فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:17 Issue:60, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Zahra Jafari , Saman Maroufizadeh, Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaghi, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi Pages 99-104
    Background
    About one third of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience dysphagia. Dysphagia can cause complications such as malnutrition, lung infections, aspiration pneumonia and dehydration, thus it is very helpful to diagnose dysphagia as soon as possible. The aim in this study was to translate dysphagia in multiple sclerosis (DYMUS) questionnaire into Farsi and and validate it.
    Methods
    Forward-backward method was used to translate original English version of DYMUS into farsi, and then the questionnaire (one for each patient) was filled in through asking questions from 200 patients with MS by a speech and language pathologist. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the DYMUS were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.
    Results
    CFA showed that a two-factor model of DYMUS including “dysphagia for solid” and “dysphagia for liquid” fitted the data well [relative chi-square [χ2/degree of freedom (df) = 1.55, CFI = 0.967, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.957, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.053, and weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) = 0.874]. The Cronbach’s alpha for total score and liquid and solid subscales were 0.776, 0.557, and 0.725, respectively. The DYMUS showed adequate test-retest reliability for the total and subscales (ICC: 0.880-0.956). Moreover, this study has shown a significant relationship between DYMUS score and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, disease duration, type of MS, and self-reported dysphagia.
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of DYMUS is a reliable and valid tool to screen dysphagia among patients with MS
    Keywords: Dysphagia, Multiple Sclerosis, Reliability, Validity, Dysphagia in Multiple Sclerosis, Deglutition Disorders
  • Shirin Farjadian, Bahareh Fakhraei, Zahra Niknam, Mojtaba Farjam, Aslan Azad , Alireza Nikseresht Pages 105-110
    Background
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neuroinflammatory disease in young adults. Anxiety and depression may predispose individuals to MS and flare-ups. Serotonin transmission is modified in some brain regions of patients with MS, and these changes may contribute to their psychiatric abnormalities. We studied the frequencies of common polymorphisms of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) gene in patients with MS according to their psychological status.
    Methods
    The 5-HTTLPR, rs25531, and STin2VNTR polymorphisms of the SERT gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods in 100 patients with MS and 100 healthy controls.
    Results
    There were no remarkable differences in SERT gene polymorphisms between patients with MS and healthy controls. Unlike the control group, 41% of the patients showed some degree of depression based on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), but no association was observed between SERT gene polymorphisms after the patients were stratified by depression status.
    Conclusion
    In addition to SERT gene polymorphisms, modulation of serotonin at the synapses may also be regulated by genetic variations in tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 and serotonin receptors. Further studies with functional brain imaging of the serotonergic system in patients with MS can provide information on the role of serotonin in this disease.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Depression, Serotonin Reuptake Transporter Protein, C. Elegans, Genetic Variation
  • Fatemeh Akbarian, Mitra Ataei , Zivar Salehi, Masoud Nabavi , Mohammad Hossein Sanati Pages 111-116
    Background
    As a T-cell mediated disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis might be associated with the immune system and its involved genes. TBX21, which encodes T-bet transcription factor, is a critical regulator of the commitment to the Th1 lineage and Interferon gamma (IFNγ) production. Investigation of the association of -1514T > C polymorphism located upstream of TBX21 gene with MS susceptibility is reasonable due to its demonstrated significant association with some other immune-mediated diseases.
    Methods
    We analyzed the genotype frequencies of -1514T > C polymorphism between 248 Iranian patients with MS and 163 matched healthy controls. By applying polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)- technique, the single-strand conformation patterns of the amplicons were compared and sequenced.
    Results
    Strong association between the wild -1514T allele and MS susceptibility was found with the allelic frequency of 99.6% in patients vs. 95.1% in controls (P = 0.002), and the CC genotype frequency of the TBX21 polymorphism (-1514T > C) reported potential protective effect against the disease (P = 0.014).
    Conclusion
    The TBX21-1514T > C polymorphism confers possible protective effect on MS in Iranian population. Further comprehensive studies in different settings are required to clarify the exact role of TBX21 gene in MS disease
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Genetic Polymorphism, T-bet Transcription Factor Gene, Interferon-Gamma
  • Samira Zabihyan, Seyed Javad Mousavi, Bayegi, Humain Baharvahdat, Farhad Faridhosseini, Payam Sasannejad, Maryam Salehi, Maryam Boroumand, Zahra Hatefipour Pages 117-122
    Background
    Neuropsychiatric dysfunction is one of the most common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with aSAH.
    Methods
    In this study, we prospectively enrolled patients with SAH due to rupture of anterior circulation aneurysms who referred to Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran, and who had good function outcome [modified Rankin scale (mRS) > 2]. They underwent microsurgery or endovascular treatment. Cognitive function, depression, and QOL were evaluated 6 months after surgery with standard psychiatric examinations, including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for depression, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for QOL. Risk factors for cognitive dysfunction were assessed.
    Results
    Fifty-three patients were entered the study. The mean of age was 50.9 ± 13.6 years. QOL and its components were affected in most patients. Fifty-five percent of patients suffered from depression. Cognitive impairment was found in 57% of patients. Older patients experienced more cognitive impairment (P < 0.001).
    Conclusion
    Neuropsychological sequels are common in patients with aSAH, even if they classified as good functional outcome (mRS > 2). These complications could be found with appropriate neuropsychological evaluation of these patients to be managed as soon as possible.
    Keywords: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Cerebral Aneurysm, Cognitive Impairment, Depression, Neuropsychological Test, Quality of Life
  • Amir Hashemi, Meshkini , Hedieh Sadat Zekri, Hasan Karimi, Yazdi, Pardis Zaboli , MohammadAli Sahraian, Shekoufeh Nikfar Pages 123-128
    Background
    Pegylated (PEG) interferon beta 1a has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as an alternative to interferon beta 1a for multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to its higher price, this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PEG-interferon beta 1-a compared with interferon beta 1a from an Iranian payer perspective.
    Methods
    A Markov model was designed according to health states based on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and one-month cycles over a 10-year time horizon. Direct medical and non-medical costs were included from a payer perspective.
    Results
    The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated around 11111 US dollars (USD) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for the PEG-interferon versus interferon regimen [with currency rate of 29,000 Iranian Rial (IRR) to 1 USD in 2016].
    Conclusion
    Considering the cost-effectiveness threshold in Iran [three times of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita or 15,945 USD], PEG-interferon beta 1-a could be considered as a cost effective treatment for Iranian patients with MS
    Keywords: Interferon Beta-1a, Multiple Sclerosis, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Iran
  • Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Mohammad Ali Sahraian Pages 129-136
    Interferon beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) are the primary therapeutic immunomodulatory agents that interfere with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and the most commonly-used drugs as well. Induction or aggravation of other immune-mediated diseases has been reported following INF-β administration. We have reviewed the reported cases to notify the treating physicians about these rare adverse events. Although co-morbid autoimmune disorders have been reported in patients with MS, the pro-inflammatory role of disease-modifying drugs, especially INF-β, could affect and enhance this co-occurrence. Clinical or laboratory autoimmunity histories suggest the use of GA over INF-β as the treatment of choice
    Keywords: Interferon-Beta, Glatiramer Acetate, Autoimmune Disease, Multiple Sclerosis
  • Zeba Khan, Sharique Athar Pages 137-144
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized with the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in a mid-brain. This loss is believed to be associated with number of environmental and genetic factors. Oxidative stress is found to be one of the factors responsible for the initiation and progression of PD. However, studies are still continued to confirm the connection and mechanism associated with oxidative stress and PD. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association between oxidative stress markers and PD, and explore factors that may elucidate the contradictions in these results. As per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline systematic literature search was carried out. Meta-analysis was carried out on pooled standardized mean differences with 95% confidence interval (CI) of patients with PD and controls using random effect model in comprehensive meta-analysis statistical software. Total 17 studies were included into which 25 oxidative stress markers were analyzed. The results revealed that oxidative stress markers [nitrate and nitric oxide (NO)] and antioxidant markers [total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiols] were not statistically different between the PD and control group (P > 0.05). In case of oxidative stress markers, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), and lipid hydro-peroxide (LPO) were found to be high in patients with PD as compared to controls with P < 0.05, whereas lower levels of antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were noticed in the PD group as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). From the results, it is concluded that patients with PD have high oxidative stress and lower antioxidant activity, and these studied biomarkers would be used as potential diagnostic tool to measure oxidative stress in patients with PD
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Biomarkers, Parkinson Disease, Review, Meta-Analysis
  • Fatemeh Omrani , Shahla Ansari, Babak Zamani, Zahra Omrani , Nahid Mohammadzade, Sadra Rohani , Mohammad Rohani Pages 145-148
    Background
    Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation is the most common genetic risk factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Transcranial sonography (TCS) shows increased substantia nigra (SN) echogenicity in both idiopathic and genetic forms of PD. The goal of this study was to compare maximal area of SN hyperechogenicity (aSNmax) and diameter of third ventricle (DTV) between GBA mutation carriers and healthy controls.
    Methods
    Twenty-six carriers of GBA mutation and twenty-six healthy controls underwent TCS. The aSNmax and the DTV were measured. Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and demographic data of the subjects were recorded, too.
    Results
    Mean aSNmax in GBA mutation carriers was significantly higher (0.31 ± 0.06 cm2) than controls (0.16 ± 0.04 cm2). Moreover, DTV was significantly higher in GBA mutation carriers group (3.98 ± 0.90 vs 3.29 ± 0.56 cm).
    Conclusion
    Increased SN echogenicity and increased third ventricle diameter in GBA mutation carriers may be caused by alterations in iron metabolism with reference to their genetic status
    Keywords: Transcranial Sonography, Gaucher Disease, Glucocerebrosidase, Parkinson's Disease, Substantia Nigra
  • Morteza Faghih, Jouybari, Soheil Naderi , Sara Mashayekhi , Sina Abdollahzade Pages 149-151
    Background
    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are prone to various metabolic changes such as hypothyroidism. The present study was planned to assess the frequency of hypothyroidism in these patients.
    Methods
    Fifty-two patients with GBM were included. All of them had been treated by tumor resection followed by cranial irradiation. Thyroid function was assessed by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3).
    Results
    There were 33 men and 19 women. The average age was 52.4 ± 12.8 years. Among these, 32 (61%) had normal thyroid function test, whereas 4 (8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 (10%) had overt primary hypothyroidism, and 11 (21%) had secondary hypothyroidism. Sixteen patients (31%) needed thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
    Conclusion
    Hypothyroidism is relatively prevalent in patients with treated GBM. Regular thyroid function test is advised to aid the introduction of appropriate hormone replacement therapy.
    Keywords: Glioblastoma Multiforme, Hypothyroidism, Cranial Irradiation
  • Vida Mohammadzadeh , Samira Akbarieh, Seyed Abdolreza Ghoreishi , Manizheh Jozpanahi Pages 152-153