فهرست مطالب

بوم شناسی کشاورزی - سال دهم شماره 2 (تابستان 1397)
  • سال دهم شماره 2 (تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • نفیسه کمایستانی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، محسن جهان، فاطمه رنجبر صفحات 299-312
    امروزه مصرف بی¬رویه کودهای شیمیایی در سیستم¬های زراعی رایج، سبب بهم خوردن تعادل عناصر غذایی، کاهش عملکرد کمی و کیفی محصولات و آلودگی منابع آب و خاک گردیده است. به منظور مطالعه اثرات کاربرد جداگانه و تلفیقی کودهای زیستی و آلی بر شاخص¬های رشدی گیاه دارویی انیسون (Pimpinella anisum L.) ، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 90-1389 در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و 15 تیمار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: 1- کود زیستی میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices) 2- میکوریزا + کود گاوی، 3- میکوریزا + ورمی کمپوست 4- میکوریزا+کمپوست، 5- میکوریزا + کود شیمیایی، 6- کود زیستی بیوسولفور (حاوی باکتری Thiobacillus sp.) به همراه گوگرد آلی بنتونیت دار، 7- بیوسولفور + کود شیمیایی 8- بیوسولفور + کود گاوی، 9- بیوسولفور + ورمی کمپوست، 10- بیوسولفور+ کمپوست، 11- کود گاوی، 12- ورمی کمپوست، 13- کود شیمیایی، 14- کمپوست و 15- شاهد. نتایج این آزمایش در مورد صفات رشدی این گیاه نشان داد که بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، میزان ماده خشک و سرعت رشد محصول به-ترتیب در تیمارهای تلفیقی میکوریزا و شیمیایی (4/2) ، بیوسولفور- ورمی کمپوست (74/348 گرم بر متر¬مربع) و بیوسولفور- ورمی کمپوست (42/14 گرم بر متر¬مربع در روز) و کمترین این صفات به ترتیب در تیمار کمپوست 35/1، تیمار کمپوست 200 گرم بر متر¬مربع و تیمار شاهد (93/4 گرم بر متر¬مربع در روز) به¬دست امد. به طور کلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که کاربرد کودهای زیستی میکوریزا و بیوسولفور نقش چشمگیری در افزایش شاخص¬های رشدی گیاه دارویی انیسون داشت. علاوه بر این، مصرف تلفیقی کودهای زیستی در مقایسه با کاربرد منفرد منابع کودی، اثرات مثبت بیشتری بر صفات رشدی انیسون داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص سطح برگ، میکوریزا، بیوسولفور، ورمی¬کمپوست
  • حسام الدین سلوکی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، علیرضا کوچکی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم صفحات 313-326
    این پژوهش با هدف بررسی و ارزیابی کارایی مصرف نور در کشت مخلوط جایگزینی ماریتیغال (Silybum marianum L.) و رازیانه (Foenicolum vulgar Mill.) انجام گرفت. آزمایش با پنج تیمار در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت خالص ماریتیغال، کشت خالص رازیانه، کشت مخلوط 3:1 (25% رازیانه: 75% ماریتیغال) ، کشت مخلوط 1:1 (50% رازیانه: 50% ماریتیغال) و کشت مخلوط 1:3 (75% رازیانه: 25% ماریتیغال) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که میزان تشعشع تجمعی جذب شده در تیمار کشت مخلوط 3:1 (25% رازیانه: 75% ماریتیغال) در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها در بالاترین مقدار بود. میزان کارایی مصرف نور، تشعشع تجمعی جذب شده و ماده خشک تجمعی در ماریتیغال در تمامی تیمارها بالاتر از رازیانه بود. همچنین کارایی مصرف نور این گیاه در طول فصل زراعی از 91/1 تا 36/2 گرم بر مگاژول تشعشع جذب شده متغیر بود و در تیمار کشت مخلوط 1:1 (50% رازیانه: 50% ماریتیغال) در مقایسه با سایر تیمارها به خصوص کشت خالص در بالاترین مقدار قرار داشت. مقادیر کارایی مصرف نور رازیانه نیز از 71/0 تا 39/1 گرم بر مگاژول تشعشع جذب شده متغیر و در تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط بالاتر از تک¬کشتی این گیاه بود. بر این اساس بهترین تیمار قابل توصیه برای کشت مخلوط ماریتیغال و رازیانه تیمار کشت مخلوط 1:1 (50% رازیانه: 50% ماریتیغال) می باشد که در آن میزان کارایی مصرف نور ماریتیغال در بالاترین حد (36/2 گرم بر مگاژول) و کارایی مصرف نور رازیانه نیز 93/0 گرم بر مگاژول بود. بر اساس یافته های این پژوهش به نظر می رسد که استفاده از مخلوط های جایگزینی و ایجاد تنوع در ساختار و مدیریت مزرعه، رویکردی مفید در جهت افزایش کارایی مصرف منابع به¬ویژه نور باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تشعشع جذب شده، تنوع زمانی، ضریب استهلاک نور، ماده خشک تجمعی
  • محبوبه عبداللهی مایوان، سرور خرم دل، علیرضا کوچکی، رضا قربانی صفحات 327-339
    به منظور بررسی اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد بیولوژیک، گل و بذر گیاه دارویی گاوزبان اروپایی (Borago officinalis L.) تحت تاثیر مقادیر آبیاری و تراکم بوته، آزمایشی به¬صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 92-1391 اجرا شد. سه مقدار آبیاری (1000 (I1) ، 2000 (I2) و 3000 (I3) متر¬مکعب در هکتار) به عنوان عامل اصلی و چهار تراکم بوته (16 (D1) ، 20 (D2) ، 67/26 (D3) و 40 (D4) ) به عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات ساده و متقابل مقادیر آبیاری و تراکم بوته بر روی عملکرد گل، بذر، بیولوژیک، تعداد گل، شاخه جانبی و تعداد دانه گیاه دارویی گاوزبان اروپایی معنی دار بود. اثر ساده مقدار آبیاری بر وزن هزار دانه معنی¬دار بود. بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد گل به ترتیب در تیمارهای D3I3 و D1I1 با مقادیر 81/0 و 14/0 گرم در متر¬مربع به دست آمد. با افزایش آبیاری به¬دلیل بهبود خصوصیات رشدی، به¬تبع آن عملکرد افزایش یافت، اما افزایش تراکم تا 40 بوته در متر¬مربع به¬دلیل افزایش رقابت درون گونه¬ای برای جذب آب و مواد غذایی کاهش رشد و عملکرد را موجب گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: رقابت، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد گل، گیاه دارویی
  • اشکان عسگری، علیرضا کوچکی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی صفحات 340-352
    تنوع زیستی کشاورزی همواره مبنایی برای تداوم کارکرد سیستم¬های تولید غذا و فراهم¬کننده خدمات فرهنگی و زیباشناختی در جوامع انسانی است. در این مطالعه، تنوع گیاهان زراعی در استان کرمانشاه با استفاده از شاخص¬های تنوع زیستی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. شاخص¬های غنای گونه-ای، شانون، یکنواختی سیمپسون و تشابه سورنسون برای کل استان و شهرستان¬ها به تفکیک محاسبه شدند. برای محاسبه¬ این شاخص¬ها از سطح زیرکشت گیاهان در شهرستان¬¬ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در این استان 19 گونه مورد کشت و کار قرار گرفته که به هشت تیره گیاهی تعلق داشتند در این بین بیشترین سطح زیرکشت مربوط به تیره¬های پوآسه (71%) و لگومینوز (25%) و در بین گیاهان، گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) (51%) و نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) (23%) بود. بالاترین غنای گونه¬ای در شهرستان¬های صحنه (19) ، کرمانشاه (17) و سرپل ذهاب (17) مشاهده گردید. شهرستان¬های هرسین (48/2) ، صحنه (24/2) و کنگاور (2/2) بیشترین مقدار شاخص تنوع شانون را دارا بودند. روند شاخص¬ها در بازه زمانی بین سال¬های 1378 تا 1388 نشان داد که مقدار شاخص شانون مزارع دیم استان با گذشت زمان کاهش یافته (48/0R=) که دلیل آن کاهش یکنواختی بوده است. در نهایت، همبستگی بین شاخص¬های شانون با سیمپسون (78/0) و غنای گونه¬ای با یکنواختی (85/0-) در سطح احتمال 1% معنی¬دار شد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص سورنسون، شاخص شانون، شاخص یکنواختی، غنای گونه¬ای
  • علیرضا کوچکی، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، اشکان عسگری، رضا رستمی صفحات 353-367
    به¬منظور شناسایی گونه¬های گیاهان زراعی فراموش شده و بررسی علل خروج این گیاهان از نظام¬های زراعی ایران مطالعه¬ای در سطح استان-های کشور و نیز براساس طبقه بندی اقلیمی در سال 1392 به اجرا در¬آمد. اجرای پژوهش در دو بخش مطالعات اسنادی و میدانی دنبال شد. گیاهان شناسایی شده بر اساس درجه¬ فراموشی یا کاهش سطح زیرکشت به دو دسته¬ گیاهان کم بهره¬برداری شده و فراموش شده تقسیم¬بندی شدند. 16 گیاه کم بهره¬برداری شده متعلق به 12 خانواده¬ گیاهی و سه گیاه فراموش شده متعلق به دو خانواده¬ گیاهی تفکیک و دلایل فراموشی، سابقه¬ تاریخی کشت آن¬ها در ایران و نیز موقعیت و سطح زیر کشت کنونی آن¬ها مورد بحث قرار گرفت. از مهم¬ترین آن¬ها می¬توان به منداب (Eruca sativa L.) ، خشخاش (Papaver somniferum L.) و وسمه (Indigofera tinctoria L.) اشاره کرد. جایگزینی این گونه¬ها به وسیله¬ گونه¬های جدید و توان رقابتی کمتر آن¬ها در مقایسه با گیاهان اصلاح شده با عملکرد بالا، تغییرات عمده در سبد غذایی و الگوی مصرف، مسائل اجتماعی- اقتصادی و سیاسی و نیز محدودیت¬های اعمال شده به¬دلیل گاها کاربرد¬های سوء برخی گونه¬ها از جمله دلایل فراموش شدن و یا کاربرد محدود این گیاهان ارزیابی شد. در این میان جایگزینی به وسیله¬ گونه¬های جدید و نیز پیشرفت¬های فنی در تولید دارو و فرآورده¬های صنعتی شیمیایی به¬عنوان دلیل عمده فراموشی گیاهان با مصرف صنعتی مورد تاکید قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییر اقلیم، گونه¬های جدید، مواد شیمیایی
  • سید مهدی جوادزاده، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، محمد بنایان اول، جواد اصیلی صفحات 368-385
    بررسی فنولوژی گیاهان دارویی برای تنظیم برنامه های بهره برداری، مواد موثر، جمع آوری بذرها، مبارزه با آفات، جلوگیری از برداشت های بی موقع، از بین بردن علف های هرز در مراحل مختلف فنولوژی حائز اهمیت است. هر گیاه برحسب شرایط آب و هوایی برای دوره حیات خود نیاز به کسب مقدار معینی حرارت دارد. در این پژوهش مراحل فنولوژیکی چای ترش و نیازهای حرارتی آن در منطقه ایرانشهر طی سال های 92-1391 بررسی شده است. یافته های این تحقیق نشان داد که برحسب دمای موثر طول دوره فعالیت بیولوژی چای ترش (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) در این منطقه 183 روز می باشد که در این مدت گیاه در مجموع به 84/5013 درجه-روز رشد حرارت در مراحل فنولوژیکی نیاز دارد. طی این دوره نه مرحله فنولوژی بر اساس مقیاس BBCH به ثبت رسید که عبارت بودند از جوانه زنی، توسعه برگ ها، تشکیل شاخه های فرعی، افزایش طول ساقه اصلی، ظهور گل آذین، گلدهی، نمو غوزه ها، رسیدن کاسبرگ ها و دانه ها و مرحله پیری که به¬ترتیب در هر مرحله به 153، 1051، 501، 506، 583، 730، 892، 349 و 246 درجه-روز رشد نیاز دارد. به¬دلیل وجود دماهای بالا در طول دوره رشد چای ترش، این گیاه با سرعت بیشتری مراحل فنولوژیکی خود را طی نموده و به بلوغ فیزیولوژیکی رسید. با توجه به نتایج حاصله به¬نظر می رسد افزایش بقایای گیاهی در سطح خاک باعث افزایش ظرفیت نگهداری رطوبت در خاک و کاهش دمای محیط خاک شده که خود باعث تاخیر در وقوع مراحل فنولوژیکی گیاه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: رشد رویشی، گلدهی، نیازهای حرارتی، ویژگی های اقلیمی
  • عیسی پیری، زهرا وحیدیان، ابوالفضل توسلی، مهدی باباییان صفحات 386-399
    زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) از مهم¬ترین گیاهان دارویی شناخته شده توسط انسان و یکی از پرمصرف¬ترین گیاهان دارویی در ایران است. زیره سبز به¬صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه¬ای واقع در منطقه حصاروئیه زاهدان به اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از سموم شیمیایی در دو سطح شامل مصرف سموم (علف¬کش لینوران و آفت¬کش به¬صورت محلول روگور) و عدم مصرف سموم به¬عنوان عامل اول و سطوح مختلف کودی در چهار سطح، بدون مصرف کود، مصرف کامل کود گاوی، مصرف کود شیمیایی متعارف (NPK) و مخلوط 50 درصد کود گاوی و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی به عنوان عامل دوم در نظر گرفته شد. در این آزمایش صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد ساقه¬های فرعی بوته، تعداد چتر بوته، تعداد دانه چتر، وزن هزار دانه، وزن تر اندام هوایی، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، عملکرد دانه، درصد و عملکرد اسانس مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد چتر در بوته و تعداد دانه در هر چتر به¬ترتیب با میانگین 1/44 سانتی¬متر، 3/8، 7/19 و 1/8 از تیمار مخلوط کود گاوی و کود شیمیایی به¬دست آمد. همچنین بیشترین مقادیر عملکرد اندام هوایی تازه، عملکرد اندام هوایی خشک، عملکرد دانه به¬ترتیب با میانگین 7/1756، 7/812، 7/488 و 7/254 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تیمار 50 درصد کود گاوی و 50 درصد کود شیمیایی به¬دست آمد. بیشترین مقدار درصد اسانس نیز از تیمار بدون استفاده از کود حاصل گردید. اثر مصرف سموم شیمیایی نیز بر هیچ یک از صفات مورد بررسی معنی¬دار نبود. مطالعه ضریب همبستگی برای گیاه زیره سبز نشان داد که عملکرد اندام هوایی و دانه زیره با تمام صفات مورد بررسی در این آزمایش همبستگی مثبت و معنی¬داری داشت.
    مصرف کودهای دامی توام با کودهای شیمیایی قادر است از طریق افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی برای گیاه تاثیر مستقیم بر افزایش عملکرد کمی و محتوی اسانس زیره سبز داشته باشد. به¬طور کلی با توجه به نتایج به¬دست آمده در این آزمایش پیشنهاد می¬گردد که برای حصول بالاترین عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی زیره سبز مصرف کودهای دامی همراه با کودهای شیمیایی و بدون مصرف سموم شیمیایی به کشاورزان منطقه توصیه شود.
    کلیدواژگان: اسانس، کود گاوی، کود شیمیایی، گیاه دارویی، عملکرد
  • حمیدرضا مبصر، شهدوست برجسته، عباس کشته گر صفحات 400-415
    به¬منظور بررسی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو محصول ذرت (Zea mays L.) و سیب¬زمینی (Solanuum tuberosum L.) در کشت مخلوط، در منطقه بنت شهرستان نیکشهر در بهمن ماه سال 1392 آزمایشی با 14 تیمار در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به¬روش جایگزینی و افزایشی به اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کشت خالص ذرت، کشت خالص سیب¬زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت + یک ردیف سیب¬زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب زمینی (برای هر محصول تراکم بوته 50 درصد تراکم مطلوب می¬باشد) ، یک ردیف ذرت+ یک ردیف سیب زمینی، یک ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب¬زمینی (برای هر محصول تراکم بوته 100 درصد تراکم مطلوب می¬باشد) ، سه ردیف ذرت + یک ردیف سیب¬زمینی، یک ردیف ذرت + سه ردیف سیب¬زمینی، سه ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب¬زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت+ سه ردیف سیب¬زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت + چهار ردیف سیب¬زمینی، چهار ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب¬زمینی، دو ردیف ذرت + دو ردیف سیب¬زمینی، (تراکم بوته برای ذرت 100 درصد تراکم مطلوب و برای سیب¬زمینی 50 درصد تراکم مطلوب می¬باشد) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که سیستم¬های مختلف کاشت بر ارتفاع گیاه ذرت، عملکرد زیست توده، تعداد دانه در بلال و عملکرد دانه ذرت و همچنین بر ارتفاع بوته، وزن غده و عملکرد غده سیب-زمینی تاثیر معنی¬داری داشت. بالاترین عملکرد زیست¬توده (684/30 تن در هکتار) از تیمار کشت خالص ذرت و بیشترین ارتفاع گیاه ذرت (26/133 سانتی¬متر) ، تعداد دانه در بلال (33/432) و عملکرد دانه (957/8 تن در هکتار) از تیمار دو ردیف ذرت+ یک ردیف سیب¬زمینی به¬دست آمد. بالاترین ارتفاع بوته (03/45 سانتی¬متر) ، بیشترین وزن غده (54/73 گرم) و عملکرد غده سیب¬زمینی (124/28 تن در هکتار) از تیمار کشت خالص سیب¬زمینی به¬دست آمد. بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین (54/1) از سیستم کشت مخلوط دو ردیف ذرت+ یک ردیف سیب¬زمینی به¬دست آمد که نشان از برتری کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تعداد دانه در بلال، زیست توده، عملکرد دانه، نسبت برابری زمین، وزن غده
  • جواد حمزه ئی، محسن سیدی صفحات 416-429
    به¬منظور ارزیابی عملکرد کمی و کیفی دانه آفتابگردان (Helianthus annuus L.) در کشت مخلوط افزایشی با لوبیا (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا در دو سال زراعی 1392 و 1393 انجام گرفت. آزمایش به-صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. خاک¬ورزی (خاک¬ورزی کامل، نیمه خاک¬ورزی با چیزل و نیمه خاک¬ورزی با دیسک) و الگوی کاشت (کشت خالص آفتابگردان و لوبیا و کشت مخلوط افزایشی 30 و 60 درصد لوبیا با آفتابگردان) به¬ترتیب به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و فرعی بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که بیشتر صفات تحت تاثیر خاک¬ورزی قرار نگرفتند، ولی اثر الگوی کشت بر آن¬ها معنی¬دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه، عملکرد روغن و عملکرد پروتئین آفتابگردان (به¬ترتیب 22/356، 90/160 و 27/77 گرم در متر¬مربع) در تیمار کشت خالص به¬دست آمد، ولی با اجرای کشت مخلوط از میزان این ویژگی¬ها به¬طور معنی¬داری کاسته شد. در کشت مخلوط، عملکرد دانه لوبیا نیز نسبت به کشت خالص آن کاهش نشان داد. در میان الگوهای مختلف کشت، بیشترین عملکرد دانه کل (28/437 گرم در متر¬مربع) به تیمار کشت مخلوط افزایشی 60 درصد لوبیا + آفتابگردان تعلق گرفت. در کل، تیمار 60 درصد لوبیا + آفتابگردان بیشترین عملکرد کل را تولید کرد و کارایی استفاده از زمین را افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: پروتئین دانه، روغن دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، عملکرد دانه، کارایی استفاده از زمین
  • فائزه محمدی کشکا، همتاللهپیردشتی، یاسر یعقوبیان، اسماعیل بخشنده صفحات 430-443
    به منظور بررسی اثر تلقیح قارچ تریکودرما هاماتوم (Trichoderma hamatum) و باکتری حل کننده فسفات اینتروباکتر (Enterobacter sp.) بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) (رقم میلان) ، آزمایشی مزرعه ای در شهرستان ساری (روستای سوته) به صورت کرت های خرد شده فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 انجام شد. عامل اصلی کود فسفر (سوپرفسفات تریپل) در سه سطح صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار و عامل فرعی شامل تیمار قارچی در دو سطح عدم تلقیح (شاهد) و تلقیح با تریکودرما هاماتوم و تیمار باکتریایی در دو سطح بدون باکتری (شاهد) و کاربرد اینتروباکتر بودند. نتایج آزمایش حاکی از تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار تریکودرما و اینتروباکتر بر بیشتر صفات مرتبط با عملکرد گندم بود. برای نمونه، در شرایط کود فسفر صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار، تلقیح جداگانه تریکودرما باعث افزایش معنی دار به ترتیب از 66/2 به 45/3 (69/29 درصد) ، از 19/3 به 79/3 (80/18 درصد) و از 34/3 به 39/4 تن در هکتار (43/31 درصد) عملکرد دانه شد. همچنین، حضور اینتروباکتر به همراه تیمار صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود فسفر به ترتیب باعث افزایش معنی دار عملکرد از 66/2 به 37/3 (06/21 درصد) ، از 19/3 به 46/3 (46/8 درصد) و از 34/3 به 10/5 تن در هکتار (69/52 درصد) گردید. به کارگیری هم زمان این ریزجانداران نیز افزایش معنی دار عملکرد دانه را از 66/2 به 78/3 (10/42 درصد) ، از 19/3 به 85/3 (68/20 درصد) و از 34/3 به 48/4 تن در هکتار (13/34 درصد) به ترتیب در شرایط صفر، 50 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود فسفر به دنبال داشت. به طور کلی، نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد که کاربرد هم زمان ریزجانداران و کود شیمیایی فسفر اثر افزایشی بیشتری نسبت به کاربرد جداگانه کود شیمیایی فسفر به همراه داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: حل کننده فسفات، ریزجانداران، عملکرد بیولوژیکمراجع
  • سید حسام نیک سیرت، احسان بیژن زاده، روح الله نادری صفحات 444-458
    به¬منظور ارزیابی شاخص های رقابتی و اقتصادی کشت مخلوط ارقام جو (Hordeum spp.) با نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) و باقلا ((Vicia faba L. در رژیم های متفاوت آبیاری آزمایشی مزرعه ای به¬صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شیراز در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا شد. رژیم های آبیاری به¬عنوان فاکتور اصلی (آبیاری مطلوب و قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری شدن دانه جو) و الگوهای مختلف کشت (تک کشتی نخود، باقلا، جو نیمروز و جو زهک و کشت مخلوط جو نیمروز+ نخود، جو نیمروز+ باقلا، جو زهک+ نخود و جو زهک+ باقلا با نسبت 1 به 1) به¬عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. قطع آبیاری به ترتیب باعث کاهش 20، 43 و 40 درصدی عملکرد دانه ارقام جو، نخود و باقلا و افزایش 9/1، 42 و 2/20 درصدی نسبت برابری زمین جزئی (LER) ارقام جو و حبوبات و نسبت برابری زمین کل شد. شاخص های غالبیت (A) و نسبت رقابتی (CR) نشان دادند که در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب، ارقام جو جزء غالب بودند و در شرایط قطع آبیاری، قدرت رقابتی حبوبات افزایش یافت. در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب، شاخص عملکرد از دست رفته واقعی ((AYL ارقام جو، حبوبات و کل به¬ترتیب مثبت، منفی و صفر بود و شاخص سودمندی کشت مخلوط (IA) ارقام جو مثبت و در حبوبات و کل منفی بود. در قطع آبیاری، شاخص عملکرد از دست رفته واقعی و شاخص سودمندی کشت مخلوط ارقام جو، حبوبات و کل، مثبت بود. شاخص نسبت برابری زمین در تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط بالاتر از یک بود. شاخص بهره وری سیستم (SPI) نیز برای تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط مثبت بود. ارزیابی شاخص نسبت برابری زمین نشان داد که کشت مخلوط جو شش ردیفه زهک + نخود در شرایط کمبود آب نسبت به دیگر الگوهای کشت مورد مطالعه بین 8/13 تا 36 درصد برتری داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش خشکی، جو شش ردیفه، عملکرد از دست رفته واقعی، نسبت برابری زمین
  • بهروز سبحانی، الهام شکرزاده صفحات 459-472
    یکی از ¬روش¬های برنامه¬ریزی کشاورزی تعیین و شناسایی نواحی مناسب برای کاشت گیاهان زراعی و باغی بر اساس شرایط آب ¬و هوایی و فیزیوگرافی است. این امر، کشاورزان را قادر می¬سازد که خسارت ناشی از شرایط نامناسب اقلیمی بر محصول را در طول دوره رشد به حداقل برسانند. نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) یکی از محصولات زراعی در استان اردبیل است که حدود 5272 هکتار از اراضی استان زیر کشت این گیاه زراعی است. هدف از این تحقیق، شناسایی نواحی مناسب استان اردبیل برای کشت نخود در محیط GIS است. برای این منظور، ابتدا نیازهای مطلوب اقلیمی در طول دوره رشد نخود تعیین گردید، سپس داده های مورد مطالعه از قبیل، بارندگی، دما، ارتفاع، شیب، خاک و کاربری اراضی جمع آوری شدند. هرکدام از داده ها با استفاده از روش AHP تحلیل شدند و ضریب وزنی معیارهای اصلی، فرعی و زیر گزینه ها مشخص شدند. درنتیجه ضریب وزنی معیارهای اصلی از قبیل اقلیم با 603/0، توپوگرافی 245/0، خاک 114/0 و کاربری اراضی 038/ 0 تعیین گردید. در مرحله بعد، نقشه¬های موضوعی موردنیاز برای هریک از داده ها موردمطالعه در محیط GIS تهیه و برای هریک از پلیگون های نقشه، ضریب وزنی لحاظ شد و هریک از نقشه ها بر اساس روش AHP در محیط GIS طبقه بندی شدند. در نهایت با تلفیق نقشه ها، نقشه نهایی پهنه بندی کشت نخود در استان اردبیل در چهار کلاس تهیه گردید که حدود 18 درصد از مساحت استان خیلی مناسب، 45 درصد مناسب، 25 درصد متوسط و 12 درصد نامناسب برای کشت نخود است.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، داده های جوی، عوامل فیزیوگرافی، تناسب اراضی
  • نصرتاللهحیدرپور، هوشنگ بهرامی، یعقوب منصوری، سعید حجتی صفحات 473-489
    یکی از روش¬های موثر برای مطالعه و شناسایی پتانسیل اراضی کشاورزی، پهنه¬بندی آن¬ها است. در این تحقیق به¬منظور امکان¬سنجی تعیین نواحی کاشت محصولات گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) و کلزا (Brassica napus L.) در حوضه مارون استان خوزستان که یکی از مهم ترین استان¬های تولیدکننده محصولات کشاورزی است، از برنامه سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی استفاده گردید. ازاین¬رو تمام لایه¬های اطلاعاتی زراعی- بوم¬شناختی شامل اقلیم (دما و بارش) ، توپوگرافی (شیب و ارتفاع) ، خاک (بافت، pH، شوری و کربن آلی) به همراه پتانسیل منابع آبی، پس از وزن¬دهی با روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی در محیط سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی تهیه و مطابق با نیازمندی¬های محیطی محصولات گندم و کلزا، بر اساس دستورالعمل فائو، طبقه¬بندی شدند. لایه¬های همپوشانی شده به عنوان معیاری برای قضاوت در خصوص تناسب اراضی برای محصولات گندم و کلزا لحاظ گردید و نقشه¬های حاصل از آن¬ها بر اساس معیارهای موجود و دستورالعمل فائو در پنج طبقه بسیار مناسب، مناسب، تناسب متوسط، تناسب کم و نامناسب طبقه¬بندی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که 4/7 و 8/9 درصد از کل سطح اراضی موجود در محدوده مطالعاتی، به¬ترتیب در طبقات بسیار مناسب و مناسب برای کاشت هر دو محصول قرار گرفتند. در حالی که 2/57 درصد از کل اراضی در طبقات تناسب متوسط و تناسب کم و 6/25 درصد باقیمانده نیز در طبقه نامناسب واقع شدند. در این طبقه¬بندی عوامل شوری خاک و دسترسی به منابع آب (بارش و پتانسیل منابع آبی) ، عوامل محدودکننده اصلی بودند. این نتایج می¬تواند به سیاست¬گذاران، برای طراحی الگوی کشت مناسب در جهت حاصلخیزی خاک، کمک نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی کشت، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، تناسب اراضی
  • احمد قاسمی، احمد قنبری، براتعلی فاخری، حمیدرضا فنایی صفحات 490-503
    در راستای توسعه کشاورزی پایدار، این آزمایش به¬صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سیستان طی دو سال زراعی 1392 و 1393 اجرا گردید. تیمارها ی آزمایش شامل خاک ورزی به¬عنوان عامل اصلی در دو سیستم متداول (شخم و مخلوط کردن کود با خاک) و بی خاک ورزی (باقی گذاشتن بقایای کود سبز بر سطح خاک و کشت مستقیم ذرت (Zea mays L.) و منابع کود: T0: شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) ،T1: کود سبز جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) بدون مصرف کود دامی و شیمیایی، T2: کود سبز با مصرف کامل کود شیمیایی توصیه شده (NPK) به جو شامل اوره، سوپر فسفات تریپل و سولفات پتاسیم به¬ترتیب به¬میزان 165، 90 و 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار، T3: کود سبز با دو سوم کود شیمیایی به جو و یک سوم باقی مانده به ذرت،T4: کود سبز با یک سوم کود شیمیایی به جو و دو سوم باقی مانده به ذرت،T5: کود سبز جو با مخلوط نصف کود دامی و شیمیایی و T6: کود سبز با 40 تن کود دامی به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. زمان برگرداندن جو به خاک مرحله خوشه دهی بود. نتایج نشان داد که اختلاط کود با خاک در مقایسه با بی خاک ورزی منجر به افزایش عملکرد دانه، علوفه تر و خشک، میزان نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر و خاکستر دانه و کاهش درصد الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی (NDF) گردید. منابع کود آلی و شیمیایی باعث افزایش معنی دار عملکرد دانه، علوفه تر و خشک، میزان نیتروژن، پتاسیم، فسفر، روی و خاکستر دانه شدند، ولی بر درصد NDF روند کاهشی نشان دادند. برهمکنش سال در خاک ورزی در منبع کود نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه، علوفه تر و خشک در سال دوم در سیستم اختلاط کود با خاک و در منبع کود سبز جو با مخلوط نصف کود دامی و شیمیایی با میانگین عملکرد دانه و علوفه تر به¬ترتیب برابر 400/9 و 151/110 تن در هکتار حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج مخلوط کود سبز با نصف کود دامی و شیمیایی همراه با اختلاط کود با خاک برای تولید کمی و کیفی دانه و علوفه ذرت مناسب می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: الیاف نامحلول در حلال خنثی، خاکستر دانه، فسفر دانه، عملکرد دانه، کود سبز
  • الهام رفتاری، علی نخ زری مقدم، مهدی ملاشاهی، حسین حسینی مقدم صفحات 504-515
    به منظور بررسی اثر الگوی کاشت و نیتروژن مصرفی بر عملکرد و شاخص های رقابت نخود فرنگی (Pisum sativum L.) و کاهو (Lactuca sativa L.) ، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه دانشگاه گنبدکاووس در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا گردید. عامل الگوی کاشت در نه سطح شامل کشت خالص نخود فرنگی، کشت مخلوط جایگزین 33، 50 و 67 درصد کاهو به¬جای نخود فرنگی، کشت مخلوط افزایش 33، 50، 67 و 100 کاهو به نخود فرنگی و کشت خالص کاهو و عامل نیتروژن در سه سطح شامل عدم مصرف و مصرف 25 و 50 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر الگوی کاشت و نیتروژن بر عملکرد در سطح یک درصد معنی دار بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل عملکردکل و شاخص های رقابت و سودمندی اقتصادی کشت مخلوط یعنی عملکرد معادل، نسبت برابری زمین، ضریب نسبی تراکم، شاخص غالبیت، نسبت رقابتی، کاهش واقعی عملکرد، سودمندی کشت مخلوط و بهره وری سیستم بود. تیمار کشت مخلوط افزایش 100 درصد کاهو به نخود فرنگی و کشت خالص کاهو به ترتیب با 61565 و 61473 کیلوگرم در هکتار حداکثر عملکرد و تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی با 11759 کیلوگرم در هکتار حداقل عملکرد را تولید کردند. با افزایش مصرف کود نیتروژن، عملکرد در هر دو گیاه افزایش یافت. کم ترین عملکرد معادل نخود فرنگی با 11759 کیلوگرم در هکتار از تیمار کشت خالص نخود فرنگی و بیش ترین آن با 25159 کیلوگرم در هکتار از کشت مخلوط افزایش 100 درصد کاهو به نخود فرنگی به دست آمد. بیش ترین و کم ترین عملکرد معادل نخود فرنگی به ترتیب از تیمارهای مصرف 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار و عدم کاربرد کود نیتروژن به ترتیب با 20669 و 16689 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. نسبت برابری زمین در تیمار های کشت مخلوط بیش از تیمار‍ های کشت خالص بود. حداکثر نسبت برابری زمین متعلق به تیمار کشت مخلوط افزایش 100 درصد کاهو به نخود فرنگی با 48/1 بود. ضریب نسبی تراکم در تمام تیمارها بیش از یک بود. بررسی شاخص غالبیت نشان داد که نخود فرنگی در تیمارهای کشت مخلوط افزایشی و تیمار کشت مخلوط جایگزین 33 درصد کاهو به جای نخود فرنگی گیاه غالب بود. در نتیجه، علامت چیرگی نخود فرنگی با وجود مطلوب بودن عملکرد هر دو گیاه مثبت شد. در کلیه تیمارها و به¬خصوص تیمارهای کشت مخلوط افزایشی، افزایش عملکرد کل مشاهده شد. در مجموع، کشت مخلوط نخود فرنگی و کاهو باعث افزایش سودمندی اقتصادی کشت مخلوط گردید. بیش ترین سودمندی اقتصادی کشت مخلوط مربوط به گیاه نخود فرنگی و کم ترین آن مربوط به گیاه کاهو که از تیمار کشت مخلوط جایگزین 33 درصد نخود فرنگی + 67 درصد کاهو حاصل شد.
    کلیدواژگان: سودمندی کشت مخلوط، غالبیت، کشت مخلوط، نسبت برابری زمین
  • علیرضا باقری، ناصر سهرابی صفحات 516-528
    نظر به اهمیت پیش بینی تولید محصولات کشاورزی، آزمایشی با هدف برآورد عملکرد محصول جو دیم و آبی (Hordeum vulgare L.) با استفاده از رهیافت شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، در استان کرمانشاه به اجرا درآمد. داده های مربوط به عملکرد 25 ساله (1370 تا 1394) جو دیم و آبی در شهرستان های استان و همچنین داده های خام و استاندارد شده هواشناسی (مجموع بارندگی سالیانه، متوسط درجه حرارت سالیانه، متوسط رطوبت سالیانه، مجموع ساعات آفتابی، میانگین تبخیر سالیانه و تعداد روزهای یخبندان) متناظر با این سال ها به عنوان داده های ورودی شبکه مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. برای یافتن بهترین شبکه، انواع مختلف شبکه عصبی برای تخمین عملکرد، آزمایش شد. ارزیابی مدل¬ها نیز با استفاده از شاخص¬های آماری ضریب همبستگی (R) ، ضریب تعیین (R2) ، میانگین مربعات خطا (MSE) و ریشه میانگین مربعات خطا (RMSE) انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین شبکه برای جو دیم شبکه های عصبی مودولار ساخته شده از داده¬های استاندارد و خام و با قانون یادگیری Momentum دارای ضریب همبستگی به¬ترتیب 96/0 و 92/0 بود. این در حالی بود که دقت شبکه عصبی در مورد جو آبی به اندازه کشت دیم نبود (ضریب همبستگی برای داده¬های ورودی استاندارد و خام به¬ترتیب 72/0 و 78/0). مقایسه شاخص های MSE و RMSE بین مدل های ذکر شده نیز موید این امر بود. به¬نظر می رسد در جو آبی انجام عملیات مدیریت داشت مانند آبیاری از تاثیر عوامل اقلیمی بر روی عملکرد آن کاسته است. از سوی دیگر، حساسیت شبکه عصبی مربوط به کشت جو دیم نسبت به متغیرهای ورودی مدل بسیار بیشتر از کشت آبی بود که در نهایت دقت بیشتر شبکه را به همراه داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: عملکرد اقتصادی، عوامل اقلیمی، متغیرهای پیش¬گو، هوش مصنوعی
  • رضا عارفی، افشین سلطانی، حسین عجم نوروزی صفحات 529-546
    مدیریت صحیح در انتخاب روش¬ها مناسب عملیات¬های زراعی باعث کاهش مصرف سوخت، انرژی و کاهش تولید گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای در تولید محصولات کشاورزی می¬شود. در این مطالعه مقادیر انرژی ورودی، خروجی و انتشار گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای در تولید پنبه (Gossypium hirsutum L.) در استان گلستان و شهرستان¬های علی¬آباد کتول و آق¬قلا مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، عملیات زراعی در 100 مزرعه در دو سال زراعی 93 و 94 به صورت تصادفی انتخاب و اطلاعات مربوط به تمامی مزارع ثبت شد. مقادیر مختلف کاربرد نهاده¬ها و اطلاعات جامع¬ در هر مرحله از کاشت تا برداشت جمع¬آوری و ثبت و پردازش گردید. در حین اجرای عملیات زراعی مختلف جهت تولید پنبه با استفاده از ضرایب تبدیل انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه¬ای استخراج شده از منابع متعدد برای هر عملیات معادل¬سازی شد و سپس مقدار انرژی و انتشار گازهای گلخانه¬ای برای هر نهاده و عملیات محاسبه گردید. با توجه به نتایج به¬دست آمده میانگین انرژی خروجی برابر 154 گیگاژول در هکتار به¬دست آمد که حدود شش برابر میانگین انرژی ورودی با 26 گیگا¬ژول در هکتار می¬باشد. دامنه انرژی¬های خروجی برای تولید پنبه بین 49 گیگاژول در هکتار تا 243 گیگاژول در هکتار و برای انرژی ورودی بین 15 تا 43 گیگاژول در هکتار متغیر بود مقدار پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی (GWP) کل ناشی از فعالیت-های مختلف در هر مزرعه پنبه بین 741 تا 7790 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 در هکتار متغیر بوده است. بیشترین انتشار گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای مربوط به کود¬های شیمیایی و مقدار گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای منتشر شده در نهاده¬ها کود حیوانی و سوخت در رتبه¬های بعدی قرار داشتند. نتایج مقایسه بین انرژی-های ورودی و پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی ناشی از آن نشان داد که بین انرژی¬های ورودی در مزارع تولید پنبه و GWP ناشی از آن ارتباط مستقیمی وجود دارد. عملیات¬های آبیاری، تغذیه و آماده¬سازی بیشترین مصرف سوخت را داشته که متعاقب آن باعث افزایش گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای می¬شود. از نتایج این تحقیق می¬توان به این نتیجه رسید که از طریق کاهش مصرف سوخت و کاهش مصرف کود¬های شیمیایی میزان مصرف انرژی و انتشار گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای را کاهش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: انرژی خروجی، انرژی ورودی، تغییرات اقلیمی، گاز¬های گلخانه¬ای
  • مهدیه رجایی، مهدی دهمرده، عیسی خمری، بهروز کشته گر صفحات 547-564
    به¬منظور بررسی و تعیین اثر الگوی کشت و ورمی¬کمپوست بر تغییرات عناصر غذایی در کشت مخلوط ذرت (Zea mays L.) ، بادام زمینی (Arachis hypogaea L.) و گاوزبان اروپایی (Borago officinalis L.) ، آزمایشی در پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 94-1393 به¬صورت کرت¬های شده در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ورمی¬کمپوست به¬عنوان عامل اصلی در سه سطح؛ عدم کاربرد کود، 5/2 و 5 تن در هکتار و الگوهای کشت به¬عنوان عامل فرعی در نه سطح شامل؛ کشت خالص ذرت، بادام زمینی و گاوزبان اروپایی، 40 درصد ذرت + 30 درصد بادام زمینی + 30 درصد گاوزبان،50 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان،60 درصد ذرت + 20 درصد بادام زمینی + 20 درصد گاوزبان، 100 درصد ذرت + 50 درصد بادام زمینی + 50 درصد گاوزبان، 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان و 100 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 75 درصد گاوزبان بود. . نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقدار کربن خاک در کشت مخلوط در الگوی کاشت 100 درصد ذرت + 50 درصد بادام زمینی + 50 درصد گاوزبان و کاربرد 5 تن ورمی کمپوست در هکتار به میزان (41/0 درصد) و کمترین مقدار کربن خاک در الگوی کشت 60 درصد ذرت + 20 درصد بادام زمینی + 20 درصد گاوزبان و عدم مصرف ورمی¬کمپوست به¬دست آمد. افزایش نسبت اختلاط گاوزبان در الگوی کشت موجب کاهش مقدار سدیم خاک و افزایش درصد بادام زمینی در کشت مخلوط منجر به افزایش مقدار فسفر خاک گردید. تاثیر الگوهای کشت مخلوط در افزایش میزان رطوبت حجمی خاک به میزان 78/20 درصد و تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی 17/77 درصد قابل توجه بود. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد ذرت (3/17 تن در هکتار) در الگوی مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 25 درصد بادام زمینی + 75 درصد گاوزبان و بیشترین عملکرد بادام زمینی (5/15 تن در هکتار) در الگوی مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان به¬دست آمد. نسبت برابری زمین در همه الگوهای مخلوط بیشتر از یک بود و بیشترین میزان نسبت برابری زمین در الگوی کشت مخلوط 100 درصد ذرت + 75 درصد بادام زمینی + 25 درصد گاوزبان و مصرف 5 تن استفاده ورمی¬کمپوست در هکتار به¬دست آمد که نشان¬دهنده سودمندی کشت مخلوط نسبت به تک¬کشتی بود.
    کلیدواژگان: تشعشع فعال فتوسنتزی، عملکرد اقتصادی، کربن خاک، نسبت برابری زمین
  • ریحانه عظیمی، غلامعلی حشمتی، محمد فرزام، مرتضی گلدانی صفحات 565-579
    امروزه معدن¬کاوی¬ها تا مساحت زیادی موجب تخریب مراتع می¬گردد، برای عبور از این بحران، نیاز فراوانی به احیاء اراضی تخریب یافته به وسیله استقرار گیاهان در مناطق معدن¬کاوی شده احساس می¬شود. روش¬های جدید اصلاح مراتع مبتنی بر استفاده از رهیافت¬های زیستی و غیرزیستی (زئولیت، سوپرجاذب و میکوریزا) می¬تواند به استقرار گیاهان در این مناطق کمک کند. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی امکان افزایش استقراراولیه و رشد گیاه مرتعی دارویی بومادران (L. (Achillea millefoliumدر اراضی معدن¬کاوی شده آلوده به فلزات سنگین، ابتدا نشاء¬های کشت شده در گلخانه با میکوریزا (Glomus intraradices) زئولیت و سوپرجاذب تلقیح و سپس در قالب طرح بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در منطقه نیمه خشک اراضی معدن¬کاوی کارخانه سیمان شرق مشهد در سال 95- 1394 کشت شد. گیاهان فقط یک¬بار در زمان کشت آبیاری شدند. در این تحقیق درصد استقرار، ارتفاع گیاهان کاشته شده، درصد کلونیزاسیون میکوریزا با ریشه گیاه بومادران در اراضی و برخی از خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی از جمله وزن خشک اندام¬هوایی، وزن خشک ریشه و وزن خشک کل گیاه اندازه¬گیری شد. تیمارهای میکوریزا، زئولیت و سوپرجاذب موجب افزایش استقرار اولیه گیاهان (به¬ترتیب 50 ، 33 و 11 درصد) افزایش ارتفاع (3/14، 3/12 و 3/6 سانتی¬متر) ، افزایش وزن خشک اندام هوایی (73/0، 57/0 و 5/0 گرم) ، افزایش وزن خشک ریشه (26/0، 15/0 و 14/0 گرم) و وزن خشک کل گیاه (1، 73/0 و 64/0 گرم) نسبت به شاهد شدند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای میکوریزا، زئولیت و سوپرجاذب به¬ترتیب بیشترین تاثیر را بر ¬افزایش استقرار اولیه و بهبود خصوصیات رشدی گیاه بومادران داشتند و می¬توان جهت استقرار اولیه گیاهان در اراضی آلوده به فلزات سنگین منطقه معدن¬کاوی شده کارخانه سیمان شرق مشهد در منطقه نیمه¬خشک واقع شده¬اند پیشنهاد کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: عرصه، کود بیولوژیک، مراتع، نشاء¬کاری
  • زهرا همایونی، لیلی ابوالحسنی، محمود صبوحی صفحات 580-602
    این مطالعه با استفاده از روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات به بررسی اثرات زیست محیطی تولید شلتوک در ارقام مختلف برنج (Oryza sativa L.) ، (طارم هاشمی، طارم سنگی، شیرودی، فجر و ندا) مزارع شهرستان کردکوی واقع در استان گلستان می پردازد. این بررسی با به کارگیری روش ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) به تخمین پیامدهای زیست محیطی کشت ارقام مختلف موجود در منطقه پرداخته شده است. روش LCA، با استفاده از مولفه های، میزان مصرف نهاده های طبیعی به تحلیل پیامدهای مخرب حاصل از مصرف منابع در نظام های تولیدی می پردازد و با شناسایی، نوع نهاده های مصرفی، انرژی مورداستفاده، مواد مصرفی در فرآیند تولیدی، اثرات و ضایعات تولیدشده را محاسبه می نماید. با استفاده ازاین روش می توان به ارزیابی پتانسیل اثرات گرمایش جهانی، اسیدیته، اتروفیکاسیون خشکی، اکسیداسیون فتوشیمیایی، اثر سمیت بر انسان (براثر کادمیوم موجود در فسفات) ، اثر سمیت کادمیوم بر زمین، اثر سمیت کادمیوم بر آب شیرین، تخلیه منابع فسیلی، تخلیه منابع فسفات، پتاسیم و آب پرداخت. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که در میان اثرات زیست محیطی برآورد شده، پتانسیل اکسیداسیون فتو شیمیایی بالاترین اثر را در تولید برنج دارا می باشد. هم چنین دو اثر زیست محیطی تخلیه ی منابع فسفات و تخلیه ی منابع آبی از اثرات زیست محیطی مهم دیگر در کشت برنج می باشند. به طور متوسط در تولید برنج، میزان سه اثر پتانسیل اکسیداسیون فتو شیمیایی، اثر تخلیه منابع آبی و اثر تخلیه منابع فسفات به¬ترتیب معادل 033/2، 296/1 و 896/0 ارزیابی شده است. در بین اثرات زیست محیطی بررسی شده در این مطالعه، سه اثر زیست محیطی مربوط به اسیدیته ، اتروفیکاسیون خشکی و سمیت بر آب به عنوان کمترین اثر محیط زیستی مخرب برای میانگین ارقام برنج شناسایی شده اند. همچنین بررسی ارقام مختلف نشان داد که در بین ارقام مختلف رقم طارم هاشمی و طارم سنگی بالاترین میزان پتانسیل ایجاد آلودگی را در بین سایر ارقام مختلف به ازای تولید یک تن شلتوک در هکتار دارا هستند. پایین ترین میزان مجموع شاخص نهایی اثرات را در بین ارقام مورد بررسی مربوط به رقم ندا می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: اثر غیر¬مستقیم ازت، انتشار آلودگی، تخلیه منابع، طبقه بندی پیامدهای نامطلوب، مخاطرات نهاده های شیمیایی
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  • N. Kamayestani, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Mohsen Jahan, F. Ranjbar Pages 299-312
    Introduction
    World population increasing need for food have prompted the rapid development of chemical fertilizer technology and also consumed them as a source of nutrition for the food production. Recently, chemical fertilizer consumption in conventional agro-ecosystems imbalanced soil nutrient, declined quantitative and qualitative crop yields, and polluted water and soil. Chemical fertilizers provide crop nutrients need in the short time, and thus farmers had forgotten long-time soil fertility and its controlling processes by using these fertilizers. Hence, ecological and low input farming systems can be considered as a suitable replacement for traditional systems, and they can sustain production systems and maintain environmental health. In order to reduce the pollution caused by the use of chemical fertilizers and the restoration of agro ecosystems, along with the reduction of the dependence on non-renewable resources used in the production of fertilizers, the use of fertilizers that are derived from the environments known as an alternative. It seems that with good and proper management of biological and organic fertilizers, we can provide better nutritional conditions for the plant, stepping in the path of regeneration of agroecosystems and sustainable agricultural development. Therefore, in this experiment, the effect of biological, manure and chemical fertilizers on the growth characteristics of anise plant has been studied. It seems that the information obtained from such experiments can increase the economic efficiency of producers as a means to develop agricultural policies that are consistent with the environment.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to study the effects of single and combined applications of biofertilizers and organic fertilizers on growth indices of Anise, a field experiment was conducted with 15 treatments based on a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Treatments were: (1) Mycorrhiza (Glomusin traradices), (2) Mycorrhiza + Cow manure, (3) Mycorrhiza+Vermicompost, (4) Mycorrhiza + Compost, (5) Mycorrhiza + Chemical fertilizer, (6) Biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp.), (7) Biosulfur + Chemical fertilizer, (8) Biosulfur + Cow manure, (9) Biosulfur + Vermicompost, (10) Biosulfur + Compost, (11) Cow manure, (12) Vermicompost, (13) Chemical fertilizer (NPK), (14) Compost and (15) Control. Plant thinning and weeding were carried out in two stages of four and six leaves of anise, and finally the plant density reached 66 plants per square meter. Due to the adverse effects of chemical pesticides on medicinal plants, weed operation was carried out manually by the worker on several occasions. During the growing season, in order to determine the grow trend and leaf area of the anise, the sampling was started from 25.05.2011 at intervals of 15 days until the end of the growing season. The leaf area was determined by the Leaf Measurement System Area (I-COR model) and then leaf area index and other growth indices were calculated. At the same time as the plants were matured and yellowed on first of July, after removing the marginal effect, the biomass of the whole Anise plant was harvested at an area equal to 5 square meters, and after drying in open air, seed yield and dry matter were determined. Data were analyzed, with SAS Ver. 9.1 and MINITAB Ver. 16 statistical softwares. Duncan multiple test was used to compare the means at a probability level of 5%. Figures also were drawed with Excel Ver. 11 M.S office.
    Results and Discussion
    The results indicated that the highest (2.4) and the lowest (1.35) leaf area index (LAI) were shown in combination of Mycorrhiza + Chemical fertilizer and compost treatments, respectively. The highest dry matter production (DM) (348.744 g.m-2) and crop growth rate (CGR) (14.42 g.m-2.day-1) were resulted from combination of biosulfur+vermicompost treatment. Compost and control treatments produced the lowest DM (200 g.m-2) and CGR (4.93 g.m-2.day-1), respectively.
    Conclusion
    In generally, the results revealed that the application of organic and biological fertilizers particularly mycorrhiza and biosulfur had a significant effect on improving the growth indices of anise. Furthermore, the combined application of organic and biological fertilizers had higher positive effects on growth index than their single application
    Keywords: Biosulfur, CGR, LAI, Mycorrhiza
  • Hessamoddin Solouki, Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati, Alireza Koocheki, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam Pages 313-326
     
    Introduction
    Sunlight is the main source of energy in Agro ecosystems. Light is absorbed by leaves and this energy is stored during the process of photosynthesis in chemical bonds of organic compounds and finally converts to the plant biomass. In order to increase the efficiency of this process and understanding how light changes within the plant canopy is necessary to be aware of how changes in light absorption within a farming system, especially when considering various intercropping systems, agroforestry systems and even non-crop species management. Available reports have shown that the higher resources use efficiency in intercropping systems, especially light, water and nitrogen.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was aimed to investigate radiation absorption and use efficiency in substitution intercropping of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) and fennel (Foenicolum vulgar L.). The experiment was set up with five treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012- 2013 growing season. In order to implement an ecological and low input system, no chemical inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) was applied. The experiment constituted 5 treatments: sole crop of milk thistle and fennel, intercropping (75% milk thistle-25% fennel), intercropping (50% milk thistle-50% fennel) and intercropping (25% milk thistle-75% fennel). Crops were harvested every eight days corresponding to 6 harvests starting with the development of the fourth leaf and ending at the early flowering. Above ground dry matter (DM) was determined after oven drying at 70 ˚C for 48 h. Leaf area was determined on the same harvested area used for the measurement of above ground dry matter. Leaf area of the Milk thistle was determined by LI3100 area meter. The green area index of Fennel was also calculated, according to the equation 1.
    GAI = M × LWR/SLW (Equation 1)
    GAI: green area index, M: daily dry matter allocated to the leaf + stem, LWR: leaf weight ratio and SLW: specific leaf weight.
    Incident and transmitted radiation of the canopy was measured using the Sun scan Canopy Analysis System (Accu PAR LP-80). The light extinction coefficient (LEC) was determined from the slope of the linear regression between the natural logarithm of radiation transmission and leaf area index. According to the equation 2.
    Ii/Io = e-K.LAI (Equation 2)
    Io:amount of radiation on the top of canopy, Ii: amount of radiation at the bottom of canopy, K: light extinction coefficient and LAI: leaf area index.
    The daily light absorption for both species was calculated according to the equation 3 t0 5.
    Ii = Io (1-exp((-KS.LS) + (-KF.LF))) (Equation 3)
    Is= Ii( ) (Equation 4)
    IF = Ii- Is (Equation 5)
    Io: amount of radiation on the top of canopy, Ii: amount of radiation at the bottom of canopy, Is: amount of absorbed radiation by milk thistle, IF: amount of absorbed radiation by fennel, Ks: light extinction coefficient of milk thistle KF: light extinction coefficient of fennel and Ls: leaf area index of milk thistle and LF: leaf area index of fennel.
    Radiation use efficiency (RUE) was computed by the linear regression between dry matter accumulation (g.m-2) and cumulative amount of radiation absorption (MJ.m-2). The data statistical analysis and draw the figures were performed by Minitab, V16, Excel and Edraw MaxV5.0. Means were also compared by HSD test at the 5% probability level.
    Results and Discussion
    Results indicated that radiation use efficiency of milk thistle throughout the growing season was variable from 1.91 to 2.36 g.MJ-1 and in intercropping treatment (50% milk thistle-50% fennel) was at the highest amount. The amount of radiation use efficiency in fennel was variable from 0.71 to 1.39 g.MJ-1. The best recommendable treatment for intercropping of milk thistle and fennel was (50% milk thistle-50% fennel), in which case radiation use efficiency of milk thistle was at the highest level (2.36 g.MJ-1) and radiation use efficiency of fennel was higher than sole cropping (0.93 g.MJ-1). Based on the findings of this study it seems that enhancing diversity in agronomic practices is an effective operational approach to increasing the efficiency of resources.
    Acknowledgments
    The authors acknowledge the financial support of the project (Grant number 26556) by Vice President for Research and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
    Keywords: Cumulative dry matter, Light extinction coefficient, Medicinal plants, Radiation absorption, Temporal diversity
  • M. Abdollahi Mayvan, Surur Khorramdel, A. Koocheki, R. Ghorbani Pages 327-339
     
    Introduction
    Medicinal plants are in use by a large portion of population for their medicinal therapeutic effects. Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual herbaceous, and hairy medicinal plant which height changes within 70 to 100 cm. Stems are straight, often branched, hollow, and covered by tough fibers. Its leaves are alternate and simple and are covered with tough fibers. The flowers are blue and rarely appear white or rose colored. This plant belongs to the family of Boraginaceae. The plant is also commercially cultivated for borage seed oil extracted from its seeds. Water is one of the important factors affecting growth and yield of medicinal plant. Increasing plant production per unit of water is one of the greatest challenges facing the researchers especially in arid and semi- arid regions. Plant density is an important agronomic factor that manipulate micro environment of the field and impacts growth, development and yield of plants. Within certain limits, increase of plant population density decreases the growth and yield per plant but the reverse occurs for yield per unit area. The optimum plant density to attain highest yield may vary with the plant and geographical location. Present study aims to investigate the possibility of improving the yield and yield components of borage affected as irrigation levels and plant densities.
    Materials and Methods
    A field experiment was conducted as split plot experiment based on a complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2012-2013. Three irrigation levels (1000 (I1), 2000 (I2) and 3000 (I3) m3.ha-1) and four plant densities (16 (D1), 20 (D2), 26.67 (D3), 40 (D4) plants.m-2) allocated to the main plot and sub plot, respectively. Water requirement for the medicinal plant under Mashhad climatic conditions was determined by using AGWAT equal to 2000 m3.ha-1. When the plants were yellow harvesting operation was performed. At first, five plants per plot were randomly selected for measurement of yield components. After removal of margins, to determine the seed yield, the remaining area was harvested. The studied criteria were number of flowers, flower yield, biological yield, seed yield, number of seed, 1000-seed weight and number of branches per plant of borage. To analyze the variance of the experimental data and drawing of diagrams, MSTAT-C 8 and Excel software was used. Means were compared according to Duncan multiple test at the 5% probability level.
    Results and Discussion
    Results showed that simple and interaction effects of irrigation level and plant density were significant on flower yield, seed yield, biological yield, flower number, branch number and seed number of borage. One thousand-seed yield affected significantly by different irrigation levels. These morphological changes in growth can be considered as a morphological adaptation of the medicinal plant to water and environmental stresses to decrease transpiration and to induce a lower consumption of water. The growth is the most important process that is affected by water stress and the decrease in the growth of cells leads to decrease the plant height and number of branches. The highest and the lowest flower yield were observed in I3D3 and I1D1 with 0.81 and 0.14 g.m-2, respectively. The maximum and the minimum flower number, biological yield and seed yield were recorded in D3I3 (with 69.60 flowrs.m-2, 592.07 g.m-2 and 29.57 g.m-2) and D1I1 (with 3.89 flowrs.m-2, 134.42 g.m-2 and 3.36 g.m-2) respectively.
    Conclusion
    According to the results obtained in the present study, the effects of irrigation levels and plant densities had significant effects on yield and yield components of borage. By increasing in irrigation level improved growth characteristics and yield, but by increasing in plat density up to 40 plants.m-2 declined its growth and yield due to inter species competition for water and nutrient absorption.
    Acknowledgement
    This research was funded by Vice Chancellor for Research of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged
    Keywords: Biological yield, Competition, Flower yield, Medicinal plant, Seed yield
  • Ashkan Asgari, Alireza Koocheki, Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati Pages 340-352
     
    Introduction
    Agrobiodiversity has been operated as a foundation for sustaining food production systems and ecosystem services function in human societies. Biodiversity is known as a source for the environmental process and ecosystem services. Ecologists believe that increasing the species richness in farms is the cause of ecological stability in crops. Many studies have been done in relation with the importance of crop diversity. Most of them stated that crop diversity is one the main key to form ecosystem services in ecological ecosystem. Economically, polyculture can reduce production risk. Furthermore, crop diversity can lead to increase productivity by several procedures such as pest control and soil fertility. Eventually, crop diversity brings economic stability. The purpose of this study, was to calculate crop diversity using the biodiversity indices in Kermanshah province.
    Materials and Methods
    Kermanshah province is located in west of Iran with latitude of 33 to 35 and longitude of 45 to 47 and covers 2.5 million hectares. Crop data includes planting area in 13 cities during 1999 and 2010. Thirteen cities in the area were evaluated in the study, including Eslamabad, Paweh, Jawanroud, Dalahu, Ravansar, Sarpol-e Zahab, Sonqor, Sahneh, Qasr-e Shirin, Kermanshah, Kangawar, Gilan-e Gharb, Harsin. Crop data was obtained from ministry of agriculture. In order to quantify crop diversity, Species richness, Shannon, Simpson, Simpson evenness and Sorenson similarity, indices were calculated. We used the planting area of varoiuse crops to calculate the indices. The Ecological Methodology software was applied to calculate mentioned indices.
    Results and Discussion
    According to our study, 19 crop species was planted in study area. Wheat was highest planted crop followed by wheat, chickpea, barley and corn so that 51% of planted area was devoted to wheat and 33% was devoted to chickpea. All the 19 crop species was classified into eight families. Leguminos, Poaceae and Solanaceae had highest number of species, respectively. Poaceae (71%) and Leguminos (25%) were highest in terms of planting area. The results of present study demonstrated that 23% of crops type was planted as irrigated and 77% as dry farming. Moreover, 14 species were categorized as summer crops and five species as winter crops. Species richness was 19 across the province. Species richness in Sahneh (19 species), Kermanshah (17 species) and Sarpol Zahab (17 species) were highest. A big difference was obtained between Species richness in irrigated lands (19) and drylands (8), irrigated lands was more that drylands. It may be as result of water availability in irrigated lands. Shannon index was acquired 1.92 in Kermanshah province and highest value was obtained in irrigated land of Pave (2.56) and followed by Sahneh (2.52) and Harsin (2.48). Shannon index in irrigated lands (2.51) was more than drylands (1.48). These findings may attribute to water availability; the crops such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) , potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) , cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) , alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) and paddy would plant if water is available for irrigation. Among the cities, highest Simpson evenness was belonged to dry lands of Ravansar (0.92) and Kermanshah (0.7). It implied that there is no dominant crop in these area or crops are uniformly distributed across the area. However, in other cities wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is dominated; so, evenness is low. Shannon index was highest for kitchen garden and it was around 2.1 followed by cereals (1.07), forage (0.97), industrial crops (1.33) and beans (0.18). Finally, correlation between Shannon and Simpson indices (0.78**) and species richness and evenness (-0.85**) were calculated.
    Conclusion
    Wheat and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are the most popular crops and are cultivated in Kermanshah province (west of Iran), however, these plants are dominance than others. Cultivate monoculture systems in the province has increased the vulnerability of agricultural systems and for the low diversity, the risk of pests, diseases, and weeds are high than diverse systems
    Keywords: Evenness index, Shannon index, Sorenson index, Species richness
  • Alireza Koocheki, Parviz Rezvani Moghadam, Ashkan Asgari, Reaz Rostami Pages 353-367
     
    Introduction
    Conventional agriculture has led to a massive erosion of plant genetic resources in agroecosystems, due to agricultural intensification. Such process has resulted in underutilized and neglected crops, many of which were historically adapted to the local environmental conditions, they were grown. These crops were important in terms of both diet and socio-economic aspects of local communities. Underutilized crops are regarded as new crops for those who use them for the first time most of which were used widely once in the past but now due to different reasons are less attracted to the farmers and the users. Neglected crops are still cultivated in their center of origin by the local communities. They contributed significantly to biodiversity of cropping systems. However little is known about the agronomic and environmental criteria of these crops based on the new area of environmental changes. Since neglected crops are low input and extensive in terms of inputs, yield improvement, quality, marketing and policy framework strategies are needed in order to enhance their proper use and economic value. Traditionally these crops were used as food, fiber, fodder, oil and medicinal sources but at present due to their unrecognized properties and also poor consumer’s awareness they have not been brought to use in a wide scale. One of the important issues related to the reintroduction of these crops to the cropping system is proper understanding of their properties and the way they could be adapted to the new area of technologies. However, care should be taking to preserve their genetic identity based on the low input cropping systems. The aim of the present study was to identify neglected and underutilized crops in Iran for the possible reintroduction to the cropping systems on the account of serious environmental changes.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was based on the field and documented data collection by questionnaire field visit, interview and literature review. Species were classified into two groups of underutilized and neglected and their specifications such as local and scientific names, ecological criteria, yield, life span (annual, biennial and perennial), growth form (herb, woody and …) and cultivation requirements, historical use and present status in the country were investigated.
    Results and Discussion
    There were 17 less-used species (in 13 families) and 5 forgotten species (in 4 families). Low competitive value of these species compared with those of high productive value crops, introduction of new crop varieties, deep changes in food and drug consumption regime, political and socio-economic factors and finally prohibition for cultivation of some species such as opium were the cause of this neglect. In addition replacement with new species adapted to new technologies was also responsible for substitution. As the demand for new nutritional traits is increasing, neglected crops can overcome the constraints to the wider production and use. Although attempts for large-scale cultivation of neglected and underutilized crops appear to be increasingly exhausted, many species have the potential to contribute to food security, nutrition, health and income generation and consequently more socio-economic benefits. Despite their potential for food diversification and providing important nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, they continue to attract little research and development attention.
    Conclusion
    In the context of the present study underutilized crops for Iran considered to be species such as sesame (Sesamun indicum), flax (Linum usitatissimum), Jutte (Hibiscus cannabinus), castor bean (Ricinus communis), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), hemp (Cannabis sativa), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), Secale (Secale cereale), millet (Panucum miliaceum), lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus), Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), Rubia (Rubia tinctorum), Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Henna (Lawsonia inermis), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Rheum (Rheum ribes) and the important neglected crops are opium (Papaver somniferum), Eruca (Eruca sativa), Vasmeh (Indigofera tinctoria) and Rumex (Romex acetosella)
    Keywords: Industrial crops, Less-used species, Neglected crops, New crop species, Socio-economic factors, Underutilized crops
  • Seyyed Mahdi Javadzadeh, Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam, Mohammad Banayan, Aval, Javad Asili Pages 368-385
     
    Introduction
    Study the phenology of the medicinal plant is important to manage the timing of recurring plant primary and secondary material utilizations, seed collection, pest control, prevent harvested untimely and weed control. Based on the weather conditions each plant for completing its phenological stages needs certain amount of heat units. The use of special codes to describe Phenological stages of plants has a long tradition in agricultural science. This scale has a table of 100 sections from 0-99 designed for different phases of the plants’ growth. In this scale, the growth stages are divided into two principal and secondary stages. The principal growth stages are described using numbers from 0 to 9; each principal stage is divided into secondary stages through coding from 1 to 99. The objective of this study was to describe the Phenological growth stages of ‘Roselle’ based on BBCH scale.
    Materials and Methods
    Phenological stages of ‘Roselle’ were described and defined according to the extended BBCH scale. The experiment was carried out as strip plot layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran (Latitude 27o 12 ' N and longitude 60o 42' E; 591 m above sea level), during the growing season of 2013-2014. The experimental factors were: four rates of consumption of inputs and agricultural operations require in different cropping including Ecological system (No-tillage + Disk +Leveler +Furrower + 100% Manure), Conventional systems with low inputs (One-tillage + 0ne- Disk +Leveler +Furrower + 75% Manure + 25% NPK), Conventional systems with average inputs (One-tillage + Two-Disk +Leveler +Furrower + 50% Manure +50% NPK) and Conventional systems with high input (Two- tillage + Two-Disk +Leveler +Furrower + 100% NPK) and wheat straw application as residue mulch in four levels (6, 4, 2 t.ha-1 and control). In order to recognize the different stages of Roselle, three plants were appointed in each plot and monitored during growing season. All phenological stages of Roselle from germination to senescence were recorded based on BBCH.
    Results and Discussion
    The extended BBCH scale considers 10 principal growth stages, numbered from 0 to 9. Starting at Germination (stage 0) and ending at the beginning of the rest period (stage 9). Based on BBCH scale, nine phenological stages were recorded for Roselle that included: (0) Germination, (1) Leaf development, (2) Formation of side shoots, (3) Main stem elongation, (5) Inflorescence emergence, (6) Flowering, (7) Development of bolls, (8) ripening of sepals and (9) Seeds Senescence. Growing degree days to reach each stage were 153, 1051, 501, 506, 583, 730, 892, 349 & 246, respectively. Due to the high temperatures during the growing season of Roselle, the plant phenological stages were occurred more rapidly and the plant reaches its physiological maturity. Despite the interesting characteristics of this plant (Heat and drought tolerance), a detailed description of the phenological growth stages of Roselle has never been performed. A precise description of the different growth stages of this crop will provide a useful tool for agronomic and research activities. In this Study, the description of the phenological development of Roselle was proposed utilizing the expanded BBCH scale.
    Conclusion
    Roselle plant phenology is described here for the first time, according to the BBCH General scale. The use of extended BBCH scale for Roselle is important for successful implementation of farm management practices including disease and pest control. Based on our results it seems increasing wheat straw on the soil surface increased water holding capacity of the soil and reduced soil temperatures, which causes delay in the occurrence of Roselle phenological stages.
    Acknowledgements
    This research was supported by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran (code 31152)
    Keywords: BBCH, Climatic, Phenology, Thermal requirement
  • Issa Piri, Zahra Vahidian, Abolfazl Tavassoli, Mahdi Babaeian Pages 386-399
     
    Introduction
    Medicinal plants are used to treat many diseases that are untreated or rarely treated through modern medical systems. Approximately 80% of the world population depends on medicinal plants for their health and healing. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an aromatic plant in the Apiaceae family that is used in foods, fragrances, and medical preparations (liqueurs, mouthwashes, toothpastes, soaps, and perfumes). They are used as antispasmodic, carminative, and appetite stimulating agents. Cumin is the most widely used medicinal plants in Iran, which is mainly cultivated in order to use its essence. Cumin cultivation area in Iran is 542841 ha that it is 25.7% of the total Iran cultivated area of medicinal plants. Cumin is considered to be a very good compatibility with semi-arid regions of the world. Since the proportion of the agricultural activities in each region with the weather conditions is necessary for any agricultural activity, Therefore, understanding the different factors affecting plant growth, such as climate conditions and genetic resources as well as their impact on quantitative and qualitative characteristics is the most important aspects of a successful product. The use of modern types of fertilizers and pesticides has increased the production of Cumin in Iran. However, there have been concerns of environmental problems caused by inorganic materials and it is very important to investigate the mode of fertilizer and pesticide use and their impact on soil fertility and surrounding environment.
    Material and
    Methods
    In order to study the organic and conventional production of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) as a medicinal plant, a field experiment was conducted in factorial experiment as randomized complete block design with three replications during 2012-13 in HesaroyehZahedan region. Treatments included herbicide and pesticide in two levels: application of herbicide and pesticide and without application of herbicide and pesticide as first factor, and four levels of organic and inorganic: without application of fertilizer, manure, chemical fertilizer (N) and 50% manure + 50% chemical fertilizer as second factor. In this experiment measured factors were plant height, No. sub stems per plant, No. capsule per plant, No. seed per capsule, 1000-seed weight, dry and fresh forage yield, seed yield, weeds biomass, essence percentage and essence yield.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the highest amount of all factors measured except weeds biomass and essence percentage obtained from treatment of consumption of 50% manure + 50% chemical fertilizer. The highest amount of weeds biomass was observed in the treatment of consumption of 50% manure + 50% chemical fertilizer. And the highest amount of essence percentage was achieved from treatment of without application of fertilizer. The effect of herbicide and pesticide on any of the measured factors was not significant. The study of correlation coefficient for cumin showed that forage and seed yield had a positive and significant relationship with all measured factors.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that the use of manure with chemical fertilizers and without the use of chemical pesticides in terms of biomass and Cumin yield compared to other treatments used in this experiment, especially using chemical fertilizer alone and using chemical fertilizer with pesticide was higher in rank and the quantity and quality of biological and grain yield production of this treatment was higher than other treatments. Manure combined with chemical fertilizers could increase the availability of plant nutrients through a direct impact on increasing yield and its essence content is cumin. In general, according to the results of this experiment we can recommend farmers to use manure with chemical fertilizers and without the use of pesticides to achieve the Cumin highest performance and the best quality
    Keywords: Chemical Fertilizer, Cumin, Essential oil, Medicinal plant, Yield
  • Hamidreza Mobasser, Shahdoost Barjasteh, Abbas Keshtehgar Pages 400-415
     
    Introduction
    Increasing agricultural production to match increasing demand of food sources is inevitable (FAO, 2006). It causes too much pressure on the agricultural resource base and threaten the sustainability of these systems. Crop mixture is an important method of high production in agriculture. This technique can affect the environmental conditions of the soil. Sustainable Agriculture, said to be the proper management of agricultural resources which in addition to changing human needs, maintaining environmental quality and capacity of soil and water resources.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to study the effect of intercropping on the yield of maize and potatoes an experiment as 14 treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications as replacement and additive approach has been conducted in the region of Nikshahr in 2013. The experimental treatment consisted of sole corn (T1), sole potato (T2), two-row corn + one-row potato (T3), two-row corn + two-row potato (T4), one-row corn + one-row potato (T5), one-row corn + two-row potato (T6), two-row corn + two-row potato (T7), (The difference T7 and T4 is that in T4, for each product optimal plant population density is 50%, while in T7 for both products 100% high density will be used), three-row corn + one-row potato (T8), one-row corn + three-row potato (T9), three-row corn + two-row potato (T10), two-row corn + three-row potatoes (T11), two-row corn + four-row potatoes (T12), four-row corn + two-row potato (T13), two-row corn + two-row potato (T14), (The difference of this treatment with T4 and T7, is that in this treatment optimal plant density was 100% for corn and 50% favorable for potato was used). Traits for corn included plant height, number of ears per plant, number of grains per ear, number of grains per row, number of rows per ear, grain yield and 1000 grains weight and for potatoes, including plant height, tuber weight and the number of tubers per plant.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that, different planting systems on the number of grains per ear, number of grains per row and grain yield and plant height and size of potato tubers were significantly affected and improved the characteristics of plants have been mentioned. The highest biological yield (12.61 t.ha-1) of sole corn cropping (T1), respectively. Reduced biological function of monoculture corn compared to intercropping in this experiment can be attributed to inter-species competition of peanuts and corn. The highest grain yield (8957.3 kg.ha-1) was observed in treatment (T3). Production due to reduce competition between species, compared to the competition within the species increased. Most weight tubers of potato (73.54 g) treatment (T2), respectively. Potato tuber weight loss in the intercropping to monoculture in this experiment can due to inter-species competition potatoes and corn. The highest land equivalent ratio in one- row potato + three-row corn (T8) was obtained which shows the superiority of intercropping to monoculture.
    Conclusion
    The results of variance analysis showed that:Intercropping of maize and potatoes with increasing plant density, increased the grain yield of both crops in monoculture and mixed culture which could be due to increased vegetation and it's closer to optimum density in mixed culture and better use of environmental resources.
    Reduced grain weight with increased density often is the result of intensified competition intra-species over the use of existing resources. Corn in different densities is able to take advantages of photosynthetic material and grains of similar weight at different densities produce.
    In monoculture of potatoes because the only governing competition is intra-species so the plant is not affected in much higher density. Reducing the height of potato plants in intercropping to monoculture in these experiments can be attributed to intr-species competition of potatoes with corns.
    In monoculture because only intra-species competition is dominant so the tuber weight is not affected in higher densities. Due to fact that the monoculture system has been threated, the benefits of providing better distribution of light in the canopy, Suitable spatial distribution of shrubs and reducing competition between plants to use environmental factors to provide an appropriate manner, as a result significantly increase economic yield.
    The LER in most intercropping was more than one which indicates the superiority of intercropping to monoculture.
    Keywords: Biomass, Land equivalent ratio, Seed number per ear, Seed yield, Tuber yield
  • Javad Hamzei, Mohsen Seyedi Pages 416-429
     
    Introduction
    Agricultural conservation technologies maintain water and soil, keep soil moisture and increase crop yield and soil quality, which are beneficial for sustainable development of agricultural production. Hence, conservation tillage may improve crop yield, among other economic benefits. Conservation tillage is a crop management system that increases the efficient use of nutrients and water. Conservation tillage includes any method of soil cultivation that leaves the previous seasons crops residues on fields before and after planting the next crop. Intercropping has been long practiced in many parts of the world and continues to be widely employed not only in tropical, but also in temperate regions. Compared to sole crops, intercropping system has higher utilization of resource i.e., nutrient use efficiency, water use efficiency, and land use efficiency.
    Material and
    Methods
    A split plot experiment was designed based on randomized complete blocks with three replications and implemented on a clay loam soil during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014, at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran. Tillage (reduced tillage by chisel and disc and conventional tillage) as main factor and planting pattern (sole cropping of bean and sunflower and additive intercropping 30 and 60% bean with sunflower) were considered as sub-plot. Twenty days before planting, the soil was tilled by harrow for conventional tillage and by chisel and disc for minimum tillage. Sunflower and soybean were considered as main and secondary crops, respectively. The crops' seeds were simultaneously sown. Harvest operation was done on September 30, 2013 and September 27, 2014. After considering of border effect random samples 2 m2 areas was harvested by cutting the stems near ground level to determine the crops’ grain and straw yield. The land use efficiency (LUE) was calculated to measure efficiency of intercropping compared to pure cropping. Land use efficiency calculated as: LUE = (I1/P1) + (I2/P2). Grain oil percent and grain protein percent were determined by Soxhlet and Kjeldahl methods. SAS procedures and programs were used for analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculations.
    Results and Discussion
    ANOVA indicated that bean biologic and grain yield was not significantly affected by the tillage but, bean biologic and grain yield was significantly (p> 0.01) affected by the planting pattern. Also, tillage × planting pattern effect was significant on these properties. Effect of planting pattern was significant on the most of traits, but the most properties were not affected by tillage. The highest grain yield, protein yield and oil yield of sunflower (356.22, 160.90, 77.27, respectively) were achieved at sole cropping treatment, but intercropping decreased these traits significantly. The highest total biological and grain yield (1189.40 and 437.28 g m-2, respectively) belonged to additive intercropping 60% bean + sunflower treatment. One of the important intercropping benefits is the higher productivity and profitability per unit area When the value of LUE is less than 1, the intercropping negatively affects the growth and yield of crops grown in mixtures but when the value of LUE is greater than 1, the intercropping favors the growth and yield of the crops. Land use efficiency at additive intercropping 60% bean + sunflower treatments with different tillage were more than one, so highest LUE was obtained at × 60% bean +sunflower. Moreover, the total land use efficiency was higher in intercropping system compared to the sole cropping system, indicating the advantage of intercropping over sole cropping in utilizing environmental resources for crop growth.
    Conclusion
    In general, reduced tillage by chisel could say that additive intercropping 60% bean + sunflower had total yield in comparison to sole cropping of both two crops and increase land use efficiency. Acknowledgments
    We would like to thank the funding from Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
    Keywords: Biologic yield, Grain oil percent, Grain protein percent, Grain yield, Land use efficiency
  • Faezeh Mohammadi Kashka, Hemmatollah Pirdashti, Yasser Yaghoubian, Esmaeil Bakhshandeh Pages 430-443
     
    Introduction
    Regarding to the high cost and environmental pollution due to the overuse of chemical fertilizers, an adoptable option for farmers are biofertilizers to increase crop productivity per unit area. Bio-fertilizers are essential components of organic farming that play a vital role in maintaining long-term fertility and sustainability of the soil by their ability to provide micro- and macro-nutrients and also to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) into available forms to plants. Phosphorus as an essential nutrient is often fixed by most soils and is unavailable to the plants. Therefore, application of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can be proposed as an efficient solution to provide P for plants. These microorganisms by staying on the plant roots surface through production of organic acids, vitamins and other growth promoting materials could increase grain yield (GY) in many crops. In addition, Trichoderma spp. fungus species symbiosis with plant roots and root growth stimulation could control plant pathogens by production of antibiotics, induced systemic resistance and improve plant health that are known as other plant growth promoting microorganisms. It has been reported that Trichoderma species have an ability to solubilizing soil insoluble phosphate which resulted in improving the soil fertility and plant growth as well. Wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) is an important source of human foods which its production is highly depending on the application of chemical fertilizers. Therefore, to reduce the economic and environmental problems, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Trichodermahamatum fungi along with Enterobacter sp. as a PSB on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. ‘Milan’) in different levels of phosphorus fertilizer (TSP).
    Materials and Methods
    A field experiment was conducted in Mazandaran province (Sari city, located at 36°38' N, 53°32' E and 13.5 m asl) in 2014-15. The experiment was carried out in a factorial split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications.Three levels of triple super phosphate (TSP; zero, 50 and 100 kg ha-1) were used as the main plot and both fungal (inoculation with Trichodermahamatum and uninoculated control) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculations (inoculation with Enterobacter sp. and uninoculated control), were served as the sub-plots. In this experiment, the traits related to yield and yield components including number of spikes per square meter, grain number and grain weight per spike, straw yield and biological yield, grain yield (t.ha-1), harvest index and 1000-grain weight (g) were measured. Finally, data analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD) test at a 5% level of probability.
    Results and Discussion
    The results indicated that the effect of both Trichodermahamatum and Enterobacter sp. were statistically significant on yield and yield components of wheat. GY increased from 2.66 to 3.45 (29.69%), 3.19 to 3.79 (18.80%) and 3.34 to 4.39 t.ha-1 (31.43%) for 0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 of TSP, respectively, when Trichodermahamatumwas used separately. In contrast, single PSB inoculation increased GY from 2.66 to 3.37 (21.06%), 3.19 to 3.46 (8.46%) and 3.34 to 5.10 t.ha-1 (52.69%) when applied 0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 of TSP, respectively. Simultaneous application of these microorganisms significantly increased GY from 2.66 to 3.78 (42.10%), from 3.19 to 3.85 (20.68%) and from 3.34 to 4.48 t.ha-1 (34.13%) for 0, 50 and 100 kg.ha-1 of TSP, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The result of this study clearly indicate that presence of both Trichodermahamatum and Enterobacter sp. along with different levels of TSP can increase yield and yield components of wheat as compared to the application of TSP alone (without Trichodermahamatum and Enterobacter sp.).
    Acknowledgements
    This study was supported by a grant from the Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute of Tabarestan and Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran. The authors thank Mr. FarzinGoran for his assistance in the field experiment.
    Keywords: Biological yield, Microorganism, Phosphate solubilizing
  • H Niksirat, Ehsan Bijanzadeh, R Naderi Pages 444-458
     
    Introduction
    Intercropping is an old and widespread practice used in low input cropping systems in many areas of the world. Intercropping systems, especially those employing cereals with legumes, have several major advantages such as higher total yield and better land use efficiency yield stability of the cropping system, better utilization of light, water, and nutrients. The reasons for the higher yield in such systems is that the intercropped species do not compete exactly for the same growth resource niche and thereby tend to use the available resources in a complementary way. Several indices such as land equivalent ratio (LER), competitive ratio (CR), aggressivity (A), actual yield loss (AYL), and intercropping advantage (IA) have been developed to describe the competition and the economic advantage in intercropping. With respect to drought stress in late season of Sothern Iran and the importance of intercropping to reach stability and sustainability in production, the aim of this study was to assess the changes in yield and competition and economic indices of intercropping barley with legumes under late season drought stress.
    Materials and Methods
    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the competitive and economic indices of intercropping barley cultivars with pea and fababean under different irrigation regimes at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Darab, Shiraz University during 2014 growing season. Treatments were included two levels of irrigation regimes (full irrigation and cutting off irrigation at milk development of barley) and 8 cropping treatments consisted of monoculture of Nimroz tow-rowed barley, Zehak six-rowed barley, pea and fababean and intercropping of Nimroz+pea, Nimroz+fababean, Zehak+pea and Zehak+fababean with a ratio of 1:1 which laid out as split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Competitive and economic indices were including land equivalent ratio (LER), competitive ratio (CR), aggressivity (A), actual yield loss (AYL), intercropping advantage (IA), and system productivity index (SPI). Analysis of the variance was performed using MSTATC ver 2.10 software (1991) and the mean comparisons were performed by LSD test at 5% probability level.
    Results and Discussion
    Analysis of variance showed that irrigation regimes and cropping treatments had significant effect on barley and legume yields, LERtotal, Atotal, SPI, CR, AYL total, and IAtotal. Cutting off irrigation, decreased 20, 43 and 40% barley cultivars, pea and fababean yield, respectively and increased 1.9, 42 and 20% LER of cereals, legumes and total, respectively. Also, under cutting of irrigation, intercropping of Zehak+pea had the lowest yield loss (13%) while Zehak+fababean had the highest yield loss (27%) among the intercropping treatments. A and CR indices showed that in full irrigation conditions, barley cultivars were dominant species and at drought stress condition competitive power of legumes increased. In full irrigation, actual yield loss indices of barley cultivars, legumes and total was positive, negative and zero, respectively and intercropping advantage indices of barley cultivar was positive and in legumes and total was negative. Likewise, AYL and IA indices, in cereals, legumes and total were positive. The maximum grain yield in barley cultivars, pea and fababean was obtained at sole cropping treatments, while LER of all intercropping treatments was higher than 1. SPI for all of the intercropping treatments was positive.
    Conclusion
    Evaluating competitive and economic indices showed that intercropping systems of six-rowed Zehak barley cultivar with pea was advantageous than sole cropping system under drought stress condition because of betterland use efficiency and better economics than the other mixtures examined. This mixture could be economically and environmentally promising in the development of sustainable crop production and thus can be adopted by farmers for maximization of economic yields especially under drought stress condition
    Keywords: Actual yield loss, Intercropping advantage, Land equivalent ratio, Six-rowed barley
  • Sobhani Sobhani, Elham Shokrzadeh Pages 459-472
     
    Introduction
    Pea plants are grown in hot and arid and semi arid weather conditions in cold areas in spring and autumn in the tropics. Iran is the fourth largest producer of peas in the world after India, Turkey and Pakistan. Despite the high-yielding cultivars development, weather is one of the most important determinants of the plant's performance. In this study, with the use of meteorological data, physiographic regions favorable for the cultivation of pea in Ardabil are identified.
    Materials and Methods
    Collecting of data in this study is as follows. 1- Collecting climatic elements such as temperature and precipitation in the Province Ardabil during the period 1988 to 2013. 2- The preparation of topographic map with a scale of 1: 50,000 of the Armed Forces Geographical Organization. 3- Preparation maps of slope, elevation 4- Preparing soil maps and land use 5- Preparation of physiographic and climatic zonation map of pea cultivation of combining all data using AHP.
    Results and Discussion
    In this study, each of the data after a review of the valuation methods were studied in GIS environment and the combination of the following options, criteria and sub-criteria, the final map was prepared. Precipitation play an important role in maintaining moisture and water requirement of pea. In this study, the amount of precipitation was used in the weather stations in April, May, June and July. Temperature is one of the decisive factors in the geography of plants and garden areas. Climatic factors such as: the distribution of the amount of rainfall during the growing of peas, average minimum temperature, germination, flowering temperature, temperature and relative humidity during their growth and climate elements by analyzing the data was about 37 percent very suitable, 21 percent suitable, 20 percent average and 22 percent was unsuitable for the cultivation of peas. Physiographic data played a significant role and is a limiting factor during the growing season of pea. The results of physiographic maps show that about 55 percent very suitable, 25 percent fair and 20 percent is unsuitable for cultivation of pea.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiographic and climatic elements in the cultivation of pea, each of them prepared in different forms and was weighted, and results of zoning pea cultivation in this Province are as follows.
    1. The areas are very suitable for cultivation of peas, plain and south of the cities of Ardabil is Meshkinshahr that is consistent with agricultural areas and there are no limitations for pea and constitute about 18 percent of Ardabil Province.
    2. The regions in terms of Pea has the perfect conditions surrounding cities of Khalkhal and Sareyn, Kowsar and central areas of the city, Nir, northeast and constitute Meshkinshahr cities. A major constraint in the areas of water requirements and minimum temperature that is about 45 percent of the total area of the province.
    3-Areas that slope, soil depth, elevation, temperature fluctuations are considered a major factor in limiting Pea-are the northern and southern areas and around the city Meshkinshahr form and about 27 percent of the total area of the province.
    4-The areas of the Ardabil province due to the mountainous area, cold air and a lack of proper soil horizon with severe limitation is facing the possibility of planting about 12 percent of the Province Ardabil.
    Conclusion
    In addition to the fact that peas are cultivated as human and animal food, the cultivation of this plant should be included in the crop pattern due to the contribution of soil fertility as one of the components of sustainable agricultural systems.
    The final results show that:1- Among the main criteria, 0.603 climate, topography, 0.245, 0.114 soil and land use 0.038 higher priority on locating the pea are grown.
    2-The results show consistency index criteria, all criteria are used with consistency index less than 0.1
    Keywords: Atmospheric data, Climate, Land use, Physiographic factors
  • Nosratollah Heidarpour, Hoshang Bahramy, Yaghoob Mansoori, Saeed Hojati Pages 473-489
     
    Introduction
    Undoubtedly, development of agricultural production systems without sufficient knowledge of the current situation and defining constraints is impossible. The potential of lands for cultivation of crops is determined by evaluation of biophysical and environmental variables. Therefore, climate, soil and geomorphologic environmental components are the most important agro-ecological variables for the evaluations. GIS is a powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving, transforming and displaying spatial data of the real world. Much progress has been made over the last twenty years in developing methods of multi criteria-land suitability evaluations, especially by integrating GIS with multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). From MCDM, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is one of the most common methods to determine criteria weights. The integration of GIS and AHP approach is a useful method for decision-making, suitable for analysis of a big amount of data with a new set, enabling to show them in the form of maps and shapes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of lands for cultivation of Canola and Wheat in order to increase the sustainable productivity of the crops in Maroon basin of Khuzestan province, Iran, using a GIS based approach.
    Materials and Methods
    The study area of this experiment is located in the Maroon basin of Khuzestan Province in South West Iran with hot and dry climatic conditions. This area contains nearly 30 percent of current agricultural lands in Khuzestan province. Relevant environment components such as soil properties (pH, EC, texture, organic matter), topography (Elevation and slope), climate factors (precipitation and temperature) and water resources potential for cultivation of canola and wheat at different spatial resolutions were considered, collected from scientific references and then classified. Afterwards, digital information layers for Wheat and Canola were prepared based on the growth parameters and available environmental conditions, with AHP weighting using GIS. Experts’ opinions were employed to determine the sufficient weights of each factors using relevant questionnaires. Finally, the generated agricultural land suitability maps were divided into 5 categories according to FAO classification guidelines as: highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable and not suitable.
    Results and Discussion
    The results of the research showed that among the factors contributing to land, the weightings of soil salinity and slope, with 0.2231 and 0.0254 were the highest and lowest limit, respectively. The weights are applied in overlapping layers of existing conditions using GIS software shows that an area of 632473 hectares of land in the basin Maroon, each year, and the different potential for canola and wheat crops. According to the agricultural land use suitability map, it was determined that 7.4% (46890 ha) of the studied area is highly suitable, 9.8% (62013 ha) suitable, 27.8% (175950 ha) moderately suitable, 29.4% (185434 ha) marginally suitable and 25.6% (162186 ha) not suitable for cultivation of wheat and canola. High soil salinity and limited water resources in the studied area were the most effective factors lowering the suitability of agricultural lands, in this study.
    Conclusion
    GIS is a powerful tool, as it provides many special features in a single system usable for land suitability. Generally, the goal of this study was to achieve some conclusions on the quality of land, decide on crop rotation and scheme for the management of the farms. This study were realized with the aid of GIS and AHP. It determined spatial highly suitable in Maroon basin district of Khuzestan province which help to sustainable agricultural production.
    Acknowledgements
    This study was supported by the Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Jehad Agricultural and Water and Power Authority of Khuzestan province. We acknowledge them for their assist
    Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, Crop Rotation, Land Suitability
  • Ahmad Ghasemi, Ahmad Ghanbari, Baratali Fakheri, Hamidreza Fanaie Pages 490-503
     
    Introduction
    Lack of attention to the quantity and quality of forage crops led to shortages and low qualities of meat and dairy products. Using cattle manure, plant residues, and green manure increased the dynamic components of the soil. Recently the tendency of farmers toward organic fertilizers have increased due to high costs, demolition of proper soil conditions, environmental consequences and low quality of products produced with chemical fertilizers. It has been reported that combination of manure with chemical fertilizer has increased soil fertility and crop's quality and quantity characteristics due to meeting nutritional needs and increasing the input absorption and use efficiency.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to assess the effects of different fertilizer sources on maize yield and yield components under different tillage managements, a field experiment was conducted at Zahak Agricultural Research Station for two years (from 2013 to 2014) with a split plot arrangement based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The main plot factors were tillage and no tillage, and sub plot factors were: 1-control, 2-barley green manure without application of fertilizer, 3-barley green manure with application of 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK) to the barley, 4- green manure with 2/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 1/3 to the maize, 5- green manure with 1/3 of chemical fertilizer to the barley and 2/3 to the maize, 6- barley green manure with 50% of animal manure and chemical fertilizer, 7- barley green manure with 40 t.ha-1 of animal manure. The total amount of Nitrogen was measured by digestion method. Likewise, the distillation and titration was tested by using Kjeldahl method. Phosphorus content was measured by a spectrophotometer using colorimetric approach. Potassium content was measured using wet digestion method with salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide obtained using a photometer movie. The concentration of Zn was measured by atomic absorption. Measurement of grain ash was done through burning and using an electric furnace. Combined variance analysis of data was performed using MSTAT-C statistical software, and the comparison of the means was done at the 5% probability level using Duncan multiple range test.
    Results and Discussion
    The highest yield was obtained from conventional tillage, 1563 kg.ha-1 more than non-tillage. Fertilizer sources had a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, N, P, K, NDF, grain production, fresh and dry forage production and ash content of the grains. Returning green manure to the soil, along with chemical fertilizer application, not only increased P and N availability in the soil for the next crop, but also simultaneously increased organic matter as well as biological, chemical and physical improvement of the soil properties. The highest (7019 kg.ha-1) and lowest (2097 kg.ha-1) grain yield belonged to T5 and the control treatments, respectively. The highest content of grain ash was observed in the mixed treatment of green manure, cow manure, and chemical fertilizers (1.77%) and its lowest rate was obtained in control (1.125 %). The results showed that addition of cattle and green manure to the soil increased the plant ash, which shows the superiority of these organic manures to chemical fertilizers.
    Conclusion
    Based on the obtained results of this experiment, it can be inferred that conventional tillage had better effects than no tillage due to its more suitability for soil degrading bacteria cultures, better acceleration of mineralization, and better root growth, resulted in greater access to nutrients and water, and ultimately improving plant growth. During the first year, the root growth limited mainly due to high soil density in the no-tillage treatments. Moreover, because of slow degradation, water and nutrients absorption was low. Due to chemical fertilizer application, nutrient supply was provided faster for the plant. Nevertheless, in long term, it would pollute the surrounding environment and degrade the soil structure. During its converting process in longer period, organic fertilizers provide environmental health and sustainable productivity of the soil; however, consolidated application of organic and chemical fertilizers under a conventional tillage system, support the initial growth, accelerate mineralization, and eventually, increase the uptake of nutrients such as N, P, K, Zn, and Ash content, leads to an increasing yield of maize
    Keywords: Green manure, NDF, Seed ash, Seed P, Seed yield
  • Elham Raftari, Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam, Mehdi Mollashahi, Hossein Hosseini Moghaddam Pages 504-515
     
    Introduction
    Intercropping, the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time, is an old and commonly used cropping practice which aims to match efficiently crop demands to the available growth resources. Intercropping of chickpea with linseed reduced the chickpea yield by 60.3%, although linseed occupied only 33% of the total area. The loss of chickpea yield was compensated by the additional yield of linseed, and thus the system productivity of chickpea + linseed intercropping was increased by 43.4% compared to the sole chickpea. Of this increase in system productivity, 65.3 and 34.7% were contributed by higher seed yield and higher minimum support prices of linseed, respectively, as compared to chickpea. The objectives of the present study were to study the competition indices of Pea and Lettuce intercropping, such as land equivalent ratio, relative crowding coefficient, aggressivity, pea equivalent yield and effects of nitrogen and different intercropping arrangements on the yield of sole pea, sole lettuce and intercropping yield of two plants.
    Materials and Methods
    In order to study the effect of planting pattern and nitrogen application on yield and competitive indicators of pea and lettuce, a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted with three replications at research farm of Gonbad Kavous University during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments of the planting pattern were included 9 levels of sole pea, 67% pea + 33% lettuce, 50% pea + 50% lettuce, 33% pea + 67% lettuce, 100% pea + 33% lettuce, 100% pea + 50 % lettuce, 100% pea + 67% lettuce, 100% pea + 100% lettuce and sole lettuce and the nitrogen factor was included three levels of non-application and application of 25 and 50 kg N.ha-1. Row spacing was 30cm. Density of pea and lettuce was 33.3 and 16.7 plants.m-2, respectively.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the effect of planting pattern and nitrogen application on the yield was significant on the confidence level of 99%. Additive treatment of 100% lettuce + 100% pea and lettuce sole cropping with 61565 and 61473 kg.ha-1 were produced the maximum yields and pea sole cropping with 11759 kg.ha-1 produced the minimum yield. Total yield was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer application. The maximum and minimum equivalent yield was achieved in additive treatment of 100% lettuce + 100% pea and sole cropping of pea, respectively. The most and the least pea equivalent yield were obtained from treatments of 50 kg nitrogen/ha and non-application of nitrogen with 20669 and 16689 kg.ha-1, respectively. Land equivalent ratio in intercropping treatments was greater than sole cropping. The maximum land equivalent ratio with 1.48 belonged to additive intercropping of 100% pea + 100% lettuce. Therefore, intercropping of pea and lettuce, especially in additive series was appropriate. Relative crowding coefficient in all traits was more than 1. Aggressivity index showed that pea in additive treatments and replacement of 33% lettuce instead of pea was the dominant plant. Increasing of actual yield was observed in all treatments, especially in additive series. Intercropping advantage and system productivity index in all treatments of additive and replacement treatments was greater than 1, therefore Intercropping had sufficient economic benefits in this mixture.
    Conclusion
    Of the two plants of pea and lettuce, lettuce produced more yield than pea in all treatments. Additive treatment of 100% lettuce to pea and lettuce sole crop with 61565 and 61473 kg.ha-1 produced the maximum yield and pea sole crop with 11759 kg.ha-1 produced the minimum total yield. With increasing of nitrogen fertilizer consumption, yield was increased. According to the results, it seems that obtaining the maximum yield in the intercropping system required increasing plant density
    Keywords: Aggessivity, Intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Pea equivalent yield
  • Alireza Bagheri, Naser Sohrabi Pages 516-528
     
    Introduction
    Predicting the yield of strategic crops such as wheat and barley can provide liquidity to purchase products from farmers, suitable space for storage, sufficient pricing, and estimating the import and export needs of the agricultural products. Crop yield forecasting can be estimated using different methods. Artificial neural network is one of the methods recently has been considered and has high accuracy in crop yield estimation. In this approach the relationship between independent and dependent variables as well as their complex interactions will be studied and hidden correlatioins between the variables is discovered. Crop yield, particularly in case of rain-fed crops, severely affected by climatic factors such as rainfall, humidity, temperature fluctuations and solar radiation during the growth season. On this basis, it seems that in case of relationships between climatic data (as independent variables) and crop yield (as dependent variable) it would be possible to predict agricultural production.
    Materials and Methods
    Considering the importance of forecasting agricultural production, an experiment was conducted in Kermanshah province, with the aim of estimating rainfed and irrigated barley yield using artificial neural network approach,. Barley yield data of 25 years (1991 to 2015) as well as raw and corresponding standardized meteorological data (total annual rainfall, average annual temperature, humidity annual average total sunshine hours, average annual evaporation and the number of frost days) were used as input data networks. To find the best network, performance of different types of neural networks was tested to barley yield evaluation. To evaluate models the statistics indices of correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used.
    Results and Discussion
    The results showed that the best neural network built for rainfed barley was Modular Neural Network with Momentum learning law. The network had a correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.92, and coefficient of determination of 0.85 and 0.92 for raw and standard data, respectively. The best neural network built for irrigated barley was also Modular Neural Network with Momentum learning law. The correlation coefficient for the raw and standard input data was 0.78 and 0.72 with coefficient of determination of 0.60 and 0.51, respectively. The results showed the less efficiency of artificial Neural Network in predicting irrigated compared to rainfed barley yield. Comparison of MSE and RMSE between the models also revealed that networks related to rainfed barely with more accuracy had more correlation coefficient compared to irrigated barely. It seems that the managing operations such as watering in irrigated barley has reduced the effect of climate factors on barley yield. So that the sensitivity of irrigated barley yield was much less than the rainfed barley. In fact, in irrigated cultivations, depending on the amount of available water, crops were irrigated regularly. This would be in addition to supplying the needed water of crops, also reduce the impact of other climatic factors such as temperature.
    Conclusion
    Generally based on the results of this study, the accuracy of Artificial Neural Network to predict the yield of rainfed barley was more acceptable than irrigated barley in Kermanshah province. Rainfed cultivation are more affected by climatic factors such as rainfall and temperature, which would be the reason of the achieved results. Hence, the accuracy of neural network for rainfed barley was more than irrigated barely, which represents more relationship between yield of rainfed barley with climatic factors as inputs of the model. So the sensitivity test of the yield to climatic factors revealed more sensitivity in rainfed than irrigated barley. Moreover, the accuracy of neural network showed that neural network was built for barley than wheat.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Barley, Predictive variables, Yield prediction
  • Reza Arefi, Afshin Soltani, Hosein Ajamnorozei Pages 529-546
     
    Introduction
    Nowadays, due to population growth, decreased the arable lands and improved living standards, energy consumption in the agricultural sectors has been increased. Therefore, intensive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural machinery, energy and natural resources are required in order to supply the nutritional demands of the increasing population. Ahamadi & Aghaalikhani (2013) investigated the energy consumption in cotton production in Golestan province and showed that energy consumption for tractor and engine pump fuel was 24% and 30%, respectively, or totally 54% for diesel fuel. Also, fertilizers and chemical materials with 13% energy consumption had the second and third rank, respectively and total energy input for cotton production in Alborz province was 31 GJ/ha. Dastan et al., (2014) carried out a study on the rate of energy consumption in rice planting systems and the rate of carbon dioxide emission and concluded that the highest values of energy input in the production systems was related to the electric power to pump water for irrigation that had the highest value in terms of carbon dioxide emission and global warming potential and Nitrogen fertilizer and fuel also had the second and third rank in terms of carbon dioxide emission.
    Materials and Methods
    One hundred cotton fields around the cities of Aliabad and Aq Qala in Golestan province were selected during two sowing years 2014 and 2015. All operations and events were observed during the growing season in these fields and detailed data of typical production methods and cultivation practices was collected in past years, this data included the use of equipment, fuel, fertilizers, and pesticides and so on. To this end, at first, all agricultural practices were divided into eight categories, including preparing the land, planting, fertilizing, plant protection, weed control, irrigation, harvesting and transport to the factory to crop delivery, then, different amounts of input use and more comprehensive information were collected and recorded at every stage from planting to harvesting and they were processed by Excel software, data analysis in three parts of energy input (consumption), energy output (production) and Global warming potential (GWP) of GHG emissions.
    Results and Discussion
    In this study, input and output energy of GHGs emission and the GWP of agricultural activities in the cotton fields of Golestan province were investigated. The results revealed that the average energy input per hectare is 26 GJ/ha and the ratio of output energy to input energy was 154 GJ/ha and energy output was six times more than the input energy. There was a direct relationship between input energy and energy output, in other words, an increase in energy input, increases the crop performance, thereby increasing the output energy and GHG emission (Table 5). Figure 11 shows a significant direct relationship between performance and GHG emitted from the cotton production. The average of the GHG emission for cotton production was estimated 2181kg/ha that the maximum rate was 33% of total GHGs of chemical fertilizer inputs. Fuel and manure inputs had lower rates. Maximum energy was consumed for irrigation, nutrition and preparation that increased the GHGs. The comparison between energy output and a GWP of manure input showed a significant direct relationship difference between the output energy in cotton farms and its GWP.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicated that by reducing the fuel consumption and chemical fertilizers, energy consumption and GHG emissions can be reduced. A number of management solutions for reducing the fossil fuel consumption and chemical fertilizers that result in GHG emission in agriculture include: conservation tillage that reduces the farm traffic, and consequently, reduces the fuel; use of legumes in agriculture that reduces nitrogen use, use of new methods of irrigation and increase in water efficiency, use of crop rotation and biological methods to control pests and weeds, application of nitrogen fertilizers based on soil test, adaptation of the fertilizing time to the plants' needs, improvement of fertilization methods such as placement in the soil rather than manual distribution and centrifuge, the use of inhibitors combinations of Nitrification or coated fertilizers, use of green manure
    Keywords: Cotton, Energy Input, Energy Output, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission
  • Mahdieh Rajaii, Mehdi Dahmardeh, Issa Khammari, Behrooz Keshtegar Pages 547-564
     
    Introduction
    In the corn and peanut intercropping system, the organic amounts of carbon, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the soil were affected by sowing system after harvest and changes in each element varied according to the percentage of plant and different morphological structure between two plants. Intercropping of Roselle and mung bean was modeled based on different percentages of mix-culture and the results showed that, by increasing the cultivation area of Roselle would cause negative effects on soil properties and increasing in the mung bean cultivation area in comparison with the Roselle had a positive effect on the amount of nitrogen and carbon.
    Materials and Methods
    To determine the best intercropping patterns and effect of vermicompost in corn, peanut and borage intercropping, a split plot test based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Institute of Zabol University in 2015. The study factors consisted of various proportion of vermicompost as a major factor in three levels, including: 0, 2.5 and 5 tons per hectare, different patterns of intercropping as a sub-factor in 9 levels including monoculture of corn, peanut, borage, and mix cultivation which are including: 50% corn plus 25% peanut plus 25% borage, 100% corn plus 50% peanut plus 50% borage, 40% corn plus 30% peanut plus 30% borage, 100% corn, 75% peanut plus 25% borage, 60% corn plus 20%peanut plus 20% borage plus and 100% corn plus 25% peanut plus 75% borage. Soil sampling was conducted after harvesting three plants. Soil elements including organic carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and sodium were measured in soil sampling.
    Results and Discussion
    The effects of intercropping patterns and vermicompost on the amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium in the soil were significant at 1% probability level. Statistically, the mutual interaction between these two treatments also showed a significant effect on the amount of the elements. In the analysis of intercropping patterns, the cropping patterns of %100 corns plus %50 peanut plus %50 borage, and the use of 5 ton vermicompost per hectare resulted the maximum amount of organic carbon (%41). By increasing the amount of peanuts to %50 in the cropping pattern, the amount of carbon also increased and in the pattern with the least peanuts percentage, the amount of the element (carbon) decreased. The different root system among three plants, and their competition to absorb more of soil nutrients. The legumes in intercropping with positive effect increased the amount of phosphorus. Among different patterns of intercropping, the least amount of sodium in the soil (8.2m.e.l-1) was observed in %100 corn plus %25 peanut plus %75 borage treatments, while fertilizers were not used. As a result, by increasing borage percentage, the amount of sodium in the soil decreased. The highest yield rate of corn (17.3 t.ha-1) was observed in the intercropping pattern of % 100 corn plus %25 peanut plus %75 borage, and the highest yield rate of peanut (15.5 t.ha-1) was observed in the intercropping pattern of %100 corn plus %75 peanut plus %25 borage and usage of 2.5 ton vermicompost per hectare, and finally the highest performance rate of borage was observed in sole crop, and the use of 5 ton vermicompost per hectare. Furthermore, due to the physiological and morphological differences among the three plant species, the use of environmental resources efficiency in pattern designing increased in intercropping. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of all the intercropping patterns was more than 1, which showed the advantage of intercropping over sole crop.
    Conclusion
    Not only does choosing a suitable planting pattern increase the diversity in agricultural ecosystems, but also it plays an important role in both soil reclamation and protection. Both selection of plants and determination of appropriate intercropping percentages in a pattern are possible with respect to the reduction of competition between species and achievement of multiple ecological, economical, and agricultural goals. According to the results, intercropping pattern including %100 corn plus %50 peanut plus %50 borage, increased amount of organic carbon, nitrogen, and moisture in non-fertile soils and dry lands, hence it was the best model
    Keywords: Economic yield, Land equivalent ratio, Organic carbon, Photosynthesis active radiation
  • Reyhaneh Azimi, Gholam Ali Heshmati, Mohammad Farzam, Morteza Goldani Pages 565-579
     
    Introduction
    Today, mining led to severe degradation of natural and agricultural lands in a relatively large scale. Establishment of vegetation cover around the mining areas is a practical and enviromental sound strategy. However due to poor soil condition and presere of heavy metals this process is risky and establishment of plant cover is not an easy task. Achillea millefolium L. is one of the important species that is used as rangeland and medicinal plant and also as ornamental and cover plant. However, technical issues such as soil amendments type of plant and method of planting need to be considered for a successful establishment. Some soil amendments materials are zeolite, superabsorbent or hydrogel and also mycorrhiza. However initial establishment of proper plant species under field condition is required for feasibility of such studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate suitability of Achillea millefolium L. for reclamation of contaminated soils around abandoned mines of Mashhad′ Shargh Cement Factory with inclusion of soil amendents.
    Materials and Methods
    The effect of mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices), superabsorbent (A200) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on the establishment and production of Achillea millefolium L. species in soils of abondened mines (Mashhad′ Shargh Cement Factory) was studied in 2015-2017. The experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications consisting of four treatment (a plant species, mycorrhiza, zeolite and superabsorbent) criteria such as establishment percent, plant height, mycorrhizal colonization on roots, aerial and root dry weight and total dry matter was measured. Method of Giovannetti was used for colonization measurement of roots. The experimental data were categorized using the Excel database software and the charts were drawn. Analysis of variance was carried out by SPSS18 and Minitab16.
    Results and Discussion
    Analysis of variance showed that zeolite, mycorrhiza and superabsorbent had significant effects on total dry weight, plant height, aerial and root dry weight of Achillea millefolium L. and also on establishment percent of the plant. Use of Mycorrhiza, zeolite and absorbent increased plant establishment by 50, 33 and 11 percent respectively. Zeolite and mycorrhiza increased plant height, aerial and root dry weight and also total dry weight compared with superabsorbent and control. When compared with the control zeolites, mycorrhiza and superabsorbent increased plant height by 14.3, 12.3 and 6.3 cm, dry aerial weight by 0.73, 0.57 and 0.5 g, dry root weight by 0.26, 0.15 and 0.14 gand total dry weight by 1, 0.73 and 0.64 g, respectively. Using suitable mycorrhizal fungi as an inoculum material in contaminated areas with heavy metals can reduce the effects of these toxic metals. Using suitable mycorrhizae fungi as an inoculum material in contaminated areas with heavy metals can reduce the effects of these toxic metals. In a study that was carried out in Germany, natural zeolite was used to remove heavy metals from mine water. Zeolite in reducing iron, lead was more effective than cadmium and zinc.
    Conclusions
    According to the obtained results, the use of effective and affordable G. intraradices mycorrhiza and zeolite fertilizers as bio-fertilizers to increase yield and initial establishment Achillea millefolium L. plant and vegetation recovery of lands contaminated with heavy metals in mining area of Mashhad Shargh cement factory is recommended
    Keywords: Field, Mycorrhiza, Rangelands, Seedling transplantation
  • Zahra Homauini, Leili Abolhassani, Mahmoud Sabouhi Pages 580-602
     
    Introduction
    Agriculture is one of the most important effective sections toward the environment. One of the agricultural activities impact on the environment can be issues such as nitrate leaching to groundwater and surface resources, soil salinization, acidification and greenhouse gas emissions. Planting rice is an activity that causes a significant amount of pollution. Rice can be counted as an essential grain all over the world. In Iran, rice is the second most important crop after wheat, which is part of the main items of household consumption basket. Per capita consumption of rice in the country is 100 grams per day and Iran is ranked 13th in the world rice consumption. As the farmers are unaware and mostly ignorant of the fact, they use an inordinate amount of primary inputs like chemical fertilizers that are detrimental to the environment. Noticing the importance and strategic role of this product, hereby this study investigated the environmental effects of rough rice of different kinds (Tarim hashemi, Tarom sangi, Neda, Fajr and Shirudi) by evaluating the cycle of life.
    Materials and Methods
    The area in this study is located in Kordkuy, Golestan. The sampling is done by random interviews with the farmers. LCA method was used according to the extent of natural factors in order to analyze the defective consequences due to use of the resources. By identifying the utilized elements, energy, material in the production procedure, the effects and defects can be estimated. Using this method, one can evaluate the potential effects on global warming, acidity, Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential, photochemical oxidation, and the toxicity effect on human (caused by Cadmium in phosphate), Terrestrial Eco toxicity potential, Aquatic Eco toxicity, fresh water potential, Fossil fuel consumption, Phosphate consumption, Potash consumption, and Water Consume.
    Results and Discussion
    Chemical fertilizers (like urea, potassium, phosphate), fossil fuels, water and electricity are the causes of the pollution on the farms in this study. Using these inputs creates contaminants that can be categorized as nitrogen (N), carbon (C), sulphur (S), and phosphorus (P). Among all the inputs Nitrogen fertilizers is the most important factor to spread the mission of air pollutants. The estimated environmental effects in planting rice show that photochemical oxidation potential has the highest effect on producing rice. Moreover, depletion of phosphate and water resources are the other important effects as the result of planting rice. On average three effective factors like photochemical oxidation potential, depletion of phosphate and water resources are evaluated as 2.033, 1.296, and 0.896, respectively. And some other environmental effects like acidity, Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential, toxicity of water have the least destructive effects on average. Among all the other figures, Tarim hashemi and Tarom sangi figures have the highest range of creating pollution estimated as 1 ton rough rice per hectare and the least is determined to be a figure related to Neda variate. The final indicator shows the range of this variation from 0.0080 to 2.975. The most photochemical oxidation potential is attributed to Tarim hashemi and the least toxicity effect on water is recognized by the figures in Shirudi. In all the investigated effects in this study, the long-grain rice figures (Tarim hashemi, Tarom sangi) were shown to have more detrimental effects compared to productive igures (Neda, Fajr and Shirudi) since it has less output.
    Conclusion
    The results of the study show that the figures with the highest output in production ,(Neda, Fajr and Shirudi) although has used more of the inputs , could spread less pollution in the estimate of 1 ton rough rice per hectare. By planting varieties that produce higher yields the amount of pollution reduced, can be reduced. Also, in order to reduce the amount of pollution, controlling the inputs can decrease the amount of pollution. The biggest pollutants such as nitrogen fertilizers that can be replaced by fertilizers such as stabilizers Nitrogen plants. This solution may reduce the emissions of pollutants from nitrogen fertilizers on the farm
    Keywords: Classification impacts, Environmental hazards, Evaluating the cycle of life, Indirect effects of Nitrogen, Spreading the pollution