فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال بیست و نهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • سال بیست و نهم شماره 4 (زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • محسن نیازی، هادی افرا ، اعظم نژادی، ایوب سخایی صفحات 1-20
    ظهور جامعه مصرفی ازطریق زیادشدن کالاهای مادی و دموکراتیزه شدن مصرف، سبب انتخابی شدن زندگی روزمره می شود. در این شرایط در حوزه هویت، یکی از مولفه های اساسی فعالیت روزمره، انتخاب هایی است که به طور عادی انجام می دهیم. نوگرایی، فرد را با تنوع پیچیده‎ ای از انتخاب های ممکن رودررو می کند؛ ولی به او در گزینش هایی که باید به عمل آورد، کمک چندانی نمی کند. این امر پیامدهای گوناگونی دارد؛ یکی از این پیامدها اهمیت یافتن سبک زندگی و راهبرد های موثر بر آن است؛ ازاین رو، هدف این پژوهش فراتحلیل رابطه میان متغیر سرمایه فرهنگی و سبک زندگی است. فراتحلیل حاضر با استفاده از 8 پژوهش مرتبط انجام شده است که با روش پیمایش و به کارگیری ابزار پرسش نامه در جوامع آماری متفاوت برحسب سنجه های پایا به انجام رسیده اند. در گام نخست، مفروضات همگنی و نداشتن سوگیری انتشار بررسی شدند. یافته ها بیانگر ناهمگنی اندازه اثر و نداشتن سوگیری انتشار مطالعات بررسی شده بودند. در مرحله دوم، ضریب اندازه اثر و نقش تعدیل کنندگی متغیرهای جنسیت، وضعیت تاهل و قومیت با به کارگیری نسخه دوم نرم افزارCMA ارزیابی شدند. یافته ها نشان دادند اندازه اثر سرمایه فرهنگی و سبک زندگی معادل 28/0 است که برحسب نظام تفسیری کوهن، در حدی متوسط ارزیابی می شود. همچنین، قومیت، متغیر تعدیل گر در نظر گرفته شد و ضریب اثر برای اقوام کرد 37/0، مازنی 29/0، فارس 28/0، ترک 27/0 و عرب 24/0 به دست آمد. برای متغیر تعدیل گر جنسیت زن 33/0 و مرد 23/0 و برای متغیر تعدیل گر تاهل، افراد مجرد 34/0 و متاهل 23/0 ارزیابی شدند. در مجموع، نتایج نشان دادند سرمایه فرهنگی با تعدیل گری قومیت، جنسیت و تاهل، تاثیر متفاوتی بر سبک زندگی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: سبک زندگی، سرمایه فرهنگی، نوگرایی متاخر، فراتحلیل
  • رضا همتی صفحات 21-38
    شادمانی از مولفه های اصلی کیفیت زندگی همه گروه های سنی به ویژه دانشجویان است. زندگی دانشجویی آکنده از استرس ها و فشارهای روانی مختلف است. در صورتی که دانشگاه ها محیط هایی پویا، سرزنده و بانشاط باشند، دانشجویان بر فشارهای ناشی از تحصیل و زندگی دانشگاهی پیروز می شوند؛ در غیر این صورت این استرس ها هم بر فرایند یادگیری و موفقیت دانشجویان تاثیر می گذارند، هم زمینه ساز آسیب ‎های مختلف اجتماعی و فرهنگی آنها می شوند. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی برخی عوامل دانشگاهی موثر بر احساس شادمانی است. این پژوهش به صورت کمی و با روش پیمایشی بر نمونه ای از 340 نفر از دانشجویان دختر دانشگاه اصفهان در سال 1395 انجام شده است. نتایج نشان می دهند میزان احساس شادمانی دانشجویان کمی از میانگین بیشتر است. همچنین نتایج الگوسازی معادلات ساختاری (SEM) نشان می دهند خودکارآمدی و رضایت از رشته تحصیلی به صورت مستقیم و سرمایه اجتماعی دانشگاهی، امید به آینده شغلی و انگیزه تحصیل به صورت غیرمستقیم بر احساس شادمانی دانشجویان دختر تاثیر دارند. در پایان پیشنهادهایی برای بهبود شادمانی و نشاط در محیط های دانشگاهی و در سطح گروه های آموزشی ارائه شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: شادمانی، خودکارآمدی علمی، انگیزه علمی، سرمایه اجتماعی دانشگاهی، امید به آینده شغلی، رضایت از رشته تحصیلی
  • بهناز مهاجران، علیرضا قلعه ایorcid ، فرشید اشرفی سلیم کندی ، زین العابدین درویشی صفحات 39-58
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی رابطه بین سرمایه اجتماعی با سلامت سازمانی با میانجی گری عزت نفس سازمانی انجام شده است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است و جامعه آماری آن شامل همه کارکنان اداری ادارات آموزش وپرورش شهرستان ارومیه به تعداد 380 نفر است که 200 نفر با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده های پژوهش از سه پرسش نامه استاندارد سرمایه اجتماعی (Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998) ، عزت نفس سازمانی (Pierce et al. , 1989) و سلامت سازمانی (Hoy & Feldman, 1996) استفاده شد. برای بررسی روایی پرسش نامه ها از روش تحلیل عاملی تاییدی استفاده شد و پایایی آنها با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شد که به ترتیب 76/0، 92/0، و 91/0 بود. نتایج به دست آمده از اجرای الگو های تحلیل مسیر خروجی نرم افزار، نشان دهنده مناسب بودن برازش الگوی معادلات ساختاری است. نتایج آزمون فرضیه ها به روش الگوسازی معادلات ساختاری نشان دادند بین سرمایه اجتماعی با عزت نفس سازمانی و سلامت سازمانی، روابط معناداری وجود دارد. درکل نتایج نشان دهنده وجود رابطه معنادار بین عزت نفس سازمانی و سلامت سازمانی است؛ همچنین نتایج تحلیل آماری نشان دادند اثر غیرمستقیم سرمایه اجتماعی بر سلامت سازمانی با میانجی گری عزت نفس سازمانی کارکنان، 21/0 است که در سطح 001/0 مثبت و معنی دار است؛ بنابراین عزت نفس سازمانی در روابط بین سرمایه اجتماعی و سلامت سازمانی نقش میانجی را دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، عزت نفس سازمانی، سلامت سازمانی
  • یعقوب فروتن ، ربابه اشکاران صفحات 59-78
    پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی جمعیت شناختی و اجتماعی - فرهنگی، برخی از مهم ترین الگوها و تعیین کننده های مرتبط با مسئله ترجیح جنسیتی را مطالعه و بررسی می کند. جوامع انسانی در دهه های اخیر پیشرفت های مهم و تغییرات شگرفی را تجربه کرده اند که از آنها با نام یک انقلاب اجتماعی به مراتب مهم تر، یعنی «انقلاب در نقش های جنسیتی» ، یاد می شود؛ اما پدیده ترجیح جنسیتی مانند قبل به منزله مسئله ای اجتماعی در جوامع انسانی معاصر مشاهده می شود؛ به طوری که بررسی پیشینه و ادبیات پژوهش در این مقاله بیانگر دو اصل عمده است: یکی اصل فراگیر و همه جایی بودن مسئله ترجیح جنسیتی و دیگری، اصل تداوم و همیشگی بودن آن. مباحث تجربی این مقاله مبتنی بر تجزیه وتحلیل های بررسی پیمایشی است که جمعیت نمونه آن را درمجموع تعداد 3667 نفر از مردان و زنان 15 سال و بالاتر ساکن در مناطق شهری و روستایی شهرستان های اسفراین، اهواز، بابلسر، بجنورد، خرم آباد، گنبدکاووس، محمودآباد و همدان تشکیل می دهد. مطابق نتایج پژوهش حاضر بیشترین نسبت ترجیح های جنسیتی مربوط به کسانی است که ترجیح می دهند به تعداد مساوی فرزندان دختر و پسر داشته باشند؛ اما همین گروه نیز چنانچه به تعداد مساوی فرزندان دختر و پسر دست نیابند، به طور بالقوه تمایل دارند فرزندآوری شان را برای دست یابی به چنین ترجیحی ادامه دهند. همچنین نسبت کسانی که فرزند پسر را ترجیح می دهند بیشتر از کسانی است که فرزند دختر را ترجیح می دهند؛ بدین ترتیب، دوسوم افراد به شکل های مختلف به ترجیح جنسیتی تمایل دارند و تنها یک سوم افراد هیچ گونه ترجیح جنسیتی ندارند. در عین حال، نتایج این پژوهش تاییدکننده وجود رابطه بین این الگوهای ترجیح جنسیتی و سه دسته تعیین کننده های عمده مشتمل بر متغیرهای پایه مانند سن، جنس و تحصیلات، متغیرهای جمعیت شناختی و متغیرهای مرتبط با نگرش جنسیتی است.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجیح جنسیتی، متغیرهای جمعیت شناختی، تحصیلات، ایران
  • علی سیادت، یعقوب لهرابی ، مصطفی باقریان فر صفحات 79-98
    هدف از پژوهش حاضر تبیین مولفه های هویت اجتماعی دانشجویان براساس استفاده از برنامه های پیام رسان موبایلی است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی – همبستگی است و جامعه آماری آن را همه دانشجویان کارشناسی دانشگاه اصفهان در سال 96 – 1395 تشکیل می دهد. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و نمونه گیری طبقه ای نسبی تصادفی 338 نفر برای نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از پرسش نامه های محقق ساخته برنامه های پیام رسان موبایلی و هویت اجتماعی استفاده شد که ضریب آلفای کرونباخ آنها به ترتیب 86/0 و 81/0 محاسبه شد. روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسش نامه ها با استفاده از نظر متخصصان تایید شد. اطلاعات به دست آمده در این پژوهش با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی تجزیه وتحلیل شد. یافته ها نشان می دهند برنامه های پیام رسان موبایلی رابطه منفی با هویت های ملی، قومی، جهانی و مذهبی و تاثیر منفی بر هویت اجتماعی دانشجویان دارند؛ بنابراین، علاقه بیش ازحد دانشجویان به فضای برنامه های پیام رسان موبایلی ممکن است فضای تهدیدآمیزی برای هویت اجتماعی آنها فراهم کند.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه های پیام رسان موبایلی، هویت اجتماعی، هویت مذهبی، هویت قومی، هویت ملی، هویت جهانی
  • علی نوروزی ، امیر ملکی، مهربان پارسامهر، حمید قاسمی صفحات 99-122
    مقاله حاضر در پی توصیف و تبیین رابطه بین تصویر بدن و مدیریت بدن با مشارکت ورزشی زنان است. این پژوهش با استفاده از روش پیمایشی انجام شده است و داده های آن با پرسش‎ نامه جمع آوری، استخراج و تحلیل شدند. جمعیت زنان 19 سال به بالای استان ایلام که جامعه آماری این پژوهش را تشکیل می دهند، 193952 نفر است و حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 500 نفر تعیین شد. نمونه ها با نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ایچندمرحله ای شناسایی و داده ها از آنها جمع آوری شدند. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون تک متغیره و برای آزمون الگوی پژوهش از مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم افزار Amos استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهند 2/49 درصد یعنی تقریبا نزدیک به نیمی از زنان یا ورزش نمی کنند یا به صورت نامنظم و تفریحی ورزش می کنند. 17 درصد از آنها با هدف سلامتی و بین 61 تا 120 دقیقه در هفته فعالیت ورزشی می کنند و 8/33 درصد معادل تقریبا یک سوم از نمونه آماری نیز به صورت منظم و حرفه ای مشارکت ورزشی دارند. نتایج تحلیلی و آزمون الگوی پژوهش نشان دادند دو متغیر تصویر بدن و مدیریت بدن و مولفه های آنها در مجموع به طور معناداری تا 56/0 از واریانس مشارکت ورزشی زنان را تبیین می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویر بدن، نظارت بدن، شرم از بدن، مدیریت بدن، مشارکت ورزشی
  • سعیده ابراهیمی نیا، سید علیرضا افشانی ، علی روحانی صفحات 123-146
    امروزه مصرف فراتر از نیازهای اولیه برای تمایز، تفاخر، تنوع و… استفاده می شود. در ایران مصرف همگام و همراه با فرهنگ چشم و همچشمی پیش رفته است. این پژوهش تلاش کرده است پویایی های شکل گیری فرایند چشم وهمچشمی در خرید و مصرف را در نمونه هدف بررسی کند؛ بدین منظور، در قالب روش شناسی کیفی و با استفاده از نظریه زمینه ای، با تعدادی از زنان متاهل طبقه متوسط و متوسط روبه‎ بالای شهر مشهد با استفاده از مصاحبه های عمیق و نمونه گیری هدفمند و نظری، مصاحبه شد. اطلاعات جمع آوری شد و تحلیل داده ها به شیوه کدگذاری باز و محوری و گزینشی انجام شد. یافته های پژوهش شامل سی ویک مقوله اصلی و یک مقوله هسته با عنوان حسرت مصرف شد. بر همین اساس جدول های مفهومی، الگوی پارادایمی و طرح واره نظری پژوهش ارائه شد. تبیین نتایج به طور کلی نشان‎ دهنده «مصرف پایی» بالای جامعه هدف و قدرت خرید پایین آنهاست که نتیجه آن «حسرت مصرف» بیشتر بوده است؛ اما فرایند ارضای حسرت مصرف، فرایندی ناتمام و دوری باطل است و به همین دلیل پویایی های مصرف پایی و چشم وهمچشمی را به طور دورانی و هم افزا، فعال تر و قدرتمندتر می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: چشم وهمچشمی، حسرت مصرف، مصرف پایی، مصرف تظاهری، مصرف تجملی
  • محمدحسن تنهایی، علی نصراصفهانی ، سید اکبر نیلی پور طباطبایی، احمد رضا اخوان صراف صفحات 147-166
    هدف این پژوهش طراحی الگوی پیشایندها و پیامدهای سکوت سازمانی بوده است. روش پژوهش توصیفی - همبستگی و ازنظر هدف کاربردی - توسعه ای است. ازلحاظ گردآوری داده ها نیز به روش آمیخته انجام شده است. جامعه آماری مربوط به مطالعه کیفی، 2013 نفر ازکارمندان شهرداری اصفهان بوده است. جامعه آماری مربوط به مطالعه کمی (دلفی فازی) ، 138 نفر از خبرگان سازمانی شامل مدیران منتخب در شهرداری اصفهان و خبرگان دانشگاهی صاحب نظر در حوزه رفتار سازمانی و منابع انسانی بوده است. در بخش کیفی با نمونه گیری هدفمند با 16 نفر از کارکنان مصاحبه شد. روش نمونه گیری در اجرای مطالعه کمی نیز نمونه گیری قضاوتی بود و تعداد 18 نفر از خبرگان سازمانی و دانشگاهی در این بخش مشارکت داشتند. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها در دو بخش آمار توصیفی و آمار استنباطی انجام شد. در مرحله بعد عوامل شناسایی شده ازسوی خبرگان تجزیه وتحلیل شد. نتایج نشان دادند عواملی مانند حفظ موقعیت فعلی، بی اعتمادی و بدبینی کارکنان به مافوق و ترس کارکنان به منزله عوامل فردی، سبک رهبری مدیران به منزله عامل مدیریتی، انگیزه شغلی کم، سیاست ها و ساختار سازمانی و جو سازمانی به منزله عوامل سازمانی و همنوایی با جمع به منزله عوامل گروهی پیشایندهای سکوت سازمانی اند. کاهش اشتیاق شغلی کارکنان، کاهش شادی کارکنان و استرس به منزله پیامدهای فردی و بی تفاوتی سازمانی و کاهش کیفیت تصمیم های سازمانی به منزله پیامدهای سازمانی، از پیامدهای سکوت سازمانی اند.
    کلیدواژگان: سکوت سازمانی، فرهنگ سازمانی، ویژگی های شخصیتی، شهرداری اصفهان
  • کبری حاجی ابول لو، هدا حلاج زاده*، ابراهیم مسعودنیا صفحات 167-182

    در سال های اخیر پژوهشگران عرصه اجتماعی توجه زیادی به تحلیل و بررسی بدن داشته اند و آن را به منزله موضوع و هدفی برای پژوهش های زیباشناسانه مطرح کرده اند. با افزایش آگاهی مردم از استاندارهای زیبایی، میل به نزدیک شدن به این استانداردها زیادتر شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین تفاوت زنان بدون جراحی زیبایی و پس از جراحی ازنظر سرمایه فرهنگی و مولفه های آن است. این مطالعه در قالب طرح پس رویدادی و به صورت مقطعی انجام شده است. داده های مطالعه از 383 نفر از زنان (191 نفر زنانی که جراحی زیبایی داشته اند و 192 نفر زنانی که جراحی زیبایی انجام نداده اند)، با سنین بالاتر از 15 ساکن شهر رشت و در ماه های مهر تا آذر 1395 جمع آوری شده است. برای انتخاب نمونه های لازم از بین زنانی که جراحی زیبایی انجام داده بودند، از روش نمونه گیری دردسترس استفاده شد. این زنان برای انجام یا دریافت مراقبت های مرتبط با جراحی زیبایی، به کلینیک های زیبایی مراجعه کرده بودند. برای انتخاب نمونه ها از زنان بدون انجام جراحی زیبایی نیز از روش نمونه گیری دردسترس استفاده شد.</strong> ابزارهای اندازه گیری عبارت بودند از: چک لیست ویژگی های اجتماعی - جمعیت شناختی و پرسش نامه ‎های محقق ساخته سرمایهفرهنگی. نتایج این مطالعه نشان می دهند تفاوت معناداری بین سطح سرمایه فرهنگی کل و مولفه های آن یعنی سرمایه فرهنگی تجسم یافته، عینیت یافته و نهادینه شده وجود دارد. همچنین نارسایی در مولفه های سرمایه های فرهنگی، یکی از عوامل عمده در گرایش زنان به انجام جراحی های زیباشناختی است؛ بنابراین، لازم است در برنامه های مداخله ای برای تعدیل و اصلاح تمایل و رفتار بیمارگونه زنان نسبت به جراحی های زیبایی، به ارتقای سرمایه های فرهنگی توجه شود.

    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه فرهنگی، جراحی زیبایی، سرمایه فرهنگی تجسم یافته، سرمایه فرهنگی عینیت یافته، سرمایه فرهنگی نهادینه شده
  • اسدالله نقدی*، ثریا معمار، مریم داستانی صفحات 183-208

    در دهه های اخیر، با گسترش مصرف گرایی و افزایش تمایلات مصرفی در عرصه جهانی، تحولاتی در زمینه های فرهنگی و ساختاری جوامع روی داده است که سبب دگرگونی و تغییر در هویت زن سنتی و بازاندیشی در هویت خود در رویارویی با مظاهر امروزی مصرف گرایی شده است. امروزه افراد با گرایش به مصرف بیش ازحد کالاها برای رفع نیاز، سعی دارند جایگاه اجتماعی متفاوتی نسبت به دیگران برای خود کسب کنند. در این میان زنان با مصرف تظاهری به منزله افرادی که نماینده خانواده هایشان هستند، سعی دارند منزلت و جایگاه اجتماعی خود و خانواده هایشان را در جامعه بالا ببرند. مقاله حاضر مطالعه تاثیر مصرف گرایی بر بازتعریف هویت زنان دهه های50، 60 و 70 شهر اصفهان را در کانون خود جای داده است. نظریات استفاده شده در این پژوهش نظریه های پی یر بوردیو، تورشتاین وبلن وآنتونی گیدنز است. روش پژوهش از نوع کمی و به سنخ پیمایشی، روش گردآوری اطلاعات، پرسش‎ نامه محقق ساخته، حجم نمونه 384 نفر از زنان شهر اصفهان و روش نمونه گیری، خوشه ایچندمرحله ای بوده است. نتایج تحلیل نشان می دهند همبستگی های معناداری بین متغیرهای مصرف گرایی و بازتعریف هویت زنان، نابرابری اجتماعی و مصرف گرایی، نابرابری اجتماعی و بازتعریف هویت زنان و بین جهانی شدن و مصرف گرایی وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج رگرسیونی نشان می دهند متغیرهای مصرف گرایی و جهانی شدن و نابرابری اجتماعی 22 درصد از تغییرات متغیر بازتعریف هویت اجتماعی را تبیین می کنند.

    کلیدواژگان: مصرف گرایی، مصرف تظاهری، بازتعریف هویت اجتماعی، نابرابری، جهانی شدن، ذائقه مصرف، چشم وهم چشمی، منزلت یابی
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  • Mohsen Niazi, Hadi Afra, Azam Nejadi, Ayob Sakhaei Pages 1-20
    Introduction
    According to Thomas Tessie, people are now culturally abandoned. This cultural liberation has made people free from the stigma of traditional patterns of life. But this liberation can also be a bitter experience. Indeed, the world, instead of entering the postmodern world, is moving towards a period in which the successes of modernity are more rooted and more globalized than before.There is no doubt that the current modern world extends far beyond the scope of individual activities. No one is immune to, or opposes, the developments arising from the expansion of modernity. By accepting this fact, we are faced with the death and decline of the Enlightenment subject. As a result of these developments in the global arena, followed by self-consciousness derived from the conditions and characteristics of life in the modern world, there have been developments in the cultural and structural fields that have led to the emergence of the consumer society. The emergence of a consumer society, due to the increase in material commodities and the democratization of consumption, leads to the choice of everyday life. In this context, in the domain of identity, one of the essential components of everyday activity is choices that we normally make.Modernity, however, puts the person in a dilemma of choice, which does not help a person to help him in the choices he should take. This has many implications. One of these consequences is the importance of lifestyle and effective strategies.

    Material &Method The present paper is based on Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. The meta-analysis allows researchers to combine data from several studies. For this purpose, the results of numerous and independent studies of the past on the subject are examined and then converted with the help of the CMA software, and a new statistic, which is called the effect size. The effect size indicates the degree of presence of the phenomenon in society. In the present study, in the first stage, after a preliminary study on cultural capital and lifestyle in the databases, 46 papers were extracted. In the next step, sociological researches that quantitatively and quantitatively examine the impact of the variable cultural capital on lifestyle have been selected. In the third stage, the selected studies were evaluated according to the information needed to extract the practical effect size. Finally, 8 papers were selected for meta-analysis operations.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions In the first step, to check the bias of the release from the funnel plot of the standard error by fisher's z, linear regression (Eggers regression intercept) and N-class error (classic fail-safe) were used. The results of this study indicate the symmetry and non-bias of the published researches and studies used in this research. In order to examine the homogeneity assumptions of 8 papers, the Q-test with 99% accuracy, rejected the homogeneity hypothesis of the studies and assumed the heterogeneity of the size of the research effect, so that the size of the random effects should be used to continue the study. The results of using the meta-analysis method using the effect size combination method show that there is a significant relationship between the total combinational effect of the random effects model and the cultural capital and lifestyle (0.828).In other words, the average size of the effect of the cultural capital on the lifestyle is equal to 288/0, which is moderate in terms of the Cohen interpretation system. In this study due to the heterogeneity of the primary research results, the effect of moderator variables was also studied. According to the common characteristics that should be studied, gender, marital and ethnic variables were selected as moderating variables. Based on the results, the size of the combined effect of women is 0.377, which shows that the relationship between the two variables of cultural capital and lifestyle in women is stronger than men. This effect in men is 237. The combined effect size in single individuals (344/0) indicates that single people are more interested in the role of cultural capital as a lifestyle constituent strategy than married ones. The combined effect of married persons is 230/0. Also, the effect size of the ethnic group (0.377) was higher than that of other ethnic groups (Maznay 29/0, Fars 0.28, Turk 0.27, and Arabic 0.24) which indicates the effect of ethnicity in relation to cultural capital and lifestyle. In general, the turning point in recent years of wealth-based Marxist discourse as the indicator of the social class of people based on the growth of consumer culture has increased the role of cultural capital in lifestyle.Considering the results of the meta-analysis and the fact that the research has been less focused on the identification and evaluation of the effects of moderator and mediator variables, it is suggested that. the relationship between cultural capital and lifestyle will be investigated with a method other than quantitative and statistical methods to ascertain the role of cultural capital on the lifestyle and the discovery of the missing key between these two variables
    Keywords: Lifestyle, Cultural Capital, Late Modernity, Meta-Analysis
  • Reza Hemmati Pages 21-38
     
    Introduction
    Happiness is a situation in which one feels and believes that his life is in the right direction. "Happiness as one of the basic positive emotions plays a decisive role in providing the health of the individual and society. Happiness is always accompanied by generosity, optimism, hope and trust, and as a catalyst, it can play an accelerating role in the development of society "(Chalabi and Mousavi, 2008). Studies have shown that "happiness, regardless of how it is acquired, improves physical health. Those who are happy, feel more secure, make decisions more easily, have more cooperative spirit and feel more satisfied with those who live (Akbarzadeh et al. 2013).
    Happiness is one of the main components of the quality of life in all age groups, especially university students. Students suffer from various psychological stresses such as immigration, cultural changes, difficulty in dormitory environments, lack of interest in the field of study, educational issues and problems, a volume of courses, and so on. These pressures endanger their mental health (Sharifi et al. 2010) All these factors, combined with other factors at different levels, can have a significant negative impact on students' happiness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of happiness among female students of Isfahan University and to investigate the role of some of its related university factors. Also, the results of these studies are important for university policies in the area of quality management of student experiences and how resources are allocated to enrich students' learning experience.
    Material &
    Methods
    This study was conducted using a survey method and questionnaire technique. The statistical population of this study was all students of undergraduate and postgraduate students of Isfahan University. Students from different disciplines were selected according to the typology of Bacher (1987). For sampling, stratified sampling method was used. In general, based on research literature, hypotheses related to the impact of academic factors (such as social capital, academic satisfaction, the notion of a career future, academic self-efficacy and academic motivation) on the student’s happiness were tested. To assess the validity of the scales, content and factor validity were used.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The results of this study showed that the level of happiness in students is not satisfactory. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results show that academic self-efficacy and satisfaction with the field have direct and academic social capital, career hope, and educational motivation have indirect effects on the sense of happiness among female students. The feeling of self-efficacy is also affected by social capital and interactions that students create with each other and with their professors in departments. The relationship between academic social capital and increasing their self-efficacy is in line with previous research. However, the radius of relationships and interactions outside the departments as membership in the communities and the associations have little effect on students' happiness. Unlike other researches (Nix, Ryan, Manly and Deci, 1999: Novel, 2017: Waterman et al. 2008; Hassanzadeh and Mahdinejad, 2013), there was no direct relationship between the motivation (whether internal or external) to enter the university and happiness, but students who feel satisfied and self-efficacy have a greater sense of happiness. Along with other researches (such as Eliasi, 2006 and Sharifi et al. 2010), satisfaction from the discipline also has a direct impact on the happiness of female students and also affects their happiness by increasing academic self-efficacy. Student satisfaction is also heavily influenced by students' perceptions of the future of their career. In general, happiness is influenced by various factors in micro (personality), meso (organizations and families) and macro level (economic, social, and political), which in this research merely deals with some organizational and academic factors. The present article's claim is that if the university has a dynamic environment, it can be a source of happiness for students. On the contrary, frustration in the educational settings, the uncertain future of a career, and the feeling of wasting life without the acquisition of scientific and cultural resources can be converted into economic resources and pave the way for mental pressures and depression other mental disorders, and social and cultural pathologies among students
    Keywords: Happiness, Academic Self-efficacy, Academic Motivation, Academic Social Capital, Career Hope, Satisfaction with the Field
  • Behnaz Mohajeran, Alireza Ghaleei, Farshid Ashrafi Salimkandi, Zineol Abedin Darvishi Pages 39-58
    Introduction
    Considering the role that education plays in the economic, social, and especially cultural development, and is the foundation of any development, this organization has been studied. An organization is composed of people who work together to achieve the goals of the organization. Therefore, organizational self-esteem as an important factor of mental health and employee’s adaptation is important, which can enhance the impact of social capital as links and connections among members of the organizational network on organizational health that leads to continuity and survival of the organization in their environment and achievement of human goals and purposes. By providing information from this research, the path to further research on the role of social capital on self-esteem and organizational health in organizations will be facilitated and smoothed. It is also possible to take an effective step by mediating the role of self-esteem among social capital and organizational health in order to realize employee productivity and effectiveness of the organization.
    Materials and methods
    The method of this research is correlation and is based on structural equation modeling. The statistical population of this research includes all administrative staff of the Department of Education of Urmia, which according to the staffing of education personnel, the number of these employees are 380 people. By using a simple random sampling method, 200 people were selected as sample. The Morgan table has been used to determine the sample size according to the size of the statistical population. The required data in this study is obtained by using of three standard questionnaires: social capital based on the model of Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998), organizational self-esteem based on the Piers and Gardner’s model (1989), and organizational health based on the Hui and Fieldsman’s model (1996). To analyze the data SPSS software version 20 was used. Descriptive indicators and their correlation matrix were calculated, and then Structural Equation Modeling Method was used to study the causal relationships between variables.
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    The results of statistical analysis showed that the direct effect of social capital on organizational health is 0.45, which is positive and significant at the level of 0.001. According to this finding, the first hypothesis of research is supported and it can be said that there is a positive relationship between social capital and organizational health of the staff. Therefore, through mutual trust, mutual social interaction, and social groups with a sense of collective and group identity, it leads to competence, achievement, progress, ability, adequacy, reliability, independence and freedom of employees in the organization.
    The results of statistical analysis showed that direct effect of organizational self-esteem on organizational health of employees is 0.58, which is positive and significant at 0/001. According to this finding, the second hypothesis of the research is supported and it can be said that there is a positive relationship between organizational self-esteem and organizational health of the staff.
    The results of statistical analysis showed that the direct effect of social capital on organizational self-esteem is 0.37, which is positive and significant at 0/001. According to this finding, the third hypothesis of research is supported and it can be said that there is a positive relationship between social capital and organizational self-esteem of the employees.
    The results of statistical analysis showed that the indirect effect of social capital on organizational health of employees is mediated by organizational self-esteem of employees 0.21, which is positive and significant at the level of 0.001. According to this finding, the fourth hypothesis of research is supported and it can be said that organizational self-esteem plays a mediator role in the relations between social capital and organizational health.
    Finally, it can be concluded that the existence of social capital among members of the organization will lead to self-esteem and self-confidence in each individual organization, which will result in an increase on organizational self-esteem. Organizational self-esteem will motivate, advance and challenge the work. The existence of social capital in the organization also leads to organizational health. Extensive communication, the existence of cultural commonalities, as well as mutual trust and cooperation, is considered an important factor for the health of the organization. as a result of these discussions, the organization continues to grow in a changing environment.
    Keywords: Social Capital, Organizational Self-Esteem, Organizational Health
  • Foroutan Yaghoob, Robabeh Ashkaran Pages 59-78
    Introduction

    This study presents research-based evidence to examine the patterns and determinants associated with gender preference in Iran from demographic and socio-cultural perspectives. The importance of such studies lies in the fact that despite substantial progress in contemporary societies leading to a more important social revolution so-called ‘revolution in gender roles’, gender preference still exists in human societies. In his book titled A General Theory of Gender Stratification, Blumberg (1984) has simply and clearly documented this issue: 'remember the Golden Rule: He who has the gold makes the rules'. In fact, the large body of literature reviewed in this article also indicates that gender preference has substantially persisted as a social problem throughout human societies.


    Materials & Methods

    This analysis is based on a survey conducted in rural and urban areas of Ahvaz, Babolsar, Bojnord, Esfarayen, Gonbad Kavos, Khoramabad, Mahmoudabad, and Hamadan. The survey includes 3667 males and females aged 15 years old and over. The research data has been collected using questionnaire. Then, SPSS has been employed in order to analyze the research data. The key dependent variable of the present analysis is gender preference, which has been defined and classified in four categories: 'son preference', 'daughter preference', 'no preference, neither for son nor for daughter', 'preference for equal number of sons and daughters'. Further, this analysis includes three main groups of dependent variables: First, basic variables such as age, sex, place of residence, education. Second, variables related to gender attitudes measured by attitudes towards women's employment and male-bread-winner model. Third, demographic variables such as the number of children, gender composition of children, and the ideal number of children.


    Discussion of Results & Conclusion:
    Generally speaking, the results of this study illustrate that only one-third of the respondents reject gender preference, whereas the remaining majority hold positive attitudes toward gender preference. However, these general patterns are significantly associated with three major categories of determinants. The first category refers to basic variables such as age, sex and education: 'son preference' is stronger among men than women as it is stronger among people living in rural areas than those living in urban areas. Moreover, education level has significant effect on gender preference: the lower the education level, the stronger the tendency towards gender preference. More specifically, among illiterates, the tendency towards 'son preference' is three times greater than that towards 'daughter preference'. However, gender preference becomes increasingly weaker as level of education goes up so that highly-educated people hold the lowest level of gender preference.

    The second category refers to variables related to gender roles attitudes. According to the results of this analysis, the pattern of 'son preference' is significantly affected by traditional and conservative attitudes towards gender roles: the stronger the latter, the more visible the former. Controversy, those holding modern and liberal attitudes towards gender roles are substantially less in favour of gender preference. The third category refers to demographic determinants. For instance, gender preference particularly 'son preference' tends to be more common among people with a larger number of children. Furthermore, the gender composition of the existing children has a significant impact on gender preference, suggesting that the pattern of son preference becomes significantly weaker among people who already have an equal number of male and female children.

    In sum, the underlying conclusion of this analysis refers to the fact that the patterns of gender preference are substantially associated with modernism so that gender preference in general and son preference specifically tend to be significantly less evident among people with more liberal and modern attitudes. In contrary, those holding stronger traditional attitudes are more likely to have gender preference particularly son preference. This underlying conclusion can be observed and explained through such basic determinants as age or education, and more visibly through attitudes towards gender roles measured by women's employment and male-bread-winner model: those with more liberal and modern attitudes towards gender roles hold a weaker tendency towards gender preference, whereas such a tendency is significantly stronger amongst those with more traditional and conservative attitudes towards gender roles
    Keywords: Gender Preference, Demographic Determinants, Education, Iran
  • Mostafa Bagherian far, Ali Siadat, Yaghoub Lohrabi Pages 79-98
     
    Introduction
    Identity as one of the most important components in human and social sciences has gained experts’ attention in recent decades. Identity is a trait that every person chooses. In other words, it is an answer to the question "Who am I?" This is a question that in fact brings struggle to the person. In other words, this “Who”, in contrast to what seems at first glance, is complex and multi-layered. My "Who" may relate to race, ethnicity, gender, religion, age, social class, economic status, Job, membership in Organizations, etc. Identity can be attributed to a combination of these factors with different levels. Hence, what combinations, what hierarchy of layers and in what period can we talk about identity? It depends on many factors, including social possibilities. Social identity has many dimensions that can be placed in a spectrum consists of national, ethical, religious and global identities. One of the factors which has a strong role on shaping people’s identity is cyber space, especially mobile messengers (Telegram, Line, Instagram, and WhatsApp, etc.). These are apps that allow users to get involved in common activities. Emergence of this technology has brought vast changes in communication among people, and in forming social identities. These technologies provide an opportunity for people to generalize their thoughts and tendencies to real world through these media, so creating a new situation for dialogue and interaction. The purpose of the present paper is to explain students’ social identity indices based on using mobile messenger.
    Material &
    Methods
    The research method is descriptive-correlative and study population includes all undergraduate students of University of Isfahan in academic year 2016-2017, of whom 338 students were chosen randomly as study sample based on categorized Cochran (1991) formula. To collect data a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated at 0.81, while national, ethnic, religious and global identity coefficients were calculated at 0.89, 0.83, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively. Face validity and content validity were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, average, relative frequency and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (t-test, Pearson test and regression analysis).
    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Descriptive results showed that 65.8 Percent of undergraduate students used whatsApp and Telegram, 8.8 Percent use Viber and Line, 19.7 Percent use Instagram, and 6.5 Percent use no messenger app. Out of study sample, 7.7 Percent believe these applications are very important in their daily life, 4.7 Percent would say important, 64.8 Percent to some extent, 13.0 Percent less important and 7.1 percent responded very unimportant. Also, 53.9% of students are 1 – 3 times online, 6.17% of students 4 – 6 times, 8.21% of students 7 – 12 times and 7.6% students are more than 12 times are online daily. 38.0% of students have a mobile messenger app for less than one year, 42.6% students for 1 – 2 years, 10.2% for 2 - 3 years and 9.2 % of students have had it for more than 3 years. Also, mobile messenger apps have a negative relationship with national, ethnic, global and religious identities, while students’ attitude towards mobile messenger app can predict and explain 0.6, 0.1, 1.5, 1.7 and 2.2 percent of national, ethnic, religious, global and social identities, respectively. Also, attitude towards these program have negative role on social identity. Therefore, in societies where communications are based on printing media, television and telephone, attitudes can be shaped as beneficial and self-sufficient, but in societies where electronic media are prevalent, attitudes are unstable, scattered and multi-layered. Unfortunately, weak social skills in establishing relations within families and educational institutions, social strains in dialogues, speculation, inner cycle, and luxury life absorb students’ minds and attention to mobile messenger apps. In such a situation, feeling of security declines and student may show risky psychological behaviors.
    Keywords: Mobile Messenger Apps, Social Identity, Religious Identity, Ethnic Identity, National Identity, Global Identity
  • Ali Norozi, Amir Maleki, Mehraban Parsamehr, Hamid Ghasemi Pages 99-122
     
    Introduction
    Gender, as a research area in sociology of sport, is of particular importance. Since women constitute half of the human resources playing an effective role the development of any society. Therefore, in cultural, social and economic development programs, attempts should be made to pave the way for the better utilization of their capabilities and talents to provide the ground for their presence in different social domains and their effective participation in cultural development. One of main areas associated with cultural development in every society is women’s sport participation. On the other hand, through changes in cultural models and lifestyles and their effects on women’s body management, and considering body as a partial reflection of today`s world and its close relationship with life, woman`s identity, the degree of their participation, the study women’s body management as an index of lifestyle has gained momentum. Against this background, the present study aims to test a model in which women’s sport participation is the dependent variable, and the body image (body surveillance, body shame) and body management (tendency toward physical fitness, use of cosmetics and attitude toward cosmetic surgery) have been considered as dependent variables.

    Material & Methods The current is study is a survey in which uses questionnaire as a data collection method. Women at 19 years of age and above in Ilam province constitute the statistical population of this research (N=193952). To determine the sample size, using Cockran’s sample size formula, 500 women were selected through cluster random sampling and the required data were collected. This research is of adequate theoretical validity and the reliability of the questionnaire was checked using Cronbach’s Alpha. Reliability indices for the components of the questionnaire include variable body management (Tendency towards Physical Fitness: .75, Use of Cosmetics: .80 , and Cosmetic Surgeries: .91), and body image (Body Surveillance: .83 and Body Shame: .90) all of which fall above the acceptable level of .70. Of course, sport participation has been examined as an observed variable, and since in studies conducted by Berger and Relley (2008), Sliter and Tigman (2011) Ris and Saib (2010) Pififer et al. (2006), Pastor et a.l (2003), Mor and Chadley (2005), Linstorm (2001) and Jones and More (2012), the questionnaire has been used with slight modifications as a standard and internationally recognized and reliable questionnaire. The collected data were coded and analyzed using SPSS 23 and Amos 21 and Pearsonproduct-moment correlation and univariate regression were run to test the hypotheses. Additionally, to test the joint effect of independent variables on the dependent variables and testing the fitness of the model, structural equation modeling (SEM) was run through Amos.

    Discussion of Results &Conclusions From the 500 respondents, based on the place of the sport activity, 175 did sport at home, 95 in parks, 160 in the nature and just 96 in sport clubs. The women in Ilam province participate in sport activities as follows: hiking: 310; stretching execises: 123;, climbing: 95; physical fitness (aerobics, fitness and …): 62 volleyball: 32; badminton:19; , treadmill execises: 17, Futsal: 12 and yoga: 10. The findings show that women participate more in collective and low-cost exercises. Additionally, the findings show three-quarters (74%) of women in Ilam exercise between 10 to 699 minutes on average. At the same time, only 8.33 percent of them exercise professionally and regularly and most of them (2.4 percent) have irregular exercises between 10 to 120 min for pleasure or for health. The average participation of Ilam women in urban areas (138 minutes) is significantly more than rural areas (97 minutes). In addition to more sport participation, women in urban areas, in comparison to rural areas, exercise more professionally and regularly and the number of organized athletes in cities is more than that in rural areas. Of course collective exercise is more popular among rural women. The findings of the analysis and research model showed that body image has a greater effect on women`s participation directly (β = .34) and indirectly (β =.33) and in total with .a 67 effect size had the greatest effect on sport participation. The tendency toward physical fitness,, out of body management dimensions, has a moderate positive effect (.45) on women`s participation, whereas tendency toward cosmetic surgeries has a reverse weak effect (-.12) on women`s participation. Tendency towards using cosmetics did not have an effect of women’s participation. In addition, R2, the squared multiple correlation coefficient was reported to be .56 which indicate that the two variables of body image and body management and their components explain up to 56% percent of variance in women`s sport participation. The finding of this research provide a partially different model, meanwhile confirming the theoretical perspectives and research background regarding the effect of body image and body management on sport participation, because in the analytical model of the research, in addition to direct influence on sport participation, body image influences sport participation via body management. But in Ilam province, because of difference in cultural values towards Western societies, women, from among different alternatives stemming from their self-image (body image), focus on special dimensions of body management (including physical fitness and use of cosmetics), based on accepted and expected norms while cosmetic surgery is advanced as the third dimension of body management comes in contrast to sport participation. That is, as the result of body shame, women choose between cosmetic surgery and sport participation and here the accepted alternative of the majority of people in the society is sport participation
  • Saeede Ebahimi, nia, SeyedAlireza Afshani, ALi Ruhani Pages 123-146
    Introduction
    Today, the reasons for more consumption than the basic needs are differentiation, self-glorification, variety, and etc. The culture of keeping up with the Joneses in consumption is developed in Iran. The complexity of Iranian society cannot be expressed in terms of consumption, fashion, or even distinction concept. The complex culture of Iran has very complicated layers that cannot be explained theoretically by conventional theories like the concept of consumption. Therefore, we should try to make this concept visible in the context of Iranian society. For this reason, we should refer to the context of the community and discover the processes that lead to the formation of such a concept (Keep up with the Joneses) and action (competitive interaction). Therefore, this study tended to investigate the formation dynamics of the keep up with the Joneses process in the purchase and consumption of the target sample.

    Material &
    Methods
    The present study was carried out in the form of qualitative methodology and using the background theory. The sampling was based on theoretical and purposeful sampling. The researcher of this study categorized the areas in which the possibility of keeping up with the Joneses existed in accordance with the results of the preliminary interviews. Also, based on the preliminary interviews of the samples which were selected from different classes of society, the researcher concluded that the samples of the lower classes of the society did not provide much information. Because women of these classes did not have a special wealth to do the keep up with the Joneses behavior in consumption. Therefore, the researcher selected his samples from the women of middle and middle upward classes of Mashhad, who due to having a special wealth, were most attracted to purchasing, consumption and showing off behaviors. In this regard, the information of this study was collected using in-depth and semi-deep interviews. It's worth mentioning that the sampling process has continued to reach the theoretical saturation. In this way, data collection and data analysis were done simultaneously. In this study, open source, axial and selective coding were used in data analysis.

    Discussion of Results &
    Conclusions
    Research findings consisted of 31 main categories and a core category named regret of consumption. Accordingly, the conceptual tables, paradigm model and theoretical scheme of the research were presented. The interpretation of the results generally showed high "competitive consumption" of the target community and low purchasing power, which resulted in the "regret of consumption". The satisfaction process of regret of consumption is an ineffective and imperfect process, therefore the dynamics of competitive consumption and keep up with the Joneses consumption becomes circularly and synergy more active and more powerful. Also, the results indicate that accompaniment in shopping (joining others with no intention to buy), accompaniment in window-shopping (watching new goods), and authority in buying that makes a person more socially admired, are among the important factors that lead to occurrence of competitive consumption phenomenon, in other words, women tend to buy and consume more.
    Also, the psychological benefits of shopping for women are also known as important factors for the competitive consumption and increased tendency of consumption for women. The psychological benefit increases the self-esteem and enjoyment of shopping for women. In addition, the results show that the participants are influenced by others and due to their attention to others idea, they are more intended for show off consumption and keep up with the Joneses consumption. This type of consumption that occurs as a result of others effect is discussed in the present study with the title of "Hegemonic Cultural Consumption", which appears in form of self-glorification and enjoying the distinction between themselves and others, answering others' showing off behaviors, keep up with the Joneses purchase and parties, as well as replacements of old-fashioned home appliances.
    Keywords: Keep up with the Joneses, showing off consumption, the regret of consumption, competitive consumption, accompaniment in the shopping, accompaniment in window-shopping, psychological benefit, hegemonic cultural consumption
  • Mohammad Hassan Tanhaei, Ali Nasre Esfahani, Seyed Akbar nilipour tabatabaei, Ahmad Reza Akhavan Sarraf Pages 147-166
    Human resources in firms are one of the factors to gain competitive advantage. Hence, successful firms use these advantages effectively which are the valuable capital of firm and elevate their firm through enhancement of their capability and motivation. Although employees are expected to participate in development of the firm via their knowledge, ideas, opinions and suggestions, they sometimes prefer to become silent. Therefore, firms have to provide conditions for their employees to move towards the purposes and plans of the firm with peace of mind and safety. Today, firms need employees who break organizational silence and propose their opinions about the problems. In firms where there is no silence, employees and managers have high motivation, performance and efficiency. Similarly, simultaneous with more diversification of organizational environments, the environment and communicative processes will become more complex and interactive. So, employees are a valuable source of feedback for identification of the problems at the work environment and solving them. The research show that when managers ask the employees to express their opinions, if employees believe that their opinions and suggestions for change may disturb the current balance in the firm or worries the managers, they often feel unsafety in expressing their ideas and opinions. This sense of unsafety is led to unconscious or conscious decision of an employee to become silent (Deniz et al., 2013). Employees' silence is highly harmful for firms and it often increases dissatisfaction levels among the employees. This is shown in the form of absenteeism and turnover and perhaps other undesirable behaviors. In addition, if employees are silent, relations will be damaged; thus, total performance of the firm will be damaged. Other consequences may be lack of innovation, low spirit, defective services, etc. (Cinar et al., 2013). How to break silence and create a free space which encourages the employees to speak are major challenges for managers (Beheshtifar et al., 2012). Isfahan Municipality is one of the most important service firms that requires employees who can express their opinions simply. On the other hand, employees' silence has been one of the main concerns of managers at Isfahan Municipality in recent years. It is essential for this organization to propose explanatory factors of silence and its consequences in the framework of a model through a deep study and considers it as the management basis of this phenomenon. Despite the fact that employees' silence has become common in firms but it is a concept that has not been recognized well and a few scientific studies has been carried about it. Besides, its nonobvious presence, meaning and effect on performance of groups and firms have not been recognized completely. Likely, Morrison and Milliken (2000) indicate given that silence has become a powerful force in firms but it has not been explored seriously (Zarei Matin et al., 2011). Therefore, familiarity with this phenomenon and identifying the grounds and reasons of its occurrence as well as the resulting consequences is necessary in order to prevent or confront it. Considering the importance of this issue, the main problem in this study is to design a model for antecedents and consequences of organizational silence at Isfahan Municipality.

    Methodology
    This study is applicable-developmental from objective aspect, descriptive-correlational from methodological aspect and uses an admixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The statistical population in the qualitative study included 2013 employees of Isfahan Municipality. The statistical population in the quantitative study (fuzzy Delphi) was consisted of 138 organizational experts including the selected managers at Isfahan Municipality and academic experts in the field of organizational behavior and human resources. Sixteen employees were being interviewed in the qualitative section by means of purposive sampling. The quantitative study was implemented through judgmental sampling and eighteen organizational and academic experts participated in this section. Qualitative data was collected via semi-structured interview and it was continued until theoretical saturation was achieved. Tool of data collection in Delphi stage is questionnaire. Maxwell's theoretical and descriptive valuation as well as Newman's valuation method were employed to confirm reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Reliability of qualitative data is equal to 84.37 for antecedents of organizational silence and 76.19 for consequences of organizational silence. Given that the values are greater than 60 percent, reliability of codings is confirmed.

    Discussion, conclusion and suggestions In this study, antecedents and consequences of organizational silence were identified and a model was designed based on the identified factors. The primary proposed model was on the basis of Morrison and Milliken's organizational silence theory (2000) and employee silence by Pinder and Harlos (2001). The results revealed that individual, managerial, organizational and group factors are effective on organizational silence or antecedents of organizational silence. It is noteworthy that a lot of variables in the framework of individual and organizational consequences of organizational silence were identified and explored in this study. The obtained results show that managers have to enhance their understanding of organizational silence and identify and decrease silence in firms to increase organizational efficiency. To this end, some suggestions are presented below.
    It is suggested to the firms to value constructive opinions of employees and propose the required policies to encourage and support their views. For this purpose, it is suggested to reward innovative opinions of employees and create a suggestions system in order to destroy silence. In the same vein, a positive and negative feedback system shall be established which will decrease fear and horror of criticism via providing job security for employees. Also, managers should provide circumstances under which employees can challenge their decisions.
    It is suggested to firms to create a safe environment for employees. The possibility to receive negative feedback and suggestions for change by employees should also be provided. In this way, they can deal with the problems and mistakes timely
    Keywords: Organizational Silence, Organizational Culture, Personality Traits, Isfahan Municipality
  • Kobra Hajiabllo, Hoda HALLAJZADEH*, Ebrahim Masoudnia Pages 167-182
    Introduction

    In recent years, researchers in social fields have paid a lot of attention to body analysis and have stated it as an aesthetic object. With increase in people’s awareness of beauty standards, the tendency to become closer to these standards has been increased. Interest in beauty is originated from our human nature. It is emphasized on beauty and physical attraction as a good feature because today we are in face to face interaction in our daily life. In Contemporary society, the social-cultural norms convey this message that the social acceptance and value is based on physical beauty. The feature of being beauty promote the idea that women are not complete without cosmetics. Women like to think that their natural face and body are not lovely and the cosmetics will complete them. Based on the announced statistics, Iran is one of the countries in which the most rhinoplasty cosmetic surgeries are done among the world. This was told by rhinology (nose surgens) researches of Iran and they also added that this surgery is seven times more than America. Guilan is the fifth province after Tehran, Isfahan, Fars and east Azerbayjan that contains more cosmetic surgery and the nose surgery is the most kind of that. If not considering the effects of this surgeries, we can say that many of these people became depressed because of not meeting the things they wanted and so they suffered from physical and mental problems until the years after doing surgery. The instruments such as management, paying attention to inner and outer physical form of the body for young people especially for girls, makes them keeping a clear image of personal identity and showing it to others. So the culture of the body conveys the increasing emphasis on the idea that body works as a center for human to rethink about himself. The body is a focus point to cultural and social recreation and presents power relationships and its effect on social differences and inequalities. Then, special attention and study should be done about cosmetic surgery as a social subject and the reasons of its effect including cultural capital have to be studied. The present study was done with the purpose of comparing the cultural capital factors between women with and without cosmetic surgery.

    Material & Methods

    The present study is done in the form of a post-event cross-sectional research. The data contains 383 people (191 women who did cosmetic surgery and 192 women who did not), of the age of more than 15 living in Rasht from Mehr to azar in 1395. Convenience sampling between the women who did cosmetic surgery is used to choose the required samples. These women attended in beauty clinics to do or receive the treatments related to cosmetic surgery. To choose samples between the women who did not attend in cosmetic surgery, the Convenience sampling is again used. The measurement instrument contains: a check list of social- demographic features and researcher made questionnaires of cultural capital. This questionnaire involved 38 questions which measured 3 dimensions of cultural capital i.e. obtained cultural capital, institutional cultural capital and incarnated cultural capital. All of these questions are scored based on a Likert of 5-degree spectrum.  Formal credit method in addition to expert opinions are used to assign the value of the questionnaire. Also, Cronbach Alpha Method was used to measure the reliability of the measuring instruments. The reliability coefficient for the whole cultural capital questionnaire was 0/87, and for factors of obtained cultural capital, institutional cultural capital and incarnated cultural capital were 0/86, 0/85, and 0/88 respectively.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The results of this research shows that the total means of cultural capital among the people who did cosmetic surgery and for the ones who did not do a cosmetic surgery were 67/38 and 102/46 respectively. The significance level of the theory was 0/000 and less than 0/05 representing the existence of significant among two groups which means more total cultural capital for the people who did not do cosmetic surgery. Also, the means of capital incarnated among the people with and without cosmetic surgery were 21/08 and 32/73 respectively. The significance level of the theory was 0/000 and less than 0/05 which shows the existence of a significant difference among two groups. In other words, capital incarnated for the people without cosmetic surgery was more than the other group. The results showed that the means of obtained cultural capital among the people with and without cosmetic surgery were 28/88 and 44/17 respectively. The significance level of the theory was 0/000 and less than 0/05 representing significant difference between two groups and it means more obtained cultural capital for the ones who did not do cosmetic surgery. Finally, the means of institutional cultural capital for the people with and without cosmetic surgery were 17/41 and 25/54 respectively. The significance level of the theory was 0/000 and less than 0/05 representing significant difference between two groups and it means more institutional cultural capital for the ones who did don do cosmetic surgery. According to Bourdieu's idea, there is a relationship between cultural capital and body management. Cosmetic surgery is also one of the efforts that women do to manage their body. Research theory testing shows significant difference in all of the cultural capital dimensions (obtained, institutional and incarnated) and the total cultural capital between the groups who did cosmetic surgery and who did not do cosmetic surgery as the cultural capital among the people with cosmetic surgery are more than the ones and without that. Bourdieu believes that the cultural capital determines the cultural status plus other different class structures. People are always ranged based on a combination of economic and cultural capital. These environments are differentiated from each other according to their cultural level and size. In each environment, higher rank has higher culture and this results in legitimacy and mastering of the cultural capital owners. In other words, the people with higher cultural capital have usually an important role in partial legitimacy and differentiation. At last, we can conclude that the women who absorbed cultural capital more than others and received higher scores in cultural capital questions use the body capital to show power in social and cultural environments less than the others. Actually, cosmetic surgery in previous years was entered into the society as a new issue, the people with higher cultural capital used it as an instrument to partial differentiation and legitimacy to themselves, because it was not easily possible for all classes of people to do such surgeries. Today, the conditions changed prepared for other people too, so now the women of higher cultural capital are seeking new ways to self-differentiation. This can be the reason for the higher rank of cultural capital to be not interested in doing cosmetic surgery and increasing their erotic capital. These women use new methods to manage body such as doing exercise, improving nutritional pattern and using diets to increase their body capitals. So, it means they use the method that do not harm their health to show power and legitimacy to themselves. This can represents the critical view of women with higher cultural capital about the body to be commodity.

    Keywords: Cultural Capital, Cosmetic Surgery, Incarnated Cultural Capital, Obtained Cultural Capital, Institutional Cultural Capital
  • Asadola Naghdi *, Soraya Memar, Maryam Dastani Pages 183-208
    Introduction

    In recent decades, with the spread of consumerism and rising consumer Tendencies in the global arena, there have been developments in the cultural and structural contexts of societies that have transformed and transformed traditional women's identity and redefined their identity in the face of modern consumerism manifestations. Today, people with a tendency to Over consumption of goods, not only to meet the need, try to get a different social position than others. In the meantime, women, with the use of Conspicuous Consumption as representatives of their families, try to raise their dignity and social status and their families in society. The study seeks to show that, although women have always had more tendencies over the course of history than men, but what is seen as excessive consumption and in fact the use of manifestation is due to the prevalence of consumer culture, this is due to the propaganda of the capitalist system and the process of globalization. But perhaps the question is why the city of Isfahan has been chosen as the case study. In response, it should be acknowledged that women in a large city like Isfahan, which are largely in the course of modernity and experience institutional rank and cultural backgrounds and new roles, have been selected because the city of Isfahan still has its links It maintains tradition and can clearly see the confrontation between tradition and modernity, and is one of the few metropolises that are not fully engaged in religious, family ... and not in their entirety It is discrete with these stereotypes. In fact, present-day women in the city of Isfahan play an active role in dialectics of identification and identity change in light of consumerism and their religious, familial and traditional affiliations. The present article focused on the effect of consumerism on redefining the identity of women born in the 50s, 60s and 70s of Isfahan. The Theories used in this research were the theory of Pierre Bourdieu, Thorstein Veblen and Anthony Giddens.

    Methods & Material 

     The research method was quantitative and survey type, data collection method, researcher-made questionnaire, a sample size of 384 women in Isfahan and a multi-stage cluster sampling method.

    Discussion of Results & Conclusions

    The results of the analysis show that there are significant correlations between the variables of consumerism and the redefinition of women's identity, social inequality and consumerism, social inequality and redefinition of women's identity and between globalization and consumerism. Also, the regression results show that the variables of consumerism, globalization and social inequality explain 22% of the variations in the redefinition of social identity. Consequently, in line with the results obtained in this research and other similar studies, it can be acknowledged that consumption In Iran, in different decades, it has undergone a different course The desire for more consumerism has grown considerably among women in Iran in the early 1970s, But in later this decade, due to the Islamic Revolution, which brought with it religious enthusiasm, as well as the decline of the presence of Western culture, consumerism and pretending to overuse, was significantly reduced. But in the 1980s, with the end of the eight-year war and the erosion of its particular economic and political conditions, the wave of moderatorial began again in the community. Women's entry into public areas such as universities and moving away from Private house space prepared them to redefine a different identity from traditional identity. The results of the research were in line with the views of foreign thinkers such as Giddens, Bourdieu, and Veblen, and also consistent with the results of many domestic research on changing attitudes. In the context of social identity, attempts have been made to reflect the power of consumerism in the redefinition of identity, since in the current era, changing attitudes and beliefs, there have been many changes in the lives of individuals. In fact, increasing consumerism has been able to make a big contribution to the acquisition of new identities.

    Keywords: Consumption, Conspicuous Consumption, Re-Definition of Social, Identity Inequality, globalization, Usage, Emulation, Subjectivity