فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hossien Zakeri, Ali Tabatabaey , Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Zohre Najafi Pages 3-8
    Background
    Emergency medicine has always been a leader in taming new technologies for medical education. Many forms of social media have been reported in medical education with very little quality evidence to clarify their role. In this study we look at a popular multimedia messaging application in our setting and the aim was to evaluate the effects of a virtual classroom in social media platform on the knowledge of emergency department interns.
    Methods
    This was a randomized controlled trial carried out on 65 interns divided into lecture (n=31) or virtual classroom (n=34) groups during their emergency medicine rotation. A block randomization method was used. Ten blocks of emergency medicine interns were randomly assigned to either a traditional lecture course on the subject of shock, or a virtual classroom conducted in the Telegram Messenger© via a group chat. Students’ knowledge of the topic was assessed before and after the courses using a pretest and a posttest. The group participating in the virtual classroom were also asked to fill a questionnaire regarding their rate of satisfaction with the method. The results were analyzed using independent and paired t-tests in SPSS software version 21.
    Results
    The groups were found to be homogenous prior to the course in all demographic variables and their pretest scores. Most students participating in the virtual classroom preferred this method (81.5%) but the majority found it not to be effective in motivating clinical enthusiasm, solidifying knowledge, or exposing their shortcomings (59.3%). The pretest and posttest revealed that both groups’ knowledge had improved (P<0.001) before and after teaching regardless of the method used. But there was no significant difference in posttest scores between the two methods (P=0.788).
    Conclusion
    A virtual classroom in a social media messaging platform appears to be as effective as a traditional classroom in conveying knowledge, and it is more preferable for the interns
    Keywords: Communications Media, Emergency Medicine, Knowledge, Medical education
  • Yahya Mohammadi, Abbas Abbaspour, Mohammad Reza Miri, Hasan Maleki , Mahboubeh Khosravi Pages 9-16
    Background
    The most fundamental step in the development of a curriculum is to determine the educational needs. This study aims to identify the educational needs from the viewpoint of students and faculty members of health-associated disciplines in order to develop an entrepreneurship-based curriculum.
    Methods
    The study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-survey in terms of method. Moreover, needs assessment is based on inductive-comparative model. The research population included top-level documents, research literature, and all students and faculty members of the faculty of health affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences during the academic year 2017-2018. Based on Krejcie and Morgan's table, the sample size was computed as 218 people, who were selected randomly. Moreover, 20 faculty members were incorporated by census. Data were collected by reviewing top-level policy-associated documents, reviewing the related literature, and conducting a needs assessment. The questionnaire for needs assessment comprised of 49 items. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by health education and medical education experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's alpha as 79%. Data were analyzed in SPSS software-version 16 using descriptive statistics (mean).
    Results
    The results showed that entrepreneurial education and knowledge with the mean score 4.38 and entrepreneurship-oriented social environment of the faculty of health with the mean score 4.10, as reported respectively by students and faculty members, were the two main educational need priorities for the health curriculum.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings, designing and developing a curriculum that can increase the entrepreneurship power and train creative and innovative students at the faculty of health is one of the main needs of students.
    Keywords: Curriculum, Educational needs, Entrepreneurship, Health-associated disciplines
  • Faramarz Soheili, Hamid Maleki, Mahmoud Ekrami , Somaye Rajabzade Pages 17-27
    Background
    Co- word analysis is one of the content analysis methods used in scientometric studies and mapping the scientific structure of various fields. The purpose of the present research is to map the structure of distance education using the co-word analysis.
    Methods
    The research method is content analysis using co- word analysis. The research population are 31607 documents indexed in the field of distance education domain in the Web of Science database from 1985 to 2016. For data analysis, the "UCInet" and "BibExcel" softwares have been used. In this research, the symmetric matrix as well as the cluster analysis and the strategic diagram was used for analyzing the data.
    Results
    The findings showed that the concepts of electronic learning and blended learning had the highest frequency in distance education research. The pairs of "e-learning- blended learning", "e-learning-education and training", and "higher education-e-learning" with 446, 328, and 302 word co-occurrences respectively, and took the first to third places in the field of distance education studies. Findings on hierarchical clustering led to the formation of 13 clusters in this field.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that based on the co- word analysis, the structure of the distance education is composed of thirteen clusters as follows: “The process of designing e-learning environments”, “E-literacy”, “The role of information and communication technologies in the process of teaching and learning”, “Strengthening the process of virtual teaching and learning”, “Educational scenario”, “educational planning” and “Individual learning style” and “Learning and teaching quality”, “Human interaction in the virtual environment”, “educational feedback”, “Educational system”, and "Miscellaneous". Newly emerged fields of distance education include “human interaction in the virtual environment”, “educational feedback”, and “learning system
    Keywords: Co-occurrence of words, Distance education, Co-word analysis, Knowledge structure
  • Hamid Reza Bahrami, Taghanaki, Sharareh Karimi, Mohamadreza Noras, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Ali Emadzadeh Pages 28-33
    Background
    The increasing attention and trend towards complementary and alternative medicine and the usage of such treatments in different nations has highlighted the need for their insertion into the medical curriculum from the basic and clinical sciences courses up to in Continued Medical Education (CME) programs. The familiarity of physicians with complementary therapies is of great importance. The aim of this study was to determine the topics required in the general medical curriculum in the field of complementary and alternative medicine so that they can be further applied by educational planers and administrators.
    Methods
    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Regarding the importance of need assessment, at first the agreement-centric Delphi method was used by 15 faculty members and medical students (five faculty members of traditional medicine, five faculty members of clinical sciences and five students) in 3 rounds. With the distribution of open-response questions, the necessary topics in the field of complementary and alternative medicine were covered and after finalization, a structured questionnaire was prepared. In the next step the validity and reliability of the structured questionnaire was studied, then it was completed by 169 cases of the study population and the results were disclosed.
    Results
    The following results were obtained on the needs of the medical curriculum regarding the alternative and complementary medicine: acupuncture: 80.5%; chiropractic: 66.85%, homeopathy: 63.99%, yoga/ tai chi/ spiritual healing/ relaxation: 87.56%, reflexology: 63.35%, hypnotherapy: 63.89%, herbal therapy: 80.46%, damp and dry cupping: 46.73% and massage therapy: 25.50%. Accordingly, the first priority was yoga/ tai chi/ spiritual healing/ relaxation whereas the last priority was massage therapy.
    Conclusion
    The ultimate goal of complementary and alternative medicine training for medical students is to prepare them for a logical and informed encounter with an important challenge in medicine. Therefore, a change in the training programs of medical faculties seems necessary based on the need assessments having been performed in this respect
    Keywords: Complementary, alternative medicine (CAM), Medical curriculum, Medical student, Need assessment
  • Maryam Safarnavadeh, Nematollah Mousapour , Samira Ebrahimpour Koumleh Pages 34-41
    Background
    The purpose of this study is to present an integrated model for the Iranian general dentistry curriculum.
    Methods
    In this study, the qualitative method of focal groups was used. First, using library studies and analysis and interpretation of the resulted information, possible types of integration in the dental curriculum and real experiences of some of the world's leading universities were studied. Then, based on theoretical arguments and experimental achievements of the accredited universities, the design of the optimal integrated curriculum of the general dentistry was done and the validity of the designed model was validated through an interview with the experts of the field of dentistry using the Delphi method.
    Results
    Studying the experiences of different universities in integrating the dentistry curriculum, it was concluded that the experience of these universities regarding the integrated curriculum model resulted in positive outcomes. In general, the focus of the activities of modifying the curriculum in these universities was on integrated approaches focused on “learning with research”, “evidence-based dentistry” and “introduction of new sciences" in dental curriculum design.
    Conclusion
    The integrated dental education curriculum model has three levels (academic level, field of study level, level of thematic program or content of the course); by deciding on four elements (goals, content, method and evaluation) and by following four principles (simultaneous integration at micro and macro levels; diversity of methods and multi-dimensionality; the balance between content and process-oriented nature of the integrated program; and completion of internal and external integration) aims at producing curricula
    Keywords: General Dentistry, Integrated Curriculum, Model
  • Ali Dashtgard, Maryam Ahmadi , Vajiheh Zohoorparvandeh, Khadijeh Farrokhfall Pages 42-46
     
    Background
    The existence of a gap between theory and practice in nursing is a problem that is rooted in the history of nursing education, which means that there is a difference between what the student at the college and the behavior that appears in the clinic, and this discrepancy is of concern to community health educators. A coherent understanding of the learning and practice gap is a crucial step in dealing with this gap and thus promoting nursing and community health. This study aimed to determine the factors affecting the gap between education and practice from the three viewpoints of nurses in Shohada Medical Center and nursing students and trainers of the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Qaen.
    Methods
    This descriptive-analytic study was carried out at the Faculty of Nursing and Shohada Hospital in Qaen. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire, completed by a census sampling method, completed by 107 nurses and 16 instructors and 105 nursing students from the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Qaen, and analyzed.
    Results
    The greatest impact on the gap between training and practice in terms of students, the use of experienced mentors, self-confidence, coaching support, and the greatest impact from the mentors' view, coach's conscience, motivation, weak mentor supervision, the use of experienced coaches, educational perspective Managers and most impact from nurses' perspective: self-esteem, experienced mentors, nurse motivation and nursing shortages. The results also showed that students had more faith in the training and practice gap than instructors and nurses.
    Conclusion
    It seems that, given the gap between education and practice, managers of educational centers should take the necessary measures to reduce this gap in management, decision making and educational planning
    Keywords: Clinical instructor, Education, practice gap, Nurses, Nursing students
  • Mohammad Hosseinpour, Amin Torabipour, Yadollah Mehralizadeh , Abdolreza Gilavand Pages 47-56
    Background
    By expressing strengths and weaknesses and their classification, the pathology helps managers in preventing them to provide superficial and simple solutions. Therefore, this research as a review deals with the pathology of the project of integrating the medical education system with health services in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.
    Methods
    The data collection for this review has been carried out considering the statements of the former and current ministers of health in Iran, as well as through the search of published articles on Iranian and international valid sites (SID, MAGIRAN, Iranmedex, GoogleScholar, Embase, PubMed, Scupus, Science Direct) and with searching the words “Integration of the medical education system with health services”, without limitation of language and since the beginning of 1985 (since the start of this integration). Finally, 9 relevant researches were studied.
    Results
    There are a lot of controversies about the advantages and disadvantages of this project. But most reports indicate that the integration of medical education with health areas has led to the development of specialized human resources and the improvement of health indices, on the one hand. On the other hand, it has reduced the quality of medical education and the provision of health services in educational hospitals. However, the results of some researches showed that the lowering of the quality of medical education, that some believe it has occurred in this period, may be due to other factors and not related to the integration itself.
    Conclusion
    Considering the adaptation of this project to Iran's superior documents, the high cost of reintegrating medical education into the Ministry of Sciences, Researches and Technology, its positive impact on the improvement of some health indices and the praising of the World Federation of Medical Education for the project, It seems that there is currently no possibility of differentiating the two parts of medical education and health services; the management of this integration is only reasonable way for the medical education and treatment system
    Keywords: Iran, Integration, Health Services, Medical Education System
  • Elham Alipour, Mansoor Masjedi, Razieh Neshatavar Pages 57-61
    Background
    Clinical education is a process in which students gradually acquire clinical experience and prepare themselves to solve patient's problems. Choosing the appropriate educational method is one of the most important parts of education. The aim of this study was to determine the level of learning in different educational methods using the attitudes of graduate students in major and minor department.
    Methods
    In this descriptive-analytical study, 82 (64%) out of 128 graduated students from the faculty of medicine were evaluated by a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 10 questions with five-choice Likert scale and demographic information. The face and content validity was confirmed by the faculty members and its reliability was confirmed with the Cronbach Alpha’s coefficient of above 80%.
    Results
    There was a significant relationship between gender, marital status, number of children, type of entrance quota, and average score with different educational methods. Individual study and outpatient clinics had the most impact and journal club meetings had the least impact on learning. Grand round had a great impact on women's learning, the outpatient clinic on learning of free-quota students and mortality and morbidity sessions, student conferences, and individual study on higher-grade students.
    Conclusion
    It is recommended that educational managers and planners consider the content and type of educational programs in the mentioned sections, considering the impact of different educational methods on learning. Due to the lack of similar studies on the attitudes of the education and training staff, further research is needed in this regard
    Keywords: Educational methods, Learning, Clinical education, Attitude