فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:20 Issue: 9, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/05/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Ahmad Rahmani *, Naser Naghdi Page 1

     

    Background

    Studies have shown that exercise and insulin can improve cognitive function. However, little is known about the combined effects of insulin and exercise on memory and learning under stress conditions.

    Objectives

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of peripheral insulin injection and/or physical exercise on stress-induced memory deficit.

    Methods

    Adult male Wistar rats (200 - 220 g) received immobilization stress (2 h/d × 7 d), mild-intensity exercise (30 min/d × 7 d), intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of insulin (1, 6, 12 IU/kg) or saline, insulin-exercise treatment, or no intervention. The animals were assigned on a random basis to 21 experimental groups (N = 10). They were trained and tested in the Morris water maze.

    Results

    Chronic restraint stress impaired spatial performance in the Morris water maze (P < 0.05) and elevated serum corticosterone levels (P < 0.001). Detrimental effects of stress were alleviated by exercise (P < 0.01). The lower dose (1 IU/kg) of insulin protected the animals against the deleterious effects of stress. The combined effects of exercise and insulin (low and moderate doses) prevented stress-induced learning and memory impairment.

    Conclusions

    Insulin and/or exercise can prevent stress-induced memory deficits. The cognitive benefits of exercise continue to evolve after cessation of treatment. Insulin-exercise treatment is as effective as exercise alone and insulin alone for preventing the detrimental effects of stress.

    Keywords: Insulin, Exercise, Spatial Memory, Neuroprotection, Corticosterone
  • Fatemeh Meimani, Razieh Nazari *, Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami Page 2
    Background

    Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a serious problem in many hospitals and intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile and the distribution of metallo-beta-lactamase genes among P. aeruginosa isolates from Qom province of Iran.

    Methods

    In this study, 200 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from several clinical samples in hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom province, Iran. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test and the distribution of MBL genes among carbapenem-resistant isolates was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

    Results

    Among carbapenem non-susceptible isolates of P. aeruginosa, 38% (76 isolates) were multidrug resistant, 26% (52 isolates) were pan-drug-resistant and 5% (10 isolates) were extensive drug resistant. 52% of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems. Among carbapenem non-susceptible isolates of P. aeruginosa, 40 isolates (38.4%) exhibited MBL production. Of 40 MBL-producing isolates, 38 isolates (36.5%) contained the blaIMP gene and two (1.9%) isolates contained the blaVIM gene.

    Conclusions

    Outbreaks of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates will be a serious problem in hospitals in the future and rapid identification of these isolates is necessary to control further dissemination of MBL resistance genes. This is the first report of the rates of MDR, XDR, PDR, and MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolated from hospitals affiliated to Qom University of Medical Sciences in Qom province of Iran

    Keywords: Metallo-Beta-Lactamases, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Zahra Hooshmandi, Mahbubeh Setorki * Page 3
    Background

    The current study evaluated the effect of ethanol extract of Beta vulgaris leaves on scopolamine-induced memory impairments.

    Methods

    Animals were randomly divided into five groups including 10 rats. The control group received distillated water, the scopolamine group received scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP) daily for 15 days. The extract-treated groups received B. vulgaris leaves extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg IP 30 minutes after administration of scopolamine. After a 15-day treatment, passive avoidance memory, brain antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were evaluated in each rat.

    Results

    Scopolamine-treated rats showed shorter step-through latency (STL) than the control rats, but not significantly (P > 0.05). Groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of B. vulgaris leaf extract had significantly longer STL than scopolamine-treated rats (P < 0.05). Administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (200 mg/kg) into scopolamine-treated rats significantly improved brain antioxidant capacity.

    Conclusions

    The results of the current study indicated that the ethanol B. vulgaris extract at 200 mg/kg showed positive activity against the adverse effects of scopolamine

    Keywords: Beta vulgaris Extract, Passive Avoidance Task, Scopolamine
  • Zarifeh Akbari, Dara Dastan, Amir Hossein Maghsood, Mohammad Fallah, Mohammad Matini * Page 4
    Background

    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infections worldwide that its drug-resistant cases are on the rise.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of Marrubium vulgare essential oil and extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Methods

    After preparation of essential oil and extracts of M. vulgare, five T. vaginalis isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing after 24 and 48 hours of incubation at 35.5°C under aerobic conditions.

    Results

    The examined essential oil and extracts had potent antitrichomonal activities against T. vaginalis. After 48-hour exposure, the most antitrichomonal activity of M. vulgare preparations was related to the essential oil, with a mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 291 ± 136 µg/mL, followed by ethyl acetate (541 ± 197 µg/mL), methanol (1000 ± 0 µg/mL), and n-hexane (1500 ± 490 µg/mL) extracts, in comparison with metronidazole (with MICs ranging from 3.1 to 12.5 µg/mL).

    Conclusions

    The findings of this study showed that the compounds of M. vulgare have significant activities against T. vaginalis parasite. Therefore, future studies are needed to clear more details about antitrichomonal properties of M. vulgare compounds

    Keywords: Antitrichomonal Agents, Essential Oil, Extract, Metronidazole, Trichomonas vaginalis, Marrubium vulgare
  • Siavash Talepasand , * , Mohaddese Eskandaripour , Ali Taghinezhad Page 5
    Objectives
    This study aimed at comparing working and visual memory in children with and without dyslexia.
    Methods
    The sample consisted of 61 children without dyslexia and 64 children with dyslexia from third to sixth grade in elementary school. The inclusion criteria were children aged nine to 12 who had no history of medical eye disease and visual impairment, the exclusion criteria were mentally retarded children. Purposeful sampling was used to collect the data. The participants completed Wechsler forward and backward digit span test and Benton Visual Test. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    Results showed that there was a significant difference between normal children and those with dyslexia regarding their direct memory (F = 25.34, P < 0.001, partial eta square = 0.18), backward memory (F = 30.78, P < 0.001, partial eta square = 0.21), and Benton Visual Retention (F = 17.56, P < 0.001, partial eta square = 0.13).
    Conclusions
    The performance of children with dyslexia was weaker than those without dyslexia in regards to their working and visual memory. The highest level of impairment was seen in backward, direct, and visual memory, respectively, in children with dyslexia. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings will be discussed
    Keywords: Learning Disorder, Dyslexia, Working Memory, Benton Visual Retention