فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 4, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 18
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  • Shahram Paydar, Zahra Ghahramani, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hossein Abdolrahimzadeh, Abdolkhalegh Keshavarzi, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Hamid Reza Abbasi Pages 269-270
  • Mojtaba Keikha, Mohammad Salehi, Marzijarani, Reihane Soldoozi Nejat, Hojat sheikh Motahar Vahedi, Seyed Mohammad Mirrezaie Pages 271-278
    Objective
    To perform a diagnostic accuracy of the rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) to diagnose the etiology of undifferentiated shock in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).
    Methods
    We searched the Medline via PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge till July 2017. Two independent reviewers screened studies for eligibility. Our study analysis is planned in accordance with the guidelines for meta–analysis of diagnostic studies. In the systematic search, of 397 references, 295 were excluded on the basis of the title and abstract. For the remaining 102 articles, the full text was retrieved and critically reviewed. After the selection process, five papers were included.
    Results
    The pooled estimate of all data showed that the RUSH protocol exhibited high sensitivity (0.87, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.80-0.92, I2 = 46.7%) and specificity (0.98, 95% C. I.: 0.96-0.99, I2 = 30.8%). The AUC for SROC, a global measure of the RUSH protocol performance, was 0.98 ± 0.01, indicates the high accuracy of the test. Positive and negative likelihood ratios reported from the studies ranged from 9.83 to 51.32 and 0.04 to 0.33, respectively. The pooled estimate of all data showed that the RUSH protocol exhibited high positive likelihood ratio (19.19, 95% C. I.: 11.49-32.06, I2 = 14.1%) and low negative likelihood ratio (0.23, 95% C. I.: 0.15-0.34, I2 = 18.4%).
    Conclusion
    This meta-analysis suggests that RUSH protocol has generally good role to distinguish the states of shock in patients with undifferentiated shock referred to the emergency department
    Keywords: Ultrasonography, RUSH exam, Rapid ultrasound, Shock examination, Shock
  • Saber Azami, Aghdash, Mir Hossein Aghaei, Homayoun Sadeghi, Bazarghani Pages 279-291
    Objective
    To systematically review the epidemiological patterns and interventions for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) among elderly.
    Methods
    Searching keywords including: accident, trauma, road injury, road traffic injuries, aging, old, elder, strategy, intervention, road traffic crash prevention and traffic accident in databases including, Google scholar, SID, IranMedex, PubMed and Scopus. English and non-Persian articles, articles presented in congresses, articles that considered elderly people to have age under than 60 years were excluded. The reporting quality of articles was assessed by two experts using Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) check list.
    Results
    RTIs compromised 23.6% of total injuries among elderly. The most frequent injuries were about car accidents (51.4%). Pedestrian injuries composed 48.1% of the RTIs. Head and neck (32.1%) were most injured body parts. There was a significant difference between elderly and non-elderly people in terms of RTIs associated mortality (Odd=2.57 [1.2-5.4 CI 95%]). Overall 25 main domains of intervention and 73 subordinate domains were extracted in five categories (human, road and environment, tools and cars, medical, legal and political issues).
    Conclusion
    According to the notable prevalence and fatality of RTIs, lack of sufficient studies and valid evidence of the present study can provide an appropriate evidence for better interventions for RTIs prevention among elderly
    Keywords: Road traffic injuries (RTIs), Elderly, Prevention, Interventions, Epidemiology
  • Farhad Heydari, Alireza Gholamian, Majid Zamani, Saeed Majidinejad Pages 292-299
    Objective
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular ketamine and haloperidol in sedation of severely agitated patients in emergency department (ED).
    Methods
    This randomized, double-blind clinical trial study was performed on agitated patients referring to two university educational hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular (IM) haloperidol (5 mg) or IM ketamine (4 mg/kg). The primary outcome was time to adequate sedation (AMSS ≤ +1). Secondary outcomes included the need for additional sedatives, required intubation, duration of hospitalization, and side effects.
    Results
    The 90 agitated patients were enrolled. The mean age was 30.37±7.36 years (range 18–56); 74% (67/90) were men. The mean time to adequate sedation in ketamine group (7.73 ± 4.71 minutes) was significantly lower than haloperidol group (11.42 ± 7.20 minutes) (p= 0.005). 15 minutes after intervention, the sedation score did not differ significantly in both groups (Ketamine:0.14 ± 0.59 vs. Haloperidol: 0.30 ± 0.60; p=0.167). The incidence of complications was not significantly different between groups. The physician's satisfaction from the patients’ aggression control was significantly higher in ketamine group.
    Conclusion
    These data suggest ketamine may be used for short-term control of agitated patients, additional studies are needed to confirm if ketamine is safe in this patient population. Given rapid effective sedation and the higher physician satisfaction of ketamine in comparison to haloperidol, it may be considered as a safe and appropriate alternative to haloperidol. IRCT Code: IRCT20180129038549N5
    Keywords: Psychomotor agitation, Emergencies, Haloperidol, Ketamine, Aggitation
  • Alireza Esmaeili, Vahideh Salimi, Naser Mohammad Karimi, Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Mahmoud Vakili, Ehsan Zarepur Pages 300-305
    Objective
    To evaluate the effect of hyoscine on pain and tenderness, rebound tenderness and appendicitis patients before surgery and this study can be considered as the first study investigated the efficacy of hyoscine on pain, tenderness, and rebound tenderness in patients with appendicitis.
    Methods
    In this single-group, prospective interventional study (before-after) according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 70 patients with pain in the right lower abdomen and typical symptoms of appendicitis were evaluated and after surgery, diagnostic accuracy was examined by pathologic results. The pain was evaluated before and after administration of hyoscine by numerical and verbal examination. Tenderness and rebound tenderness were also determined.
    Results
    The mean age of patients was 26.81±7.66. Totally, 42 patients (60%) had reduction in pain, 50 patients (71% percent) had reduction in tenderness, and 39 (55%) had reduction in rebound tenderness after treatment with the drug. A statistically significant reduction of pain and tenderness, rebound tenderness was observed in all of men after administration of hyoscine (p<0.001) but in women, the reduction of severity of tender results was only significant (p=0.002). Data analysis in women and men together showed the significant reduction of pain, tenderness, and rebound tenderness (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    According to the results, hyoscine can reduce pain, tenderness, and rebound tenderness. So, it seems that hyoscine is a good candidate for patients with appendicitis. IRCT registration number: IRCT2015111825123N1
    Keywords: Appendicitis, Scopolamine Hydrobromide, Pain, Appendectomy, Surgery
  • Nadeem Ali, Naseer Ahamd Mir, Tahir Ahmad Dar, Mohmad Nawaz Rather, Wajahat Ahmad Mir, Senin S, Saheel Maajid Pages 306-312
    Objective
    To determine the time to radiological union and final functional outcome of fixation of extra-articular distal humeral fractures with extra-artricular distal humerus locking plate.
    Methods
    This prospective study was conducted from March 2014 to February 2018 and included extra-articular distal humeral fractures managed by operative fixation using extra-articular distal humerus locking plate. All the fractures were approached using lateral para-tricepetal approach of Gervin, and stabilized with extra-articular distal humerus locking plate with or without lag screws. Time to radiological union was assessed in the follow up and at the final follow up functional outcome was evaluated using Mayo Performance Elbow Score (MEPS). Complications and need for any additional procedures was also recorded.
    Results
    A total of 20 patients with mean age of 36.5 years and an average follow up of 17 months were included. The mean time to radiological union was 17.4 weeks (12 to 36 weeks) which included one delayed union that required bone grafting. The mean flexion at elbow was 127o with only one patient having flexion extension arc movement of less than 100o at the final follow up. The average MEPS at final follow up was 94.7±8 with 19 patients having excellent and good results.
    Conclusion
    Use of extra-articular distal humeral locking plate using lateral para-tricepetal approach in extra-articular distal humeral fractures allows stable fixation of the fracture to allow early return to function with minimal soft tissue dissection and excellent final functional results and minimum complications.
    Keywords: Humerus, Fracture, Elbow, Locking plate, Extra-articular
  • Prashant Bhandarkar, Ashok Munivenkatappa, Nobhojit Roy, Vineet Kumar, Luis Rafael Moscote, Salazar, Amit Agrawal Pages 313-317
    Objective
    To compare the shock index (SI – which is the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure) and Age SI (Age in years multiplied by SI) with survival outcome of the patients across multicenter trauma registry in India.
    Methods
    Study is based on Towards Improved Trauma Care Outcomes (TITCO) project. Records with valid details of age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, Injury Severity Scale (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was considered. SI was categorized into four groups; Group I (SI<0.6) as no shock, group II (SI ≥0.6 to <1.0) as mild shock, group III (SI ≥1.0 to <1.4) as moderate shock and group IV (SI ≥1.4) as severe shock. Age SI was categorized decade wise into six groups. Mortality was dependent variable. GCS and ISS were considered as secondary variables.
    Results
    10843 participants from TITCO registry satisfying inclusion-exclusion criteria were considered for study. Mean SI score in group I to IV was increasing with 0.53 to 1.72 respectively. Age SI was seen to be increasing across its six groups. Gender wise no difference was found among SI group. For severe ISS and critical ISS, mortality in SI group IV was 50% and 56 % respectively. Mortality was increasing across mild to severe GCS among all SI groups.
    Conclusion
    The categorized SI and Age SI had shown increase in death percentages from mild to severe severity of injuries. Similar to GCS and ISS, SI and Age SI should also be calculated and categorized in all health care and further plan for management aspects
    Keywords: Shock index, Age shock index, Heart rate, Blood pressure, Mortality, Trauma
  • Leila Mohsenian, Mohammad Karim Khoramian, Sara Sadat Mazloom Pages 318-324
    Objective
    To evaluate the prognostic value of arterial blood gas (ABG) indices, especially base excess (BE), regarding the severity of traumatic injury.
    Methods
    A total number of 96 trauma patients with fractures of femur and pelvis were included in this study. Demographic characteristics and clinical information of samples were recorded. The results of ABG test and hemoglobin (Hb) were evaluated at two time intervals (on admission and 6 hours later). The outcome of the patients was evaluated at the end of the study (dead or alive). The ABG indices included O2 saturation (O2Sat), PH, PO2, PCO2, bicarbonate (HCO3) and base excess (BE). The mean of the hemodynamic and ABG indices were compared between those who were discharged and mortality cases. The confounders were compensated using a multivariate logistic regression model.
    Results
    Overall 94 trauma patients with long and pelvic fractures were included. There were 69 (73.4%) men and 25 (26.6%) women among the patients with mean age of 37.43 ± 20.07 years. The mortality rate was 10 (10.6%). The most common mechanism of injury was motorcycle accident in 41 (43.6%) and car collision in 43 (45.7%) patients. We found that mortality was significantly associated with amount of FFP transfusion (p=0.005), but was not associated with amount of transfused packed cells (p=0.113). We also found that mortality was associated with lower BP after 6 hours of admission (p=0.001), higher HR on admission (p=0.036), lower HR after 6 hours (p=0.017), lower O2Sat on admission (p<0.001), higher PCO2 after 6 hours and lower BE on admission (p=0.025).
    Conclusion
    The ABG indices including O2Sat, BE and PCO2 are considered prognostic determinants of outcome in trauma patients with long and pelvic fractures. These findings can be considered as fundamental studies to achieve new diagnostic methods
    Keywords: Prognosis, Injuries, Femur, Pelvis, Mortality, Arterial blood gas (ABG), hemodynamic indices
  • Farris Serio, Quinn Fujii, Keval Shah, Andrew McCague Pages 325-328
     
    Objective
    To determine if there was any decrease in measures of injury severity or outcome with obese patients (body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2) as compared to non-obese patients (body mass index less than 30 kg/m2).
    Methods
    We conducted a retrospective review of the trauma database maintained by Natividad Medical Center's Level 2-Trauma program. From July 1st, 2014 to July 1st, 2017 there were 371 cases of penetrating trauma in adults between the ages of 18-80 years old. Overall 311 patients had BMI data recorded. We divided these 311 patients into two groups: penetrating injury due to firearm (n= 198) and penetrating injury due to stabbing or piercing (n=113). We compared non-obese patients against obese patients for age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of stay (LOS), Intensive Care Unit LOS, units of blood given, direct transfer from ED to operating room, and mortality.
    Results
    A total of 311 patients were included in the study, 198 (63.6%) patients suffered from gunshot wounds and 113 (36.4) from stab or piercing wounds. The mean age was 33.6 ± 12.8 and there were 283 (91%) men among the victims. Overall 87 (28%) required emergent surgery and a 19 (6.1%) mortality rate was recorded. In the gunshot wound group there was no significant difference between non-obese and obese patients for age (p=0.400), gender (p=0.900), ISS (p=0.544), LOS (p=0.273), Intensive Care Unit LOS (p=0.729), units of blood given (p=0.300), or mortality (p=0.855). We found that in the stab or piercing group there was no significant difference between non-obese and obese patients for age (p=0.900), gender (p=0.900), ISS (p=0.580), LOS (p=0.839), Intensive Care Unit LOS (p=0.305), units of blood given (p=0.431), or mortality (p=0.321).
    Conclusion
    Our findings indicate that in our patient population, there was no significant difference in markers of injury severity, morbidity, or mortality in adult non-obese patients as comparted with obese patients. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two groups in operative rates, suggesting that obesity may not confer a protective effect in penetrating trauma
    Keywords: Trauma, Obesity, Penetrating injury, Gunshot injury, Stab wound, Risk factors
  • Mehrnaz ghafarypour jahrom, Mehrdad Taghizadeh, Kamran Heidari, Hojat Derakhshanfar Pages 329-333
    Objective
    To evaluate the validity, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) and Australasian Triage System (ATS) for children visiting admitted to the emergency department (ED).
    Methods
    This was a prospective study occurred in the Mofid children's Hospital in Iran from August 2017 to November 2018 and children had aged ≤14 years and presented at the ED with a medical symptom were considered eligible for participation. This study was divided into two phases: in the first phase, we determined the inter-rater reliability of ESI version 4 and ATS by triage nurses and pediatric residents. In the second phase, to analyze the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of each triage system. Reliability and agreement rates were measured using kappa statistics.
    Results
    ESI showed inter-rater reliability with kappa of 0.65–0.92 (P<0.001) and ATS showed inter-rater reliability with kappa of 0.51–0.87 ESI had sensitivity ranged from 81% to 95% and specificity ranged from 73% to 86%. In addition, sensitivity ranged of the ATS were 80% to 95% and specificity ranged from 74% to 87%. Under triage and over triage occurred in 12% and 15% of patients respectively in ESI and 13% and 15% of patients respectively in ATS.
    Conclusion
    The ESI and ATS both valid to triage children in the ED section of Mofid children's Hospital paediatric. Reliability of the ESI is good, moderate to good for the ATS
    Keywords: Emergency Severity Index, Australasian triage system, Paediatric emergency care
  • Mina Mohseni, Tahereh Khaleghdoust Mohammadi, Zahra Mohtasham, Amiri, Ehsan Kazemnejad, Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Leila Kouchakinejad, Eramsadati Pages 334-340
     
    Objective
    To determine the status of pre-hospital emergency care and its associated factors in traumatic patients.
    Methods
    In across-sectional study, 577 traumatic patients who were transferred to Poursina hospital by EMS (Emergency Medical Services) personnel were selected by simple random sampling method. Pre-hospital emergency services were observed. Then the mean of taken measures scores for each domain was determined in percent and evaluated in terms of associated factors (age, working experience of staff and number of missions per day) and compared using Spearman's test.
    Results
    Out of 577 patients, 454 were men (78.7%) and 123 women (21.3%). Their mean age was 35.1 years old. Accident (82.7%) was the most common mechanism of injury. Most vehicles involved in the accident were light-weight cars (48.5%) and motorcycles (32.2%). A significant relationship was found between age, general domain (p=0.039) and hemodynamic (p=0.019) as well as between work experience and general domain (p=0.018).
    Conclusion
    Given that pre-hospital emergency services provided in most of the domains are relatively far from world standard, results of this research can provide information for managers to improve strategic planning on care and medical services, appropriation of budget, knowledge of personnel and necessary equipment
    Keywords: Pre-hospital, Emergency service, Trauma
  • Saeide Aghamohamadi, Katayoun Jahangiri, Amir Kavousi, Ardeshir Sayah Mofazali Pages 341-348
    Objective
    To predict the accident mortality trend in next two decades in Iran.
    Methods
    The study population comprised all deaths recorded in the system of registration and classification of causes of death of Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran during the years 2006 to 2015. The information was collected via death certificate, burial permit, and reporting forms. To forecast the trends of causes-of-death, Lee Carter model was employed in a demographic package 18.1 of R software version 3.3.1.
    Results
    Based on the results, the highest percentage of all causes of death from accidents (in unintentional accidents) goes to transport accidents, and most top intentional accidents belonged to intentional self-harm. The trends of unintentional accidents in the whole population and both sexes have reduced from 2006 to 2035, such that the rate has reduced from 62.2 in 2006 to 12.1 per 100 thousand populations in 2035. It is anticipated that the causes of death due to intentional accidents with the rate of 8.86 in 2006, will be 1.89 (per 100,000 population) in the year 2035.
    Conclusion
    Accident mortalities have a significant role in the deaths of Iranian population; therefore, to reduce the impact of accident mortality on society, a precise approach is needed to monitor the trends as well as preventing measures and increasing the safety standards
    Keywords: Accident, Mortality forecast, Causes of death, Lee Carter, Iran
  • Mahnaz Yadollahi, Narges Rahmanian, Kazem Jamali Pages 349-354
    Objective
    To determine the indicators predicting the hospital mortality in pedestrian injured patients admitted to a level I trauma center in Southern Iran.
    Methods
    This case control study was conducted in a Level-I trauma hospital in Shiraz. We selected all survived pedestrians who were admitted in the hospital with duration of admission more than 24 hours in one year from March 2016 to February 2017 as control group and compared with all non-survived pedestrian patients who expired in the hospital according to clinical from March 2012 to February 2017. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors of hospital effect on pedestrian mortality and results expressed by Odds Ratios and their confidence intervals (CI) of 95%.
    Results
    A total of 424 survived pedestrian injured patients were compare to 117 non-survived one. Their mean of survived and non-survived patients were 43.79 ± 19.37 and 56.76 ± 18.55 years respectively of which 361 (66.7%) and 180 (33.3%) were men and women, respectively. We found that the gender does not have any relation with hospital mortality (p=0.275). Followed by, age is in relevance with mortality. Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), platelet (PLT), potassium (K) and hemoglobin (Hb) are significant factor which are associated with mortality. According to logistic analysis GCS ≤8 (p<0.001), low hemoglobin level <9 (p=0.030), BUN >24 (p<0.001), thrombocytopenia <150,000 (p<0.001), and hypokalemia <3.5 (p=0.01) were independently associated with hospital mortality. Among them, GCS≤8 was 72.237 times more likely to be associated with hospital mortality (OR =72.24, CI95% =23.19- 225.05).
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that GCS score, ISS, hemoglobin level, platelet count, BUN and potassium level might be independent factors associated with hospital mortality in pedestrian injured patients
    Keywords: Hospital mortality, Injury, Pedestrian, Accidents, Traffic
  • Hossein Abdolrahimzadeh, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hamid Reza Abbasi, Maryam Dehghankhalili, Shahram Paydar, Amirreza Dehghanian, Salar Hafez Ghoran, Mojtaba Asadollahi, Mehdi Zare Pages 355-362
    Objective
    To determine the antimicrobial activity and entity of several local herbal plants against Acintobacters isolated from trauma patients admitted to a Level-I trauma center.
    Methods
    The antibacterial activities of the Satureja bachtiarica oil and some selected Iranian medicinal plants (Artemisia sieberi and Tanacetum dumosum belonging to the Asteraceae/Compositae; Salvia mirzayanii and Mentha mozaffarianii belonging to the Lamiaceae/Labiatae) were assayed on A. baumannii by microdilution and agar disc diffusion methods. Having obtained the acceptable antibacterial data, the shade-dried aerial parts of the plants were extracted by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus according to European pharmacopeia for 3 h. The analysis of S. bachtiarica essential oil accompanied by other herbal drug oils were performed by using GC/FID and GC/MS methods.
    Results
    Outcomes revealed that the S. bachtiarica essential oil exhibited the potent antibacterial capability against Acinetobacter strains in comparison with Colistin, as a positive control. For S. bachtiarica, the growth inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 21 mm and 0.5 mg/ml, while, for Colistin, the data were in order: 8 mm and 0.016 mg/ml. Consequently, GC/MS outcomes demonstrated that the major components of the essence were carvacrol (48.6%), followed by p-Cymene (16.6%), γ-terpinene (6.9%) and linalool (5.3%).
    Conclusion
    Based on the considerable inhibitory activity against nosocomial infections by essential oil of S. bachtiarica, it could be considered as the suitable candidate in the food industry and pharmaceutical uses
    Keywords: Trauma, Acintobacter baumannii, Antibacterial activity, Satureja bachtiarica, Carvacrol
  • Sara Saadat Mazloom, Mohammad Karim Khoramian, Leila Mohsenian Pages 363-366

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication of liver cirrhosis with adverse effect on patient prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment is highly important, especially in patients without remarkable manifestations. We designed this study to determine the prevalence of SBP among afebrile cirrhotic patients and identify high-risk subgroups in a referral center in southern Iran. This cross-sectional study evaluated all afebrile cirrhotic patients, admitted to the gastroenterology ward of Namazi hospital (affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran) over a 6-month period in 2017, for the presence and correlates of SBP. Demographic data, clinical findings, and comorbidities were recorded. Ascitic fluid white blood cells (WBC) count >500 and neutrophil count >250 indicated bacterial peritonitis. In total, 97 afebrile cirrhotic patients comprising of 63 (64.9%) men and 34 (35.1%) women were included. All patients had ascites and 89 (91.8%) had abdominal tenderness. Accordingly, abdominal distension was the top presentation. Confirmed etiologies or comorbidities such as HBS, HCV, and liver cancer or metastasis existed in 46 patients. Thirteen (13.4%) had SBP. The correlations of gender (p=0.331), decreased level of consciousness (p=0.145), tenderness (p=0.315). With regards to the type of presentations, only DLOC showed to be significantly higher in SBP negative patients (p=0.022, OR=0.09. 95%CI=0.01–0.62). Also, using binary logistic regression, the correlation of age with SBP was statistically non-significant (coefficient= ⎼0.013, p=0.595). Our findings indicated that routine paracentesis in all cirrhotic patients regardless of fever can help diagnose a number of potentially neglected patients and improve their outcome
    Keywords: Ascites, Bacterial Infections, Liver Cirrhosis, Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
  • Keyvan Eghbal, Abbas Rakhsha, Arash Saffarrian, Abdolkarim Rahmanian, Hamid Reza Abdollahpour, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand Pages 367-371
    Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS) is rarely occurred in adults with trauma as the most common cause. In type A and B it is usually managed with close reduction and external brace; however, in nonresponsive cases, surgical interventions might be needed. Our patient is a 21-year-old man with neck pain and torticollis after a car turn- over. There was C1-C2 rotatory subluxation with left side locked facet and C1 rotation about 40 degrees relative to C2 on computed tomography without evident of ligamentous injury in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, during the first 48 hours, two tries of close reduction using Gardner cervical traction under fluoroscopy were failed. Thus, the patient underwent open reduction of the subluxation and atlantoaxial fixation (Harm’s technique) with subsequent relief of pain and torticollis. This a rare case of traumatic AARS type A with unilateral locked facet joint in an adult patient which needed surgical manipulation for reduction. The management of the AARS in adults should be individualized in each patient
    Keywords: Atlantoaxial Rotatory Subluxation (AARS), Atlantoaxial Fixation, Trauma, Adult
  • Mohammad Safdari, Zohre Safdari, Masoud Pishjoo Pages 372-375
    Trauma, especially traumatic injuries due to car accidents are one of the causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity during pregnancy. Fetus brain injuries are usually caused fetus death. We herein report a pregnant woman in 28 weeks of gestation. The fetus was found to be normal during in-hospital. At birth, the female neonate demonstrated developmental delay and neurological deficits (hypotonicity). Neuroimaging after birth revealed extreme dilatation of lateral ventricles, hypoplasia and aplasia of the brain. In 4 months, she had multiple morbidities including developmental delay, hypotonia, blindness, oropharyngeal dysphagia and simple partial seizure. Motor and response to stimulation was normal. Appropriate seatbelt usage can protect the fetus from sustaining severe intracranial injuries.
    Keywords: Fetal injury, Traumatic brain injury, Pregnancy
  • Dileep Ramesh Hoysal, Hemashree K Pages 376-378
    Surgical abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality, constituting up to 20% of maternal deaths. Uterine perforation is a rare complication, accounting for4% of all the abortion related complications. Intestinal injury with uterine perforation following termination of pregnancy is even rare and is a potentially fatal complication with mortality of up to 10%. A 27-year-old G3P2L2 woman with 12 weeks of gestation referred to our hospital in hemorrhagic shock with a suspicion of uterine perforation following dilatation and curettage for termination of pregnancy. Patient underwent emergency laparotomy. She was found to have uterine perforation with mesenteric and ileal injuries intraoperatively. Perforation closure with ileoileal resection and anastomosis was done. Postoperatively the patient recovered completely. Prompt reporting/recognition of uterine perforation, preoperative resuscitation and early intervention are the most important steps in the management of patients with intestinal injury. Trauma surgeon should never hesitate or delay in considering an Emergency Laparotomy/laparoscopy in cases of suspected intestinal injury with uterine perforation. Emergency exploration decreases the morbidity and mortality to a great extent in patients with intestinal injury.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality, Mesenteric injury, Unsafe abortion, Uterine perforation, Termination of pregnancy