaded drug was released over 16 days. Results demonstrated that nanotechnology could help to prolong the drug efficacy duration as well could increase compliance of patient to continue MS control, whole life duration.
    Conclusion
    Sustained release Fingolimod SLNs using cholesterol as the matrix are effective and may provide an alternative to oral drug administration to prolong drug administering intervals and increase chance of treatment following by patients
    Keywords: Fingolimod, Freeze drying, MS, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Sustained release
  • Ladan Rashidi , Zohreh Golmohamadi Pages 129-137
    Useful medicinal and chemical properties of different parts of Eriobotrya Japonica seeds including flowers, fruits, and leaves have been investigated. In this study, fat content, moisture, unsaponifiable matter, saponification and iodine values, free fatty acid compound, individual sterols, antioxidant activity, total phenol, tannin, and flavonoids content, and detection and quantification of polyphenol compounds of the extracted oil of Loquat seeds were determined. Extracted oil percentage of the seeds was obtained 0.79-1.51 (w/w%) using soxhlet extractor. Moisture of extracting oil was obtained (0.03±0.01) (w/w%). Iodine and saponification values of Loquat seed oil were obtained 92.64±0.18 (mg KOH/g fat) and 196.3±0.2 (mg I2/g fat), respectively. Unsaponifiable matter was too high about 21.44±0.02%. The amount of unsaponifiable matter shows that this oil is rich in tocopherols, sterols and squalene. Predominant fatty acids in Loquat seed oil were oleic acid (C18:1cis) (33.30±0.03%) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2cis) (31.00±0.20%) then palmitic acid (C16:0) (17.50±0.05%). The most abundant sterol of Loquat seed oil was β-Sitosterol (88.61±0.50%). The most content of triglycerides related to ECN48 (71.4±0.40%). In addition, results showed that unsaturated fatty acid content (FAC) in sn-2-position was higher than that of sn-1,3-positions. The antioxidant activity percentage of Loquat seed oil was 94.33±0.05%. Total phenol, tannin, and flavonoid content of Loquat seed oil extract were obtained 30.38±0.60 (mg GAE/g dry matter), 0.493±0.01 (mg GAE/g dry matter) and 6.97±0.10 (mg QE/g dry matter), respectively. In addition, ferulic acid was known the main polyphenol compound in Loquat seed oil extract. Loquat seed oil can be used in the food industry, cosmetics, paint, and soaps.
    Keywords: Eriobotrya Japonica, Loquat, Scavenging Activity, Seed Oil
  • Abdulganiyu Giwa , Muhammad Kabir, Ibrahim Idris Umar, Basira Lawal, Hassan Suleiman Pages 139-147
    There is a need for the communities to develop their health financing system, most especially those that were not covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). This will give the people an opportunity to finance their medical care which in turn would alleviate financial burden at the point of treatment. Therefore, this study is aimed to determine the level of awareness for Community Based Health Insurance Scheme (CBHIS) among communities and to measure the degree of willingness to pay for the scheme in Katsina, North-Western Nigeria. Semi structured interviewer-assisted questionnaires were used to collect information from the respondents. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0. The results indicates that majority of the respondents attained tertiary level of education (68.3%) and 81.1% were employed. About 74.2% were earning more than the Nigerian minimum wage N18, 000 (≈$59). About 52.2% of the respondents were aware of the CBHIS. And 81% were willing to pay for premium while 62.2% will pay between N 1, 000 – 5, 000 (≈$3.3-$16.4). There was strong significant relationship between monthly income and knowledge of CBHIS (p = < 0.0001). However, gender and educational level were not significantly associated with the knowledge of CBHIS. Awareness about CBHIS was not sufficiently adequate but a significant number of the respondents were willing to pay for CBHIS after learning about the scheme. Factors such as level of education and income levels were found to have positive effect on willingness to pay.
    Keywords: Willingness to pay, Awareness, Community Based Health insurance, Healthcare financing, Household
  • Nazanin Mosleh, Mrayam Moslehishad , Farhad Moosakhani Pages 149-155
    Coxiella burnetii is common causative agent of Q fever in humans and animals. Although the main route of human infection is through inhalation of contaminated aerosols (dust), but oral transmission through contaminated raw milk and dairy products are also possible routes of infection. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the extent of contamination and prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in raw milk and traditional unpacked cheese collected from distribution centers of Tehran province. In this study, 100 samples of raw milk and 40 samples of traditional unpacked cheese were collected from 4 districts of Tehran randomly and then the presence of Coxiella burnetii was assessed using Real–Time PCR method. Our findings indicated that 10 of 100 samples of raw milk were positive for Coxiella burnetii (10 percent) and the rest of them were negative and also 3 of 40 samples of traditional unpacked cheese were positive for Coxiella burnetii (7.5 percent) and the remaining samples were negative. The results of this study showed that bovine milk is one of the potential reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. Regarding the expand distribution of raw milk all over Tehran, the control of the bacterium in these products for human health should be considered. In traditional unpacked cheeses with high rates of bacterial contamination, the products are another risk (hazard) factor for consumers. According to the results of this study, distribution of raw milk and traditional dairy products is high risk for human health. Therefore, it is important to inform consumers about the potential risks of unprocessed milk and advise them to avoid consumption of traditional milk products.
    Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, Raw milk, Real-Time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), Traditional Cheese
  • Mohamad Reza Avadi , Aida Nadjari, Masoumeh Sadat Naeimi Pages 157-168
    Levetiracetam as an Anti-epileptic drug with exclusive mechanism of action is accepted by the USA Food and Drug Administration as an adjunctive therapy in treating epilepsy in young adults. The purpose of this project is the design and formulation of prolonged release of levetiracetam using two types of retarding agent such as Hydroxyl Propyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M) and xanthan Gum, as well as a fatty matrix of cetyl alcohol. In addition, by manufacturing this product, it is possible to make a domestic production of this form of medicine, importing this form of medicine into the list of generic drugs of Iran. Pre-formulation studies such as compaction of granules, compressibility and the ability of powder to flow were observed prior to formulation. The percentage of excipients in the formulation such as HPMC K4M, PVP k30, Mg-st, were considered as variables to examine rate of release and physical properties in Factorial design method. In optimization process, xanthan gum is added alone to formulation abc obtaining formulation X, in addition, xanthan gum in combination with cetyl alcohol is used to obtain formulation F,then release studies were evaluated.
    According to data obtained from release profiles, prepared tablets with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic retard agent (HPMC K4M 30%, xanthan gum 2%, cetyl alcohol 2%) have revealed similar profile of release the active agent according to USP limited range. Furthermore, the release studies have shown that swelling, swelling/erosion and dissolution were the most important mechanisms that could affect the release profile. It also suggested that the percentage release of formulation F was followed Higuchi model
    Keywords: Levetiracetam, Hydroxyl Propyl Methyl cellulose, Drug Release, Factorial Design
  • Srikanth Kumar Karumanchi , Lakshmana Rao Atmakuri Pages 169-176
    Aim
    A variety of Paracetamol derivatives as mannich bases were prepared through mannich reaction by reacting Paracetamol as compound containing active hydrogen, substituted benzaldehyde, morpholine as secondary amine compound and small amount of conc. HCl as catalyst. A simplistic one-pot method under mild conditions has been developed for the synthesis of all the compounds and they were characterized by physically (Rf values, Melting point, Molecular weight, Molecular formula) and by spectral data (IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis). Antibacterial activity was carried out by using cup plate method. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative microorganisms i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparison with standard drug Streptomycin.
    Methodology
    The 1H-NMR spectra chemical shifts in ppm were recorded on Bruker NMR 400 MHZ using spectrophotometer using DMSO-d6 as solvent. The IR spectra of the synthesized compounds were recorded on Bruker FT-IR spectrophotometer with KBr pellets. The progress of the reaction and purity of the compounds was checked by TLC on pre-coated silica gel G plates by using n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v as a mobile phase and visualized in UV cabinet.
    Conclusion
    A facile one-pot method under mild conditions has been developed for the synthesis of the title compounds. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against gram +ve and gram -ve micro-organisms by cup plate method. 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(morpholine-4-yl)-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanamide 4a gives high % yield. The antibacterial screening results states that compound 4b shown significant activity against S. aureus, 4a and 4b compounds shown significant activity against B. subtilis, compound 4b shown significant activity against E. coli and compound 4f shown significant activity against P. aeruginosa
    Keywords: Paracetamol, Substituted benzaldehydes, Morpholine, Mannich reaction, In vitro antibacterial activity