فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Science and Technology - Volume:10 Issue:1, 2018
  • Volume:10 Issue:1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Mohammad Reza Aslani * Pages 1-12
    In this review an attempt has been made to review the cardiotoxic effects of poisonous plants which are found in Iran. Among various plant species growing in different regions of Iran, a large number of plants contain chemical compounds which are toxic to animals and humans. Among those poisonous plants, cardiotoxic plants are important due to the acute nature of their toxicity and frequent lethal livestock and human intoxications. Cardiotoxic plants of Apocynaceae family, Nerium oleander, N. indicum and Thevetia peruviana contain cardiac glycosides including oleandrin, oleandroside and thevetin A-C. Plants of Taxaceae family, Taxus baccata and T. brevifolia contain taxine alkaloids, including taxine A and B. The toxic effects of cardiac glycosides are primarily attributed to inhibition of plasmalemmal Na+/ K+-ATPase which results into the accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ and, depending to its severity, inotropic or arrhythmic effects are seen. Taxine B, the prominent alkaloid in Taxus spp. block sodium and calcium channels preferentially in cardiac myocytes, thus causing conduction abnormalities. Various cardiac arrhythmias in acute cases of poisoning with aforementioned plants result in acute heart failure and death. Post mortem findings are non-diagnostic and toxicological analysis of gastrointestinal tract content or body fluids is used for detection of cardiac glycosides and taxines.
    Keywords: Oleander poisoning, yew poisoning, cardiac glycosides, taxines, cardiac arrhythmia
  • Ali Rassouli *, Sakineh Khanamani Falahatipour, Yalda Hosseinzadeh Ardakani, Hamid Akbari Javar, Katayoun Kiani, Taghi Zahraee Salehi Pages 13-20
    The implantable drug products are developed mainly to sustain the drug release. This study was conducted to formulate and evaluate cross-linked films of chitosan/β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) for the sustained delivery of enrofloxacin (ENR). Two types of formulations, single-layer (F1 and F2) and triple-layer (F3 and F4) films, were prepared. In vitro drug release, kinetic modelling, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, morphological and microbiological studies were performed. Drug release from F1 and F2 continued up to 5 hours but from F3 and F4, it was extended over 96 and 168 hours, respectively. The cumulative drug release for F1, F2, F3 and F4 were 72.6, 70.1, 90.5 and 82.4%, respectively. The inhibition zones of bacterial growth by using positive controls and single layer films were significantly greater than those of triple-layer films (p < 0.05), indicating sustained drug release pattern of the multi-layer films. These findings suggest that the triple-layer chitosan/β-GP films could be effective to deliver ENR for a long period.
    Keywords: Enrofloxacin, Chitosan, ?-glycerophosphate, Sustained release, Triple-layer film
  • Fahimeh Geraminezhad, Mohamad Rostaei alimehri * Pages 21-26
    Experiment was conducted to determine effect of Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil on stored spermatozoa. Semen collection was performed by using 15 mature roosters twice a week at four times. In each session, ejaculates were pooled and split into seven parts. The amounts of 0 (EO0), 50 (EO50), 100 (EO100), 200 (EO200), 400 (EO400), 600 (EO600) and 1000 (EO1000) ng/ml Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil were added to each part. Samples were chilled to 4°C and maintained for 72 h. Sperm assessment was performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated after 48 h. Results showed that there was no interaction between Zataria multiflora essential oil and incubation time on membrane integrity, sperm motility and viability (p > 0.05). The highest sperm progressive motility (80.43%), viability (86.31%) and functional membrane integrity (85.81%) was observed in EO200 (p < 0.05). The lowest sperm motility (61.31%) and viability (73.31%) was observed in EO1000 (p < 0.05). The concentrations of malondialdehyde was lowest in EO200 (0.17 nM/ml, p < 0.05). Therefore, addition of 200 ng/ml Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil to semen improved longevity of rooster spermatozoa at 4°C.
    Keywords: antioxidant, essential oil, rooster sperm
  • Roya Pourmohammad, Mehrdad Mohri *, Hesam A. Seifi Pages 27-32
    The changes in serum fructosamine concentration of dairy Saanen goats during late pregnancy and early lactation and its relationship to serum glucose, total protein, and albumin concentrations was investigated. Eleven Saanen goats were selected for the study. Blood samples were collected by the jugular vein in 30, 15 and 7 days before the expected time of parturition (D-30, D-15, and D-7, respectively) and also 12 hours and 3, 7, 13, and 42 days post-partum (H+12, D+3, D+7, D+13, and D+42, respectively). The serum concentrations of fructosamine, glucose, albumin, and total protein were measured. The maximum concentration of fructosamine was at 12 hours post-partum and decreased thereafter. Serum concentration of glucose significantly increased from D-15 up to 12 hours post-partum and then decreased and stayed at the same level. The serum concentrations of albumin and total protein significantly increased during post-partum period. There were significant correlations between fructosamine and glucose concentrations at post-partum period and overall time of the study. Linear regression analysis between each sampling amount of glucose and three consecutive fructosamine concentrations revealed significant positive correlation between glucose of each sampling time with the fructosamine of first sampling time thereafter. According to the correlation between glucose and fructosamine amounts during the study, especially post-partum period in Saanen goat, fructosamine measurement could be used as a useful indicator of energy economy and probably stress in Sannen goat; but controversy between reports in ruminants needs further studies for better understanding of fructosamine as energy biomarker in ruminants.
    Keywords: Albumin, Fructosamine, Glucose, Saanen goat, Total Protein
  • Safoora Abdolvahabi, Mahdieh Zaeemi *, Mehrdad Mohri, Abbas Ali Naserian Pages 33-38
    This study performed to determine hematological parameters in Saanen goats’ kids from birth until 3 months of age. The whole blood specimens were collected from 20 clinically healthy goat kids (15 females and 5 males). The blood specimens were obtained at 24-48h after birth and 10 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 56 ± 2 and 84 ± 2 days. Hematological variables were determined based on reference laboratory methods. Results showed significant age related changes for most factors (p < 0.05) except for MCHC and the number of monocytes, eosinophils, and band neutrophils. There were significant differences with first sampling time for all parameters (p < 0.01) except for the number of monocytes, eosinophils and band neutrophils. The results of the present study ould be used as reference values for proper interpretation of laboratory results.
    Keywords: age, blood, goat kids, neonatal period, Sannen goat, small ruminants
  • Seyedeh Missagh Jalali *, Maryam Motamed Zargar, Mohammad Razi Jalali, Alireza Ghadrdan Mashhadi Pages 39-46
    Neonatal isoerythrolysis is a major cause of anemia in newborn foals. However, there are no documented data regarding the occurrence of neonatal isoerythrolysis in Arabian horses of Iran, which are mostly raised in Khouzestan province. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of neonatal isoerythrolysis in Arabian horses of Khouzestan and assess the hematologic and serum biochemical profile of affected foals. A total of 20 neonatal foals, under one week of age, and their dams were involved in this study. Clinical examinations revealed no abnormality except in one foal with icteric mucous membranes, lethargy, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypothermia and hemoglobinuria which led to death. The diagnosis of neonatal isoerythrolysis was made based on erythrocyte agglutination in cross-match test between the mare serum and foal erythrocytes with the titer of 1:128, while other studied cases were assumed negative according to the test results. In the laboratory assessment, the foal with hemolytic anemia showed a major decline in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte count along with considerable leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Serum total and direct bilirubin concentrations in the NI case was about ten times higher than in the rest of the foals. This study revealed that neonatal isoerythrolysis can occur in Arabian foals of Khouzestan and is associated with severe anemia and icterus which may lead to death. These findings can be beneficial in the establishment of preventive measures in Arabian horse breeding industry in the region, as well as improving therapeutic methods.
    Keywords: neonatal isoerythrolysis, hemolytic anemia, Arabian horses, Khouzestan
  • Ebrahim Hossein Abadi, Dariush Saadati *, Mohsen Najimi, Mehdi Hassanpour Pages 47-52
    Campylobacter is one of the main bacterial causes of ewe abortion throughout the world. Campylobacter infections are now considered as zoonoses. The objective of this study was an investigation of Campylobacter fetus prevalence among aborted ovine fetuses in the Sistan region (north of Sistan and Baluchestan province). In the present study, spleen and abomasum content samples were obtained from 78 aborted lambs of Baluchi sheep. The samples were examined for campylobacter contamination using PCR method. The overall prevalence of campylobacter infection was 7.7%. The prevalence of infection in fetuses aged three months and under were significantly higher than that in fetuses older than three months. The result of this study showed that C. fetus should be considered as one of the infectious causes of abortion among sheep flocks in Sistan region.
    Keywords: abortion, Campylobacter, sheep, Sistan, PCR
  • Hamid Dehghan Banadakei, Ali Moshaverinia *, Mohammad Hossein Haddad Khodaparast, Gholam Ali Kalidari Pages 53-56
    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro acaricidal effect of aqueous ozone against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, aqueous ozone at concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 ppm were prepared, and five replicate experiments were carried out using 400 µl of each concentration sprayed on every treatment batch of mites (plus a distilled water control). The mortality rate of mites in treatment and control groups were assessed 24 h post exposure. The mortality rate obtained by concentrations of 4, 5, and 10 ppm were significantly different from the control group (p < 0.05). The highest mortality rate (63.99%) was observed at concentration of 10 ppm. In this study, aqueous ozone showed a dose-dependent acaricidal potency against D. gallinae.
    Keywords: Acaricide, aqueous ozone, Dermanyssus gallinae, laboratory conditions