فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:7 Issue:3, 2018
  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2018
  • 88 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Poultry feather waste management and effects on plant growth
    J. C. Joardar, M. M. Rahman Pages 183-188
    Purpose
    Poultry industries produce a lot of feathers which are considered as waste and needs to be managed properly. Poultry feathers are rich with keratin protein and therefore they could be a source for good nitrogen fertilizer. Proper treatment of poultry feather waste (PFW) might be an environmental friendly solid waste management tool and a good source of N-rich organic fertilizer.
    Methods
    PFW was treated under a mixture of both aerobic and anaerobic processes. Treated poultry feather waste (TPFW) was analyzed for different nutrient elements. TPFW was applied to the soil at 4, 8, 12 and 16 t/ha along with control. Ipomoea aquatica was grown as the test plant to evaluate the growth performance under different rates of TPFW application. Plants were harvested 7 weeks after seed germination.
    Results
    TPFW contained higher amount of organic matter (35.9%) and total nitrogen (4%). Other major nutrient elements were found to be satisfactory. Color of the plants were observed greener in TPFW applied plants than control plants and the green color was pronounced with increasing rate of TPFW application. Plant height (cm/plant), leaf number per plant and weight of plants (g/plant) was also increased significantly due to the application of TPFW at 12 t/ha and above.
    Conclusion
    Proper treatment of PFW might be an environmental friendly, cost effective and sustainable strategy for PFW management that will also play a vital role in nutrient (especially nitrogen) recycling to the soil.
    Keywords: Poultry, Feather, Waste management , Compost, Nutrient recycling
  • Organic manures: an efficient move towards maize grain biofortification
    Organic manures: an efficient move towards maize grain biofortification Pages 189-197
    Purpose
    In a novel approach, certain organic wastes byproducts of agro industries were assessed for their ability to support maize growth and Zn bioavailability in maize grain.
    Methods
    In a field experiment, maize (Zea mays) was supplemented with farm yard manure (FYM), press mud (PM), fisheries manure (FM), and slaughter house waste (SHW) in combination with Zn soil application (ZnS) and Zn foliar spray (ZnF) with recommended doses of N:P:K (140:100:60 kg ha−1), respectively. Besides assessing the maize growth, grain, and straw yield, Zn bioavailability in maize grain was also studied.
    Results
    Organic materials combined with ZnS and ZnF significantly increased the maize yield and Zn bioavailability. PM + ZnS increased the grain yield by 69.71%, while FM + ZnF and FYM + ZnF increased the grain Zn concentration by 86.37 and 86.16%, respectively. Moreover, grain Zn content was greatly influenced by PM + ZnS and PM + ZnF resulted an average increase by 160%. Phytate concentration and phytae:Zn molar ratio in grain were decreased by 30.34 and 66.92%, respectively by FYM + ZnF. Estimated Zn bioavailability ranged from 0.92 to 2.04 mg Zn/300 g in maize grain, and was maximum by PM and FYM combined with ZnF.
    Conclusion
    Organic manures influence the nutrient uptake from soil, increase the product quality, and act as a good organic fertilizer. The current study revealed that organic manures can enhance crop growth and Zn uptake in grain in sustainable manner. It would be an eco-friendly approach by utilizing organic wastes annually generated by agro industries.
    Keywords: Biofortification , Maize Organic manures , Yield Zinc applicatio
  • Assessment and valorization of treated and non-treated olive mill wastewater (OMW) in the dry region
    Haifa Rajhi, Inès MnifEmail author, Mounir Abichou, Ali Rhouma Pages 199-210
    Purpose
    The quantity of Olive by-products does not stop increasing and a water shortage that threatens the olive tree culture; require a serious valuation of these by-products. A comparative and valorization study of two kinds of OMW; Fresh OMW (FOMW), directly issue from three-phase continuous extraction factory and Disposal Evaporation Ponds OMW (DOMW) were done.
    Methods
    Physico-chemical and biological parameters of OMWs and soil irrigated with OMWs, respectively, were determined. An antibacterial activity test of FOMW against Clinic Standard Bacteria was determined. A statistical analysis was performed for all defined parameters.
    Results
    A significant increase of pH value of 6 and a lower failure of the EC in 8.94 (mS/cm−1) were registered after OMW disposal in evaporation ponds. We registered a fall of BOD5 and COD from 61.05–116.37 (g/L) to 55.67–103.82 (g/L), respectively. A significant increment of phenol compound removal was observed after OMW disposal. However, a switch of fatty acids distribution and content was observed, which several fermentation pathways could explain took place. This result suggested by a clear shift in biomass composition. An important soil fertility after DOMW soil irrigated was traduced by an important value of the germination index (170.55%) and efficient organic matter increment of 2.3%. A CMI rate of 32.76 (μg mL−1) was determined by FOMW against different clinic standard bacteria.
    Conclusion
    A spectacular soil fertility effect was obtained from DOMW soil spreading, that efficiently evaluate the OMW biological treatment. In addition, the FOMW was valorized as its powerful antibacterial.
    Keywords: Olive mill water valorization Ponds evaporation OMW compounds Soil treatment Soil fertility OMW antibacterial activity
  • Loss of phosphorus by runoff from soils after amendment with poultry litter co-composted with crop waste
    Asma Saleem, Muhammad IrshadEmail author, An Ping, Bushra Haroon Pages 211-215
    Purpose
    The study aimed to assess the influence of poultry litter (PL) after co-composting with sugarcane and cabbage waste on phosphorus (P) losses in runoff from soils under natural rainfall conditions.
    Methods
    Co-composted PL was amended in silt loam and sandy clay soils. The soil applied with PL without agro-waste was considered as control treatment. Before the soil application, PL was co-composted with agro-wastes, i.e., sugarcane waste and cabbage waste at four levels (0, 25, 33, and 50%). Soils were packed in wooden trays layered with plastic. The surface soil was mixed with the co-composted PL at rates 200 and 400 kg P ha−1. Runoff samples were collected from the sloped trays during two rainfall events and P concentration was determined.
    Results
    Phosphorus concentration was found higher in the runoff in the PL treatment without agro-waste. Poultry litter application along with agro-waste profoundly lowered P losses in the runoff as compared to the control especially at higher application of agro-waste. Application of PL composted with higher level of agro-waste (%) reduced the P losses from soils. Phosphorus losses in the runoff enhanced with higher amount of PL application depending on the soil type and initial P content in the soil. Silt loam soil amended with co-composted poultry litter/agro-waste reduced P losses more significantly as compared to sandy clay soil.
    Conclusion
    The application of manure amendments with agro-wastes decreased the losses of soluble P and would reduce detrimental environmental effects.
    Keywords: hosphorus loss Runoff Rainfall events Poultry litter Crop waste
  • An environmental evaluation of food waste downstream management options: a hybrid LCA approach
    Ramy SalemdeebEmail author, Mohammad Bin Daina, Christian Reynolds, Abir Al, Tabbaa Pages 217-229
    Purpose
    Food waste treatment methods have been typically analysed using current energy generation conditions. To correctly evaluate treatment methods, they must be compared under existing and potential decarbonisation scenarios. This paper holistically quantifies the environmental impacts of three food waste downstream management options—incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion (AD).
    Methods
    The assessment was carried out using a novel hybrid input–output-based life cycle assessment method (LCA), for 2014, and in a future decarbonised economy. The method introduces expanded system boundaries which reduced the level of incompleteness, a previous limitation of process-based LCA.
    Results
    Using the 2014 UK energy mix, composting achieved the best score for seven of 14 environmental impacts, while AD scored second best for ten. Incineration had the highest environmental burdens in six impacts. Uncertainties in the LCA data made it difficult determine best treatment option. There was significant environmental impact from capital goods, meaning current treatment facilities should be used for their full lifespan. Hybrid IO LCA’s included additional processes and reduced truncation error increasing overall captured environmental impacts of composting, AD, and incineration by 26, 10 and 26%, respectively. Sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis evaluate the methods robustness and illustrate the uncertainty of current LCA methods. Major implication: hybrid IO-LCA approaches must become the new norm for LCA.
    Conclusion
    This study provided a deeper insight of the overall environmental performance of downstream food waste treatment options including ecological burdens associated with capital goods.
    Keywords: Anaerobic digestion Incineration Composting Food waste Hybrid life cycle assessment Capital goods
  • Effect of bagasse ash and filter cake amendments on wheat (Triticum turgidum L.var. durum) yield and yield components in nitisol
    Assefa Gonfa, Bobe Bedadi, Anteneh Argaw Pages 231-240
    Purpose
    This experiment was initiated to evaluate the effect of filter cake and bagasse ash on the productivity of wheat under greenhouse conditions.
    Methods
    Six levels of filter cake and bagasse ash each separately and control check were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications.
    Results
    At 100 tons/ha, both inputs resulted in the highest values of all the investigated traits. It was also found that yield and yield components that were obtained from bagasse ash overwhelmed those from filter cake treatments, except in tillers, dry biomass, and straw yield. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant and positive relationship between grain yield with that of total N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn uptake. A linear relationship between the grain yield with that of N and Zn uptake was found, while the association between grain yield with total P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Cu uptake was quadratic.
    Conclusion
    It can be concluded that filter cake and bagasse ash are good sources of nutrients to enhance wheat yield in acidic soil. To give a conclusive result, these inputs should be tested in field trials in different soil types.
    Keywords: Bagasse Ethiopia Filter cake Soil acidity Subsistence farmers
  • Biochemical, physiological, and yield responses of lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) grown on varying ratios of municipal solid waste vermicompost
    Vaibhav Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Pooja Singh, Bhavisha Sharma, Rajeev Pratap SinghEmail author Pages 241-250
    Purpose
    In the present study, effect of earthworm-processed MSW was seen on biochemical, physiological, and yield responses of Abelmoschus esculentus L.
    Methods
    Plants were grown on different amendment ratios of municipal solid waste vermicompost (MSWVC). Pot experiments were conducted by mixing MSWVC at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% ratios to the agricultural soil.
    Results
    An increase in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of plants grown at 20 and 40% MSWVC amendment ratios was observed. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and protein contents also increased significantly in 20, 40, and 60% amendment ratios at 65 days after germination (DAG). Likewise, proline, peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing levels of MSWVC at both 45 and 65 DAG.
    Conclusion
    The study suggests that MSWVC could be used as organic amendment in soil depicted by good yield and antioxidative response of lady’s finger (A. esculentus) at different amendments of MSWVC (up to 60% w/w ratios). Furthermore, agricultural utilization of MSWVC will help in managing dreadful effects of the burgeoning amount of organic solid waste.
    Keywords
    Municipal solid waste Vermicompost Abelmoschus esculentus L. Heavy metals Physiology 
  • Kinetics of potassium release and fixation in some soils of Ogun State, Southwestern, Nigeria as influenced by organic manure
    A. A. Taiwo, M. T. Adetunji, J. O. AzeezEmail author, K. O. Elemo Pages 251-259
    Purpose
    The study investigated the effects of poultry and goat manures on the kinetics of potassium fixation and release in some sandy loam and loamy soils of Ogun State, Nigeria.
    Methods
    The treatments consisted of poultry and goat manures applied at 25 g and 100 g/5 kg soil set in completely randomized design with three replicates. Potassium fixation and release kinetics were computed from the analytical data.
    Results
    Experimental soils was sandy, slightly acidic, low in nutrients with 80% fixed potassium. However, manure application resulted in 74% reduction of the amount of K fixed by the soils. Elovich and power functions had the best fit for K released in soils treated with goat manure. The K release pattern in poultry manure-amended soil is best described by the parabolic diffusion, Elovich, and power functions, while the first-order equation described K release in soils treated with cattle manure. The potassium release rate constant correlated positively with K uptake.
    Conclusion
    The ability of the studied soils to fixed K was reduced with the application of organic manures. Potassium fixation decreased with increase in organic manure rates, 100 g/5 kg soil tends to be the optimum rate, and poultry manure had greater effect on the fixing and releasing power of K.
    Keywords: Organic manure , Soil K fixation , Potassium release , Potassium uptak
  • Composting of chicken manure with a mixture of sawdust and wood shavings under forced aeration in a closed reactor system
    Waqas Qasim, Min Ho Lee, Byeong Eun Moon, Frank Gyan Okyere, Fawad Khan, Mohammad Nafees, Hyeon Tae KimEmail author Pages 261-267
    Purpose
    This study aimed to achieve successful composting and aeration rate and to optimize the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio to provide favourable conditions for the process. In the current experiment, investigation were made on variations in physico–chemical properties, i.e., temperature, ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM) and seed germination index (GI%) of composting chicken manure mixed with sawdust and wood shavings under different aeration rates in a closed reactor system.
    Methods
    Three cylindrical reactors (total volume, 60 L) were used with three aeration rates of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 L min−1 kg−1 OM. The air was dispensed from the bottom of an air compressor. The ambient and compost temperature were monitored thrice daily over 30 days of composting.
    Results
    The highest temperatures were 56.9, 55.8 and 48.1 °C, with 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 L min−1 kg−1 OM aeration rates, respectively. At the end of composting, lowest ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions were observed with 0.25 L min−1 kg−1 OM aeration, indicating that this compost was more stable than other composts. The lowest GI was recorded on day 30 with 0.75 L min−1 kg−1 OM aeration, indicating severe phytotoxicity in the substrate. Maximum OM degradation occurred with 0.25 L min−1 kg−1 OM aeration.
    Conclusion
    This study, therefore, suggested that 0.25 L min−1 kg−1 OM aeration in the composing of the chicken manure mixed with sawdust and wood shavings in closed a reactor system provided the most favourable conditions for maturation.
    Keywords: Aeration, , Chicken manure, , Sawdust, Seed germination , Temperature, Wood shavings