فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fitting five models to describe milk production curve for Khuzestani Buffaloes of Iran in different parities and seasons
    Bahareh Taheri Dezfuli *, Mohammad Babaei Pages 1-10
    In this research, to evaluate the lactation curve of Khuzestani buffaloes and to determine its describing function, 89140 test day records of buffaloes, collected in 1991 to 2015, were used. All the studied functions (Wood, Wilmink, Parabolic, Mixed Logarithmic and Inverse Polynomial models) were fitted using NLIN procedure of SAS 9.1 software. The results showed that the lactation curve of Khuzestani buffaloes became more typical from 4th and 6th lactation, as it was completed with three steps of increasing production, peak yield and decreasing phase in the 7th and 8th parities. Based on the criteria, studied functions did not have the same performance for lactation curve so that the Wood function was the best model. According to best function, peak of milk production increased from the first lactation and its maximum value was obtained for the 8th lactation. The time of peak yield for the studied curves were vary variable (between 79 and 90 days). In terms of estimated amount for persistency, there was not much difference among curves of different lactation, so that obtained values were very close together. We can say the lactation curves of studied buffaloes were flat, as the difference between the beginning and the end of production was very low. The results also showed that among different calving seasons, the Parabolic function had the best fitting for lactation curve of buffaloes with calving in spring, autumn and winter seasons and the Mixed Logarithmic function was the best for buffaloes with calving season of summer.
    Keywords: buffalo, function, lactation, parity, peak yield
  • Effect of replacing yellow corn with barley supplemented with β-glucanase enzyme on broiler performance and nutrients digestibility
    mujahed omar lutfi bushwereb, Nadia Elshawesh, Omran Algariany, Kalid Ganghish * Pages 11-18
    An experiment was conducted to study the performance and nutrients digestibility of broilers chicks fed diets in which yellow corn was replaced with barley   and barley without supplemented with   a commercial digestive enzymes β-glucanase xylanase ( Lohmann LTG – GMBH Germany) at the rate of 1kg enzyme per 1000Kg diet. A total of 720 day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 9 treatments of four replicates each comprising 20 chicks reared in battery cages under controlled environment condition until the age of 56 days. The control group was fed yellow corn-based diet (60% yellow corn , 0 % barley). Yellow corn was replaced by barley making 8 experimental diets were prepared using 25, 50, 75 and 100% barley and 25, 50, 75 and 100%  barley  supplementation with   β-glucanase xylanase.  Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Feed intake and gain-feed ratio  was significantly (p<0.05) improved in chicks fed β-glucanase xylanase supplemented diets compared to non-supplemented diets. Broiler chickens in the enzyme-supplemented groups had better body weight gain as compared to those without supplementation.  Barley in all levels supplemented with enzyme gave a significantly (p<0.05) improvement in apparent protein and fat apparent digestibility over non supplemented barley, the results revealed no significant differences over the corn basic diet. Dramatically, a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the digestibility of fat and fiber in feeding supplemented barley with β-glucanase  in comparison with yellow corn diet or with non supplemented barley diet. Regarding, NFE   diets of barley replacer by 50, 75 and 100%   supplemented with β-glucanase  enzyme revealed a significant (p<0.05) improvement over the non supplemented.  Results from this experiment suggest that enzyme supplementation can improve nutritive utilization of barley broiler diets. Broiler chicks can grow faster and more efficiently on a diet containing fiber degrading enzymes than on a diet without enzymes.
    Keywords: I²-glucanase , broiler, barley, performance, nutrient digestibility
  • Influence of Ixora coccinea Crude Extract on Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptics and Physical Properties of Broiler Chickens
    Saheed Ademola Ahmed * Page 19
    In an experiment to determine the efficacy of an extract from the leave and root of Ixora coccinea plant on the Organoleptic properties, physical properties and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. Two hundred and seventy (270) day old Ross broiler chickens were in complete randomized design using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan multiple range test was used to differentiate the means. There were four treatments each for root and leave extract and one antibiotic control treatment, each of the treatment having 3 replicates with 20 birds per replicate. The root extract (R1, R2, R3, & R4) and leave extract (L1, L2, L3 & L4) were administered at the rate of 2mls, 4mls, 6mls and 8mls while the antibiotics was applied at 1g per liter of water. The experiment lasted for four (4) weeks. The result of Organoleptic properties for colour, flavour, aroma, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability shows that there was no significance (p>0.05) in the control, 2mls, 4mls and 6mls, except for 8mls with the lowest score across all the Organoleptic parameters for both root and leave extract. In both the root and leave extract cooking loss was higher (p>0.05) in control compared to other treatment, thermal shortening and cooking yield were lower (p>0.05) in control compared to other while water holding capacity have no significant different (p<0.05) for both root and leave extract. There was significant different (p>0.05) in most of the carcass characteristics except for internal organs, head, neck, shank and back which were not significant different (p<0.05) for root extract. The level of the crude extract of Ixora coccinea used in this study enhance the carcass characteristics, physical and organoleptic properties of broiler chicken, with the best achieved at 2mls, 4mls and 6mls respectively.
    Keywords: Ixora coccinea, broiler chicken, Organoleptic, carcass, physical, crude extract
  • Histo-pathological Detection & Disease Status of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Tissue
    Muhammad Ismail Qureshi * Page 20
    The present research was conducted to calculate the Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) infection in some districts of division Hyderabad, Pakistan. Dogs were screened for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and potential Leishmaniasis positive cases were identified on the basis of active skin lesions. Affected tissues were collected and processed for Histo-pathological analysis. Dermal tissues of 35 domestic and 10 stray dogs were collected from Dadu, Hyderabad, and Jamshoro revealed that, out of 45 dog samples, 30 (66.66%) were positive for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The percentage of infection was 15 (33.33%) positive in district Dadu, 10 (22.22%) from district Hyderabad and 05 (11.11%) from district Jamshoro.
    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Dog, Tissue, Histopathology, Biopsy, Pakistan.
  • Evaluation on the structural Indices unveil performance variation among Dorper, Local and their F1 Crossbred Sheep populations in Ethiopia
    Jemal Mohammed * Page 21
    The study was conducted at Sirinka Agriculture Research Center to assess the structural indices of local, local x pure Dorper 50% crossbreds and pure Dorper sheep. The study was performed based on body linear measurements and three hundred three (303) sheep were selected for this study. From the total samples 81, 128 and 94 sheep were local, 50% crosses and pure Dorper, respectively. The animals were grouped into three age groups based on PPI as (0 PPI, 1 PPI, and ≥2 PPI). General linear model of SAS 2008 was used for statistical analysis of the collected data. Ten Structural indices were calculated for the three sheep populations separately. The average values of structural indices were compared within a breed while the correlation between structural indices was studied. Sex, age and sex by age interaction effect were the fixed effects considered for the analysis. Body index, weight index, thoracic development, body ration, height slop, length index, width slop, depth index, balance and pelvic index were used in the standard formula to calculate structural indices. WI (24.82kg, 26.61kg), height slop (2.95cm, 1.71cm), width slop (0.85cm, 0.93cm), body index (78.57cm, 88.42cm), thoracic development (1.14cm, 1.28cm) and pelvic index (77.61cm, 85.08cm) were the total mean value of, of local and crossbred sheep, respectively. As a conclusion, pure Dorper and crossbred sheep exhibit meat type traits. It was suggested to observe the performances of pure Dorper and crossbreds in farmers’ management condition.
    Keywords: Crossbred, Dorper sheep, Phenotype, Structural indices
  • Bovine mastitis diagnostic in farms and in laboratory in Highlands of Madagascar
    arsene jules mbolatianarizao * Page 22
    This study have been carried out smallholders in local collectivity belong to rural Municipality of Sabotsy Namehana, in Highlands of Madagascar. This aimed at diagnosing farming, mastitis of dairy cows with 80 sampled milks involved in two tests realized in farms and in laboratory. The test types have considered the bacteriological identification such as California Mastitis Test and classic microbial analysis for pathogen agents. The microbiologic identification has been followed by antibiogram test for microbial reactions assessment. As results, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. have been important pathogen agents for bovine mastitis with highest infection rate (83.71 % of samples milks). Farming system and characteristics of site have been some effects in infection rate such as 83.16 ±2.88 % with CMT and confirmed with 90.12±5.24 % in microbial test. Consequently, there are significant different between two tests types (in farm and at laboratory with p<0.05) but there are a supplementary. And, middle performant dairy races have been more influenced in mastitis. Among others, frequent infection has been recorded with least respect hygiene especially in traditional farming with higher infection of pathogens agents Gram+. In fact, the mastitis makes up a major problem in dairy production. Curative treatment with antibiotics is possible to improve production capability and net return in smallholders.
    Keywords: mastitis, Staphylococcus, California Mastitis test, Municipality, Sabotsy Namehana, Madagascar
  • Addition of natural zeolite to broiler chickens diet and its effect on performance, carcass traits and protein and calcium in blood
    Abdulkarim Abdulmageed Amad * Page 23
    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of natural zeolite on performance, carcass traits and the content of blood protein and calcium of broilers. A total of 240 Ross unsexed broiler chicks (one d old) were allocated into one control treatment and 3 zeolite treatments each containing 60 chicks, with 5 replicates and 12 birds each. Natural zeolite was added at the level of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% for the first as control, second, third and fourth treatments, respectively. Results indicating an effect (P < 0.05) on live body weight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in the grower period (d 22 to 42) and entire period (d 1 to 42) by adding 1.5% natural zeolite comparing to others treatments. On the other hand, no differences were observed in feed intake, carcass yield and the relative weights of thigh (d 21 and 42). However, adding of 1.5% zeolite increased  significantly (P < 0.05) the relative weight of breast, edible organs (heart, gizzard, liver) and the weight of tibia. The zeolite addition did not affect the blood protein, but the content of blood calcium was increased significantly by 1.5% zeolite in the diet.  In conclusion, adding of 1.5% natural zeolite to broiler diet improved the live body weight, feed conversion ratio, tibia weight and increased the content of blood calcium without any adverse effects on birds.
    Keywords: Zeolite, performance, carcass, tibia, blood protein
  • Advent of Molecular Taxonomy and its Application
    Zaira Ahmad, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Nadeem Sheikh, Atia Bukhari, Arifa Tahir, Muhammad Shafiq, Nadia Jamil Page 24
    Taxonomic classification of species requires a stable approach incorporating adaptive diversity and evolutionary change in species. Classification based on Species Concept which are too broad or too narrow both present problems in terms of outbreeding and inbreeding depression respectively. In recent years many cases of designating sub-species the species status have been reported owing to the fame of Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) in taxonomic community. Similarly many studies based on advance molecular techniques have reflected the underestimation of diversity in mammals and many cryptic species. It is therefore highly recommended that an integrative approach should be adopted involving genetic datasets from multiple loci along with sound morphological and behavioural data while designating new species status to overcome the problems of taxonomic inflation and exploring the hidden diversity among cryptic species. Use of new molecular techniques e.g. DNA bar coding has shown great potential in the field of taxonomic research, population genetics and phylogenetics but it is not completely comparable with comprehensive taxonomic analysis so data must be derived from sequence information based on different genomic regions for accurate interpretation of results. In addition to that algorithmic approach integrating key population genetic parameters should be involved to investigate modes of speciation in different groups of organisms. Â
    Keywords: genetic diversity, molecular techniques, phylogenetics, population genetics, species Concept, taxonomy