فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Reza Moradi*, Javad Hosseini Pages 139-149
    Background & Aims of the Study: Dyes are one of the most hazardous materials in various industries which can problems in health human, environment and ecosystem. The purpose of this study is the removal of Acid Orange 25 (AO25) diazo dye in aqueous solutions by adsorption onto clinoptilolite (CP) zeolite: study kinetic and isotherm model: experimental design and optimization.
    Materials & Methods
    CP zeolite have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effective factors for the removal of dye were determined and optimized using Taguchi (L9 (34)) orthogonal array experimental design method with four factors having three levels for each factor. The most influenced of each factor on the process determined using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The isotherms of dye adsorption such as: Langmuir and Freundlich were studied.
    Results
    The Taguchi results showed that pH=4 (level 1), dye concentration=30 ppm (level 2), agitation speed=160 rpm (level 3) and adsorbent dosage=55 mg/l (level 2) was optimum conditions for this process. The interaction between pH×adsorbent dosage was the most influencing interaction. The percent of each process parameter on the removal of dye was found to be in the following the order: pH (7.217%), dye concentration (2.604%), agitation speed (86.539%) and adsorbent dosage (3.618%). The results showed that the dye adsorption onto CP followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of dye onto CP followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that the adsorption process can be suitable method to removal dyes in aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: Zeolite, Adsorption kinetic, Taguchi experimental design, Isotherm, Azo dye
  • Roya Behrouzi , Mohammd Hosein Marhamatizadeh , Shahram Shoeibi*, Vadood Razavilar , Hossein Rastegar , Karimaneh Keisan Pages 150-156
    Background & Aims of the Study: Soil and water pollution with heavy metals is considered one of the most important environmental tensions for plants. These metals can endanger human life through food chain. Rice is one of the high consumption type of grains in the world that is widely seen in the diet of people. Thus present research seeks to study the rate of Arsenic, Cadmium and Lead in different types of domestic and imported rices in Iran.
    Materials & Methods
    This study is of descriptive and cross-sectional type where 8 types of commercial brand of different types of domestic and imported rices of Iran (56 samples) were provided and numbered with codes 1- 8. The atomic absorption Machine was used to assess the amount of heavy metals under study.
    Results
    Results revealed that the highest amount of Arsenic was in rice brand no. 8, cadmium and lead in brand no. 5 and the minimum amount of Arsenic in brand no. 6, and cadmium and lead in rice brand no. 1. Also, LOD and LOQ used for determining the rate of heavy metals, indicated 0.001ppm and 0.003 ppb for lead, 0.058 ppm and 0.177 ppb for cadmium and 0.000586 ppm and 0. 001758 ppb for Arsenic.
    Conclusion
    In the end, according to studies, and results of present study and given the importance of healthy and non-polluted food, the requirement to do monitoring acts including measurement of agricultural products and nutritions in terms of the methods of presence of the remainders of heavy metals is proved.
    Keywords: Food Security, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Heavy Metals, Rice
  • Akbar Scandari , Hossein Jafari Mansoorian , Alireza Mashkori , Zahra Ahmadli , Narges Khanjani , Samira Norzaee , Mohammad Fahiminia * Pages 157-164
    Background & Aims of the Study: Noise is one of the most important environmental pollutants. It is a global health problem, especially among industrial workers. Since there was little information about noise levels in small workshops in Qom city, this study aimed to evaluate noise in small workshops and compare it with national standards.
    Materials and Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study. Initially jobs and workshops that were causing noise pollution were identified. Then, noise was measured with a calibrated sound dosimeter, model CASELLA CEL-320, in A-network, in 108 working places. The results were compared with national noise standards.
    Results
    The total number of workers in the workshops were 317 people, and inside the workshops 76.3% of the workers and 66.7% of the workshops were exposed to noise over the standard threshold. Outside the workshops, in 89% noise pollution was higher than the standard city values. Only 11% of noise pollution in the city workshops, had a 1 or less than 1 dB difference with the standard noise threshold.
    Conclusion
    Small workshops cause a significant amount of noise pollution in Qom city. This can affect the workers’ and the public’s health. Noise control procedures such as controlling the source, and direction of noise distribution, as well as setting up workshops in the right location, and far from residential areas is necessary.
    Keywords: Noise pollution, noise, small workshops, industrial noise, Qom, Iran
  • Nasrin Hassanzadeh*, Nader Bahramifar , Farzaneh Mohammad zaheri Pages 165-173
    Background & Aims of the Study: Grape, a crucial agriculture crop of Malayer city, is affected by Vine cicada, Psalmocharias alhageos. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, provides a good management of this insect. The aim of this research is residue persistence study of imidacloprid on grapes, to estimate its residue deposit, the half-life of degradation and safe pre-harvest consumption time.
    Materials & Methods
    Residues of imidacloprid were estimated in grape following two recommended types of spraying (80.0 g a.i. ha-1) and duplicates the application rate (160.0 g a.i. ha-1). Samples were collected at 1 h to 21 days after spraying of imidacloprid. The analyses were done by the QuECHERS technique, using HPLC-UV.
    Results
    The average initial concentration of imidacloprid on grapes found to be 10.58 and 17.56 mg kg-1 at single and double dosages, respectively. These residues of imidacloprid decreased to 97.8% and 98.0%, respectively, at single and double dosages in 15 days, with a half-life period of 2.21 and 2.94 days. Residues of imidacloprid on grapes were less than its MRL value after 7 and 10 days of recommended and double dosage of spraying. Residues of imidacloprid in grape berries at harvest were discovered to below the determination limit.
    Conclusions
    Consequently, a waiting time of 7 and 10 days is usually recommended for safe consumption of grapes once imidacloprid spraying. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of imidacloprid is 0.06 mg kg-1 body weight day-1. According to the results of this study, the employment of imidacloprid on the grape looks to be toxicologically acceptable.
    Keywords: Food Safety, Grape, Imidacloprid, Maximum Residue Limit (MRL), Confidor, Toxin, Safe (QuECHERS) Method, Iran
  • Masoumeh Hasanlo*, Hadi Hasankhani , Kourosh Amini , Gholamali Taghiloo , Farahnaz Abdollahzadeh , Alireza Mohajjel Aghdam Pages 174-182
    Background & Aims of the Study: Nosocomial infection control has found a significant importance in prevention of mental stress, disabilities, declined life quality, mortality and shorter hospitalization as well as reducing the treatment costs. The aim of this study is to compare Bloom’s theory among operating room students and technologists about the infection control in 2014.
    Materials and Methods
    This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 244 technologists and 113 students who were classified by random sampling. The data collection was carried out by a standardized two questionnaires: demographic data, and the knowledge, practice and attitudes about infection control questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS V20 and Levene’s test, T-test, Chi-square and Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient were investigated.
    Results
    The mean of knowledge and practice in terms of infection control were on medium level in both groups and they had positive attitudes. Based on T-test, the two groups showed no significant difference in knowledge and attitudes about infection control methods (p>0.05). The mean of practice was however significantly higher among technologists as compared with the students (P<0.05). In terms of the association between knowledge, practice and attitudes, the relationship between knowledge and practice was significant; while attitudes and practice showed no significant relationship (P>0.05). Based on Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient, the relationship between knowledge and practice was direct and significant.
    Conclusion
    Regarding better practice of technologists, it is recommended to develop and establish clinical qualification tests on infection control for the students before their clinical practice. On the other hand, regarding the key role of technologists and students in prevention of nosocomial infections especially in operation rooms, enhancement of their knowledge and skills must be included in the educational and operational programs of authorities.
    Keywords: Nosocomial, Bloom’s Theory, Infection control, Zanjan, Tabriz, Iran
  • Ahmad Rahbar , Amir Ashkan Nasiripour*, Mahmood Mahmoodi Majdabadi Pages 183-191
    Background & Aims of the Study: In a competitive world, knowledge management is a major task for the organization. This study was carrying out to recognize the essential factors for deployment of knowledge management in teaching hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS), Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    This descriptive-correlational study was operated on 570 employees of teaching hospitals of QUMS in 2017. A researcher-made questionnaire was expanded. Its validity was confirmed by specialist and also reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha ratio. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation ratio and multiplex regression.
    Results
    The outcome showed that the average score of knowledge management in teaching hospitals was moderate (3.35). Spearman correlation coefficient showed there is affirmative and significant relation between strategy and policies, staff motivation, learning culture, top management support& decentralization with the deployments of knowledge management. Multiple regressions showed there is a lineal relation between independent variables and dependent variable. Multiple regression ratio (R=0.799) and the coefficient of determination (R2 =0.0607) and adjusted coefficient (R2adj=0.602) in the level of 0,05 are significant.
    Conclusion
    The outcome of this survey, demonstrate that knowledge management has a relatively favorable status. Therefore, top manager's support of knowledge-based strategies and increasing member participation in resolve making and the presence of staff in workshops can help to deployments of knowledge management.
    Keywords: Knowledge Management, Teaching Hospital, Multiple regression, Qom, Iran
  • Ghazaleh Monazami Tehrani , Mohammad Molla Mahmoudi , Hasti Borgheipour*, Alireza Nezampour Pages 192-199
    Background & Aims of the Study: Wastewater discharges from vegetable oil industry cause environmental problem, including pollution of groundwater and surface water. Therefore, this study evaluated the efficiency of Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) reactor for treatment of wastewater from Varamin vegetable oil industries.
    Materials & Methods
    This was an experimental study. The anaerobic reactor and the aerobic reactor with sedimentation unit were made from polyethylene and plexiglas. The IFAS reactor was packed with ratio 70% by Honeycomb packing F 19-1. To create optimal growth conditions for microorganisms in anaerobic digestion, the COD/N/P ratio was adjusted to 300/5/1. Sampling and analysis of the total of the parameters studied at the system stability time during different times from the pilot output.
    Results
    The results showed the high removal efficiency of the COD, BOD and TSS (97.9%, 98.2% and 98.8 %, for 2 day anaerobic and 8 hrs aerobic, respectively). Also, the highest COD removal efficiency was observed for these three parameters in the IFAS system at HRT 8 hrs aerobic (>99.7%, >97.7% and 97.6 %, respectively).
    Conclusion
    In general, the results showed that industrial wastewater treatment methods using the IFAS biological reactor are a suitable method for the removal of pollutants and can replace conventional methods. Also, the efficiency of removing COD, BOD and TSS from plant effluent has been at the optimum level for all retention time managed by the IFAS system.
    Keywords: Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge, Attached Growth, Industrial Wastewater, Vegetable Oil Industry, Biological Treatment
  • Zeinab Sadat Nezamodini , Zahra Movahedi , Bahram Kouhnavard , Zeinab Mosavianasl * Pages 200-207
    Background & Aims of the Study: Today, in many sensitive occupational environments, human error can lead to catastrophic events. Given that the sensitive task of a control area operator, which in the occurrence of malfunction or failure leads to irreparable events, it is important to predict human errors to reduce its adverse consequences. Therefore, the present study was perform by aiming to identify human error of the control room operators in a pipe company of Ahvaz in 2017 using by using human error rate prediction technique.
    Materials and Methods
    After numerous questions from the personnel and observing event sheets, important jobs were identified and then the Hierarchy Task Analysis, critical tasks was carried out and finally, the likelihood of human error in every of the critical tasks was decided by means of the THERP technique.
    Results
    Totally 5 main tasks and 21 subtasks were analyzed. Most of the errors recognized in this company were functional and among which factors affecting fatigue performance by 19.67% and experience by 18.03% and the training by 16.39% were the most influential factors.
    Conclusion
    According that maximum of the identified errors are functional, so targeted training courses for personnel and the try to employ people with relevant education and experience can be effective in reducing probability of human error. Also, planning for shift workers can be effective in reducing fatigue.
    Keywords: THERP technique, Human error, Control room, Iran
  • Zeinab Mosavianasl , Ali Nemati ajvadi , Amin Babayi pouya * Pages 208-215
    Background & Aims of the Study: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are one of the important occupational health issues. Prevention of these discomforts requires posture assessment at work stations using ergonomic job analysis methods. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the work stations and perform corrective actions in one of the central steel industries of Iran to decrease the frequency of these disorders.
    Materials and Methods
    An Interventional and analytical study were performed at 29 stations on one central steel industries in Iran in 2017. Initially, a primary assessment was done by using RULA method, and after calculating the possibility of musculoskeletal disorders, corrective actions were taken at high risk sites.
    Results
    In the present study, all participants male with a mean age 33.9 years. The final evaluation of scores at different work stations indicated that 17% of the stations with a risk of level 1, 59% had a risk level of 2, 17% of risk level 3, and 0.07% of risk rate 4. Principally, the consequences of the initial evaluation of the RULA technique are based on the establishment of the "waste breakdown" and "demolition work" duties at risk level 4, which makes changes and ergonomic intervention immediately necessary.
    Conclusions
    With the carrying out of corrective actions in the "waste breaker" units and "destructive work of the Tundish" as a outcome of the assessment of the RULA technique and providing other ergonomic strategies, including the inclusion of an educational plan focused on ergonomic fundamental, an important stage was taken to decrease the prevalence of skeletal muscle disorders.
    Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, RULA Technique, Steel Industry
  • Mandana Talaeipour , Amir Hossien Mahvi*, Jafar Nouri , Amir Hesam Hassani Pages 216-224
    Background & Aims of the Study: Recently membranes have been widely used in Mena region especially Iran, due to purify the brackish water and solved the water scarcity .Qom province is located in desert like area of Iran and faced to water shortage .The aim of this study is evaluation of the best method of membrane process in the ground water wells of Qom province, Iran, in 2016.
    Materials and Methods
    This descriptive cross sectional survey carried out at the central laboratory of water and Wastewater Company of Qom. The experimental tests were done in order to evaluate the treatment process of 12 physical-chemical water parameters such as: salinity, pH, TDS, EC, TH and Mg, Ca, SO4, Na, K, Cl and temperature, which performed by NF.RO Hybrid NF/RO desalination membranes installed on water desalination plant with pretreatment devices. All laboratory tested carried out undertaken of standard method of water and waste water 2012 with p value<0.05 .Then, the result of experimental tests weighted and ranked by AHP method and expert choice software11.
    Results
    The evaluation of experimental tests showed the brackish water purified by NF membrane in ranges of 21.5%-95.5%, RO membrane 43%-97.2% and Hybrid NF/RO63.95%-98.4%. Afterward the analyses of membrane performance carried out by weighting and scoring with AHP method and expert choice .The outcomes of the AHP revealed that Hybrid process obtained the best preference of membrane desalination by weight 0.449 .Then, RO by weight of 0.308, got second turn and NF, by weight of 0.243, followed by RO . It is considerable that the quality of brackish ground water treatment by Hybrid process, has the highest function as the highest weight.
    Conclusion
    The experimental tests were done by performed housing desalination plant with three membranes NF, RO, Hybrid NF/RO. The results showed the Hybrid membrane has the highest function as treatment and removal of 12 water parameters. Also, the result of hierarchy process with an expert choice and AHP method confirmed the best desalination process belongs to Hybrid membrane.
    Keywords: Desalination, Brackish water, Groundwater, Analytic Hierarchy, Qom, Iran
  • Afshin Darsanj , Hamed Yarmohammadi , Mohsen Poursadeghiyan , Sahar Dalvand , Hossein Javadzad , Razie Salehi , Faramarz Gharaghozlou * Pages 225-231
    Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increasing use of computers in the administrative and social structure of Iran, it seems that, in the near future, eye and body symptoms caused by computer work will become one of the most important health issues in our society, and threaten the health of the workforce and consequently, lead to significant financial and industrial losses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of visual fatigue in VDT operators in the banks of Qasr-e shirin city.
    Method
    This study was carried out using a descriptive-analytical method in the form of census on 58 VDT operators of Qasar-e shirin banks in Kermanshah province. A two-part questionnaire including demographic information and visual fatigue was used to measure visual fatigue. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, central indices and dispersion) as well as independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests.
    Results
    The results showed that the mean and standard deviation of visual fatigue was 48.76 ±28.18. 8.6% of subjects didn't have visual fatigue, 24.1% had low, 24.1% had moderate and 43.1% had severe visual fatigue. Also, the highest mean visual fatigue in patients with glasses was 3.49 ± 1.93 and the lowest mean, 3.35 ± 2.43, was related to single individuals. There was a positive and significant relationship between working hours with visual strain and visual fatigue subscale, and between the number working hours with visual strain and visual fatigue subscale.
    Conclusion
    In this study, the prevalence of visual fatigue was in high level. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid visual fatigue by using corrective and preventive measures such as reducing the working time with VDTs and using standard computers.
    Keywords: Visual Fatigue, Image Terminals, VDT (video display terminal), Qasr Shirin, Kermanshah, Iran
  • Neda Sekhavat , Pedram Attarod*, Anooshirvan Shirvani , Ghavamodin Zahedi Amiri , Mohammad Amiri , Leila Tabandeh Pages 232-241
    Background & Aims of the Study: Due to widespread dust-storms in the western regions of Iran and the significant role of meteorological parameters in formation and control of these storms, this study aimed to explore the correlation between meteorological parameters and dust-storm occurrences in the western part of Iran.
    Materials & Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, meteorological parameters of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, prevailing wind velocity and direction were selected and their relationships with visibility below 1000 m as well the number of recorded dusty days in meteorological stations in monthly and annually scales were analyzed, using multivariate linear regression in Kermanshah province, Iran.
    Results
    Sarpol-e Zahab, Ravansar, Kermanshah and Eslamabad-e Gharb stations were characterized by 148, 111, 107 and 60 days with visibility below 1000 m, respectively. In the last decade, the highest and the lowest number of dusty days for all stations have occurred in spring and autumn with a total of 1548 and 216 days, respectively. Also, in all stations, the lowest precipitation (4.5 mm) was observed in summer.
    Conclusions
    According to the results, non-concurrence of season with stormy days (spring), with season with the lowest precipitation (summer), indicated most dust storms are from non-local sources among all stations. Due to large scale dust-storms and their non-local sources, providing a comprehensive long-term plan for identifying this phenomenon among all affected regions seems to be essential.
    Keywords: dust, meteorological parameters, visibility, Kermanshah